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Guidelines farm feeds

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Table 7.3 Acceptable analytical and sampling variations of micro minerals, vitamins, medications, micro elements (0-1000 mg/kg) finished feeds and ingredients

Registered level (X)

% mg/kg

Variation (A) from X

Relative variation (RV)

From X, %

0.10 1000



0.25 2500



0.50 5000



0.75 7500



1.00 10000



A = 0.233333.X + 0.016667 RV = A/X x 100
Values < 0.10 % (1000 mg/kg) relative variation (RV) from X = 50%


General Feed Terms

Aerial parts. (Part) The above ground parts of plants.
Air ashed. (Process) Reduced by combusion in air to a mineral residue.
Ammoniated, ammoniating. (Process) Combined with or impregnated with ammonia or an ammonium compound.
Animal waste. Means a material composed of excreta, with or without bedding materials, and collected from poultry, ruminants or other animals except humans.
Antibiotics. A class of drug. They are usually synthesised by a living micro-organism and in proper concentration inhibit the growth of other micro-organisms.
Artificially dried. (Process). Moisture having been removed by other than natural means.
Aspirated, aspirating. Having removed chaff, dust, or other light materials by use of air.
Bagasse. (Part) Pulp from sugar cane. (See pulp.)
Barn-cured. (Process) Forage material dried with forced ventilation in an enclosure.
Beans. Seed of leguminous plants especially of Phaseolus, Dali Chos, and Vigna.
Biscuits. (Physical form) Shape and baked dough.
Blending (Process) To mingle or combine two or more ingredients of feed. It does not imply a uniformity of dispersions
Blocked, blocking. (Process) Having agglomerated individual ingredients or mixtures in to a large mass.
Blocks. (Physical form) Agglomerated feed compressed into a solid mass cohesive to hold its form.
Blood. (Part) Vascular fluid of animals.
Blood albumin. (Part) One of the blood proteins.
Bolls. (Part) The pods or capsules of certain plants, especially flax or cotton.
Bolted, bolting. (Process) Separated by means of a bolting cloth as flour from bran.
Bone. (Part) Skeletal parts of vertebrates.
Bran. (Part) Pericarp of grain.
Brand name. Any word, name, symbol or device or any combination thereof identifying the commercial feed of a distributor and distinguising it from that of others.
Bricks. (Physical form) Agglomerated feed, other than pellets, compressed into a solid mass cohesive enough to hold its form and weighing less than two pounds (see blocks.)
Browse. (Part) Small stems, leaves and/or flowers and fruits of shrubs, trees or woody vines.
Buttermilk. (Part) All residue from churning cream.
Byproduct. (Part) Secondary products produced in addition to the principle product.
Cake. (Physical form) The mass resulting from the pressing of seeds, meat or fish in order to remove oils, fats or other liquids.
Calcined, calcining. (Process) Treated at high temperature in the presence of air.
Canned. (Process) a term applied to a feed which has been processed, packaged, sealed, and sterilised for preservation in cans or similar containers.
Cannery residue. (Part) Residue suitable for feeding obtained in preparing a product for canning.
Carriers. An edible material to which ingredients are added to facilitate uniform incorporation of the latter into feeds. The active particles are absorbed, impregnated or coated into or onto the edible material in such a way as to physically carry the active ingredient.
Chaff. (Part) Glumes, husks, or other seed covering together with other plant parts separated from seed in threshing or processing.
Charcoal. Dark-coloured porous forms of carbon made from the organic parts of vegetable or animal substances, by their incomplete combustion.
Chipped, chipping. (Process) Cut or broken into fragments; also meaning prepared into small thin slices.
Chopped, chopping. (Process) Reduced in particle size by cutting with knives or other edged instruments.
Cleaned, cleaning. (Process) Removal of material by such methods as scalping, aspirating, magnetic separation, or by any other method.
Cleanings (Part), Chaff, weed seeds, dust and other foreign matter removed from cereal grains.
Commercial feed. As defined in the Uniform State Feed Bill. All materials except whole seeds unmixed or physically seeds, when not adultereated within the meaning of Section 7(a) for use as feed or for mixing in feed.
Condensed, condensing. (Process) Reduced to denser form by removal of moisture.
Conditioned, conditioning. (Process) Having achieved predetermined moisture characteristics and/or temperature of ingredients or a mixture of ingredients prior to further processing.
Cooked, cooking. (Process) Heated in the presence of moisture to alter chemical and/or physical characteristics or to sterilise.
Cracked, cracking. (Process) Particle size reduced by a combined breaking and crushing action.
Cracklings. (Part) Residue after removal of fat from adipose tissue or skin of animals by dry heat.
Crimped, crimping. (Process) Rolled by use of corrugated rollers. It may curtail tempering or conditioning and cooling.
Crumbled, crumbling. (Process) Pellets reduced to granular form.
Crumbles. (Physical form) Pelleted feed reduced to granular form.
Crushed, crushing. (Process) See rolled, rolling.
Cull. Material rejected as inferior to the process of grading or separating.
Culture. Nutrient medium inoculated with specific micro-organisms which may be in a live or dormant condition.
Cultured, culturing. (Process) Biological material multiplied or produced in a nutrient media.
Cure, curing, cured. (Process) To prepare for keeping for use, or to use, or to preserve. The process may be by drying, use of chemical preservatives, smoking, salting, or by use of other processes and/or materials for preserving.
Cut, cutting. (Process) See chopped, chopping.
D-activated, D-activating. Plant or animal sterol fractions which have been vitamin D activated by ultra-violet light or by other means.
Defluorinated, defluorinating. (Process) Having had fluorine removed.
Degermed. (Process) Having had the embryo of seeds wholly or partially separated from the starch endosperm.
Dehulled, dehulling. (Process) Having removed the outer covering from grains or other seeds.
Dehydrating, dehydrated. (Process) Having been freed of moisture by thermal means.
Dextrose equivalent (D.E.) (Physical form) is the reducing power calculated as dextrose, expressed as a percentage of the dry substance. It is used in conjunction with sugars and starch hydrolysates.
Digested, digesting. (Process) Subjected to prolonged heat and moisture, or to chemicals or enzymes with a result change of decomposition of the physical or chemical nature.
Diluent. (Physical form) An edible substance used to mix with and reduce the concentrate of nutrients and/or addives to make them more acceptable to animals, safer to use, and more capable of being mixed uniformly in a feed. (It may also be a carrier).
Dressed, dressing. (Process) Made uniform in texture by breaking or screening of lumps from feed and/or the application of liquid(s).
Dried, drying. (Process) Materials from which water or other liquid has been removed.
Dry-milled. (Process) Tempered with a small volume of water or steam to facilitate the separation of the various component parts of the kernel in the absence of any significant volume of free water.
Dry-rendered, dry-rendering. (Process) Residues of animal tissue cooked in open steam-jacketed vessels until the water has evaporated. Fat is removed by draining and pressing the solid residue.
Dust. (Part) Fine, dry pulverised particles of matter usually resulting from the cleaning or grinding of grain.
Ears. (Part) Fruiting heads of Zea maize, including only the cob and grain.
Emulsifer. A material capable of causing fat or oils to remain in liquid suspension.
Endosperm. (Part) Starchy part of seed.
Ensiled. (Process) Aerial parts of plants which have been preserved by ensiling. Normally the original material is finely cut and blown into an airtight chamber such as a silo, where it is pressed to exclude air and where it undergoes an acid fermentation that delays spoilage.
Etiolated. (Process) A material grown in the absence of sunlight, blanched, bleached, colourless or pale.
Evaporated, evaporating. (Process) Reduced to denser form; concentrated as by evaporation or distillation.
Eviscerated. (Process) Having had all the organs in the great cavity of the body removed.
Expanded, expanding. (Process) Subjected to moisture, pressure, and temperature to gelatinise the starch part. When extruded, its volume is increased, due to abrupt reduction in pressure.
Extracted, mechanical. (Process) Having removed fat or oil from materials by heat and mechanical pressure. Similar terms: expeller extracted, hydraulic extracted, “old process”.
Extracted, solvent. (Process) Having removed fat or oil from materials by organic solvents. Similar term: “new process.”
Extruded. (Process) A process by which feed has been pressed, pushed, or protruded through arifices under pressure.
Fat. (Part) A substance composed chiefly of triglycerides of fatty acids, and solid or plastic at room temperature.
Fatty acids. (Part) Aliphatic monobasic acids containing only the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Fermentation aid. A substance added to assist in providing proper conditions which results in action by yeasts, moulds or bacteria in a controlled aerobic or anaerobic process used for the manufacture of certain products.
Fermented, fermenting. (Process) Acted upon by yeasts, moulds, or bacteria in a controlled aerobic or an aerobic process in the manufacture of such products as alcohols, acids, vitamins of the B-complex group, or antibiotics.
Fines. (Physical form) Any materials which will pass through a screen whose openings are immediately smaller than the specified minimum crumble size or pellet diameter.
Flakes, flaking. (Process) See rolled.
Flakes (Physical form) An ingredient rolled or cut into flat pieces with or without prior steam conditioning.
Flour. (Part) Soft, finely ground and bolted meal obtained from the milling of cereal grains, other seeds, or products. It consists essentially of the starch and gluten of the endosperm.
Free choice. (AD LIB) A feeding system by which animals are given unlimited access to the separate components or groups of components constituting the diet.
Fused, fusing. (Process) Melted by heat.
Gelatinised, gelatinising. (Process) Having had the starch granules completely ruptured by a combination of moisture, heat and pressure, and in some instances, by mechanical shear.
Germ. (Part) The embryo found in seeds and frequently separated from the bran and starch endosperm during milling.
Gluten. (Part) The tough, viscid nitrogenous substance remaining when the flour or wheat or other grain is washed to remove the starch.
Gossypol. (Part) A phenol pigment in cottonseed toxic to some animals.
Grain. (Part) Seed from cereal plants.
GRAS. Abbreviation for the phase “Generally Recognised as Safe”. A substance which is generally recognised as safe by experts qualified to evaluate the safety of the substance for its intended use.
Grease. FAT/Animal fats with a titre below 40C.
Grit. Coarse ground, insoluble, non-nutritive material (e.g. granite rock) for the in vivo mechanical grinding of feed by avian species.
Grits. (Part) Coarsely ground grain from which the bran and germ have been removed, usually screened to uniform particle size.
Groats. (Part) Grain from which the hulls have been removed.
Ground, grinding. (Process) Reduced in particle size by impact, shearing, or attrition.
Hay. (Part) The aerial part of grass or herbage especially cut and cured for farm feeding.
Heads. (Part) The seed or grain-containing parts of a plant.
Heat-processed, heat-processing. (Process) Subjected to a method of preparation involving the use of elevated temperatures with or without pressure.
Heat rendered, heat rendering. (Process) Melted, extracted, or clarified through use of beat. Usually, water and fat are removed.
Homogenised, homogenising. (Process) Particles broken down into evenly distributed globules small enough to remain emulsified for long periods of time.
Hulls. (Part) Outer covering of grain or other seed.
Husks. (Part) Leaves enveloping an ear of maize; or the outer coverings of kennels or seeds, especially when dry and membranous.
Hydrolysed, hydrolysing. (Process) Complex molecules having been split to more basic units by chemical reaction with water, usually by catalysis.
Iodinated. (Process) Treated with iodine.
Iodise, iodised. (Process) To treat with iodine or an iodide.
Irradiated, irradiating. (Process) Treated, prepared, or altered by exposure to a specific radiation.
Juice. (Part) The aqueous substance obtainable from biological tissue by pressing or filtering with or without addition of water.
Kernel. (Part) A whole grain. For other species, dehulled seed.
Kibbled, kibbling. (Process) Cracked or crushed baked dough, or extruded feed that has been cooked prior to or during the extrusion process.
Laboratory method. A technique or procedure of conducting scientific experiment, test, investigation or observation according to a definite established logical or systematic plan.
Lard. (Part) Rendered fat of swine.
Leached. (Process) The condition of a product following subjection of the material to the action of percolating water of other liquid.
Leaves. (Part) Lateral outgrowths of stems that constitute part of the foliage of a plant, typically a flattened green blade, and primarily functions in photosynthesis.
Lecithin. (Part) A specific phospholipid. The principal constituent of crude phosphatides derived from oil- bearing seeds.
Malt. (Part) Sprouted and steamed wholegrain from which the radicle has been removed.
Malted, malting. (Process) Converted into malt or treated with malt or malt extract.
Mash (Physical form) A mixture of ingredients in meal form. Similar term: mash feed.
Meal. (Physical form) An ingredient which has been ground or otherwise reduced in particle size.
Medicated feed. Any feed which contains drug ingredients intended or presented for the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of diseases of animals other than man or which contains drug ingredients intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of animals other than man.
Antibiotics included in a feed growth promotion and/or efficiency levels are drug additives and feeds containing such antibiotics are included in the foregoing definition of “Medicated feed.”
Micro-ingredients. Vitamins, minerals, antibiotics, drugs and other materials normally required in small quantities and measured in milligrams, micrograms or parts per million (ppm).
Middlings (Part) A by-product of flour milling comprising several grades of granular particles containing different proportions of endosperm, bran, germ, each of which contains different levels of crude fibre.
Mill by-product. (Part ) A secondary product obtained in addition to the principal product in milling practice.
Mill dust. (Part) Fine feed particles of underdetermined origin resulting from handling and processing feed and feed ingredients.
Mill run. (Part) The state in which a material comes from the mill, ungraded and usually uninspected.
Mineralise, mineralised. (Process) To supply, impregnate, or add inorganic mineral compounds to a feed ingredient or mixture.
Mixing. (Process) To combine by agitation two or more materials to a specific degree of dispersion.
Nutrient. A feed constituent in a form and at a level that will help support the life of an animal. The chief classes of feed nutrients are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.
Offal. (Part) Material left as a by-product from the preparation of some specific product, less valuable parts and the by-products of milling.
Oil. (Part) A substance composed chiefly of tryglycerides of fatty acids, and liquid at room temperature.
Parboiling. A hydrothermal process in which the crystalline form of starch is changed into the amorphous form, due to the irreversible swelling and fusion of starch. This is accomplished by soaking, steaming, drying and milling to produce physical and chemical modifications.
Pearled, pearling. (Process) Dehulled grains reduced by machine brushing into smaller smooth particles.
Polished, polishing. (Process) Having a smooth surface produced by mechanical process usually by friction.

Pomace. (Part) Pulp from fruit. See pulp.
Precipitated, precipitating. (Process) Separated from suspension or a solution as a result of some chemical or physical change brought about by a chemical reaction, by cold or by any other means.
Preservative. A substance added to protect, prevent or retard decay, discoloration or spoilage under conditions of use or storage.
Pressed, pressing. (Process) Compacted or moulded by pressure; also meaning having fat, oil or juices extracted under pressure.
Presswater. The aqueous extract of fish or meat free from the fats and/or oils. Presswater is the result of hydraulic pressing of the fishing or meat followed by separation of the oil either by centrifuging or other means.
Product. (Part) A substance produced from one or more other substances as a result of chemical or physical change.
Protein. (Part) Any of a large class of naturally-occurring complex combinations of amino acids.
Pulp. (Part) The solid residue remaining after extraction of juices from fruit, roots, or stems. Similar terms: bagasse and pomace.
Pulverised, pulverising. (Process) See ground, grinding.
Range cake. (Physical form) See cake.
Range cubes. (Physical form). Large pellets designed to be fed on the ground. Similar term: range wafer.
Ration. The quantity of the total feed which is provided to one animal over a 24-hour period.
Raw. Food in its natural or crude state not having been subjected to heat in the course of preparation as food.
Refuse. (Part) Damaged, defective, or superfluous edible material produced during or left over from a manufacturing or industrial process.
Residue. Part remaining after the removal of a part of its original constituents.
Rolled, rolling. (Process) Having changed the shape and/or size of particles by compressing between rollers. It may entail tempering or conditioning.
Roots. (Part) Subterranean parts of plants.
Rumen contents. Contents of the first two compartments of the stomach of a ruminant.
Sauce. A multiple component fluid dressing or topping consisting of a combination of one or more ingredients imparting special characteristics or flavours. It may be formulated separately and added to another ingredient or combination of ingredients.
Scalped, scalping. (Process) Having removed large material by screening.
Scratch. (Physical form) Whole, cracked, or coarsely cut grain. Similar terms: scratch grain, scratch feed.
Screened, screening. (Process) Having separated various-sized particles by passing over and/or through screens.
Seed. (Part) The fertilised and ripened ovule of a plant.
Self fed. A feeding system where animals have continuous free access to some or all component(s) of a ration, either individually or as mixtures.
Separating. (Process) Classification of particles by size, shape, and/or density.
Separating, magnetic. (Process) Removing ferrous material by magnetic attraction.
Shells. (Part) The hard, fibrous, or calcareous covering of a plant or animal product, i.e. nut, egg, oyster.
Shoots. (Part) The immature aerial parts of plants, stems with leaves and other appendages in contrast to the roots.
Shorts. (Part) Fine particles of bran, germs, flour, or offal from the tail of the mill from commercial flour milling.
Sifted. (Process) Materials that have been passed through wire sieves to separate particles in different sizes. The separation of finer materials than would be done by screening.
Skimmed. (Process) Material from which floating solid material has been removed. It is also applied to milk from which fat has been removed by centrifuging.
Skin. (Part) Outer coverings of fruits or seeds, as the rinds, husks, or peels. May also apply to dermal tissue of animals.
Sludge. The suspended or dissolved solid matter resulting from the processing of animal or plant tissue for human food.
Solubles. Liquid containing dissolved substances obtained from processing animal or plant materials. It may contain some fine suspended solids.
Solvent extracted. (Process) A product from which oil has been removed by solvents.
Spent. Exhausted of active or effective properties, i.e. absorbing activity.
Spray dehydrated. (Process) Material which has been dried by spraying on the surface of a heated drum. It is recovered by scraping from the drum.
Stabilised. (Process) To retard degradation of ingredients. (The process used to be specified).
Stalk(s). (Part) The main stem of a herbaceous plant often with its dependent parts as leaves, twigs and fruit.
Starch. (Part) A white, granular polymer of plant origin. The principal part of seed endosperm.
Steamed, steaming. (Process) Having treated ingredients with steam to alter physical and/or chemical properties. Similar terms: steam cooked, steam rendered, tanked.
Steep-extracted, steep-extracting. (Process) Soaked in water or other liquid (as in the wet milling of corn) to remove soluble materials.
Steepwater. Water containing soluble materials extracted by steep-extraction, i.e. by soaking in water or other liquid (as in the wet milling of corn.)
Stem. (Part) The coarse, aerial parts of plants which serve as supporting structures for leaves, buds, fruit, etc.
Sterols. (Part) Solid cyclic alcohols which are the major constituents of the unsaponifiable part of animal and vegetable fats and oils.
Stick. See stickwater, presswater.
Stickwater, fish. (Part) The aqueous extract of cooked fish free from the oil. Stickwater contains the aqueous cell solutions of the fish and any water used in processing.
Stickwater, meat. (Part) The aqueous extract of meat free from the fat. Meat stickwater is the result of the wet rendering of meat products and contains the aqueous cell solution, the soluble glue proteins, and the water condensed from steam used in wet rendering.
Stillage. (Part) The mash from fermentation of grains after removal of alcohol by distillation.
Stover. (Part) The stalks and leaves of corn after the ears, or sorghum after the heads have been harvested.
Straw. (Part) The plant residue remaining after separation of the seeds in threshing. It includes chaff.
Sun-cured. (Process) Material dried by exposure in open air to the direct rays of the sun.
Syrup. (Part) Concentrated juice of a fruit or plant.
Titre. A property of fat determined by the solidification point of the fatty acids liberated by hydrolysis.
Toasted. (Process) Browned, dried, or parched by exposure to a fire, or to gas or electric heat.
Trace minerals. Mineral nutrients required by animals in micro quantities only (measured in milligrams per kilogram or smaller units).
Tubers (Part) Short, thickened fleshy stems or terminal part of stems or rhizomes that are usually formed underground, bear minute scaled leaves, each with a bud capable under suitable conditions of developing into a new plant, and constitutes the resting stage of various plants.
Twigs. (Part) Small shoots or branches, usually without leaves, part of stems of variable length or size.
Uncleaned. (Physical form) Containing foreign material.
Unsaponifiable matter. (Part) Ether soluble material extractable after complete reaction with strong alkali.
Vines. (Part) Any plant whose stems require support, or lie on the ground.
Viscera. (Part) All the organs in the great cavity of the body, excluding contents of the intestinal tract.
Viscera, fish. (Part) All organs in the great cavity of the body; it includes the gills, heart, liver, spleen, stomach, and intestines.
Viscera, mammals. (Part) All organs in the great cavity of the body; it includes the oesophagus, heart, liver, spleen, stomach, and intestines, but excludes the contents of the intestinal tract.
Viscera, poultry. (Part) All organs in the great cavity of the body; it includes the oesophagus, heart, liver, spleen, stomach, crop, gizzard, undeveloped eggs and intestines.
Vitaminise, vitaminised. (Process) To provide or supplement with vitamins.
Vitamins. Organic compounds that function as parts of enzyme systems essential for the transmission of energy and the regulation of metabolism of the body.
Wafered, wafering. (Process) Having agglomerated a feed of a fibrous nature by compressing into a form usually having a diameter or cross-section measurement greater than its length.
Waste. (Part) See refuse.
Water Extract. The aqueous phase containing dissolved materials resulting from the treatment (e.g. by mixing of boiling) of a solid with water. All or part of the solid matrix may be dissolved in the extract.
Weathered. (Process) A material which has been subjected to the action of the elements.
Wet. (Physical form) Material containing liquid or which has been soaked or moistened with water or other liquid.
Wet-milled. (Process) Steeped in water with or without sulphur dioxide to soften the kernel in order to facilitate the separation of the various component parts.
Wet-rendered, wet-rendering. (Process) Cooked with steam under pressure in closed tanks.
Whole. (Physical form) Complete, entire.
Whole pressed, whole pressing. (Process) Having the entire seed to remove oil.
Wilted. (Physical form). A product without turgor as a result of water loss.
Wort. (Part) The liquid part of malted grain. It is a solution of malt sugar and other water-soluble extracts from malted mash.

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