Comparing designs in music with visual designs raises interesting questions. We are familiar with the easy transfers of terms denoting qualities from one field to another. The basic problem can be put this way: can music sound the way a design looks? The elements of music are not the same as those of painting. They may be analogous, but to be analogous is not to be identical. Is it possible, then, for the same broad characteristics to emerge from (emerge from: 自...出现) different perceptual conditions?
Two facts about the relation between broad characteristics of a work and their perceptual conditions must be kept distinct. First, the global characteristics of a visual or auditory complex are determined by the discernible parts and their relationships. Thus, any notable change in the parts or their relationships produces a change in some of the global characteristics. Second, a change in the parts or their relationships may leave other global characteristics unchanged.
24. In the first paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with establishing the fact that
(A) comparisons are not equations
(B) auditory phenomena are not visual phenomena
(C) frequently used comparisons are usually inaccurate
(D) careless perceptions result from careless thought（A）
(E) questions concerning perception are psychological
25. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) distinguishing mutually exclusive categories
(B) clarifying an apparent contradiction
(C) supporting new ideas
(D) analyzing a problem（D）
(E) comparing opinions
26. The second paragraph is primarily concerned with establishing the idea that
(A) different global characteristics of a work result from the same discernible parts
(B) the parts of a work of art influence the total perception of the work
(C) visual and auditory characteristics can be combined
(D) changes in the parts of a work remain isolated from the work as a whole（B）
(E) the visual complexes in a work of art influence the work’s auditory complexes
27. Which of the following statements is most likely be a continuation of the passage?
(A) The search for broad similarities thus begins by understanding and distinguishing these two facts.
(B) The search for musical-visual analogies thus depends on the complexity of the works being compared.
(C) The search for music and art of the highest quality thus depends on very different assumptions.
(D) Thus music and painting exist in mutually exclusive worlds.（A）
(E) Thus music and painting are too complicated to be evaluated in terms of analogies.
From the 1900’s through the 1950’s
From the 1900’s through the 1950’s waitresses in the United States developed a form of unionism based on the unions’ defining the skills that their occupation included and enforcing standards for the performance of those skills. This “occupational unionism” differed substantially from the “worksite unionism” prevalent among factory workers. Rather than unionizing the workforces of particular employers, waitress locals ((美)工会地方分会) sought to control their occupation throughout a city. Occupational unionism operated through union hiring halls, which provided free placement (工作安排) services to employers who agreed to hire their personnel only through the union. Hiring halls offered union waitresses collective employment security, not individual job security—a basic protection offered by worksite unions. That is, when a waitress lost her job, the local did not intervene with her employer but placed her elsewhere; and when jobs were scarce, the work hours available were distributed fairly among all members rather than being assigned according to seniority.
17. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) analyze a current trend in relation to the past
(B) discuss a particular solution to a longstanding problem
(C) analyze changes in the way that certain standards have been enforced
(D) apply a generalization to an unusual situation（E）
(E) describe an approach by contrasting it with another approach
18. Which of the following statements best summarizes a distinction mentioned in the passage between waitress unions and factory workers’ unions?
(A) Waitress unions were more successful than factory workers’ unions in that they were able to unionize whole cities.
(B) Waitress unions had an impact on only certain local areas, whereas the impact of factory workers’ unions was national.
(C) Waitress union members held primarily part-time positions, whereas factory workers’ unions placed their members in full-time jobs.
(D) Waitress unions emphasized the occupation of workers, whereas factory workers’ unions emphasized the worksite at which workers were employed.（D）
(E) Waitress unions defined the skills of their trade, whereas the skills of factory trades were determined by employers’ groups.
19. According to the passage, which of the following was characteristic of the form of union that United States waitresses developed in the first half of the twentieth century?
(A) The union represented a wide variety of restaurant and hotel service occupations.
(B) The union defined the skills required of waitresses and disciplined its members to meet certain standards.
(C) The union billed employers for its members’ work and distributed the earnings among all members.
(D) The union negotiated the enforcement of occupational standards with each employer whose workforce joined the union.（B）
(E) The union ensured that a worker could not be laid off arbitrarily by an employer.
20. The author of the passage mentions “particular employers” (line 8) primarily in order to
(A) suggest that occupational unions found some employers difficult to satisfy
(B) indicate that the occupational unions served some employers but not others
(C) emphasize the unique focus of occupational unionism
(D) accentuate the hostility of some employers toward occupational unionism（C）
(E) point out a weakness of worksite unionism