Ana səhifə

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yüklə 3.52 Mb.
ölçüsü3.52 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   53


Main article: Religion in Albania

See also: Freedom of religion in Albania

Christianity was adopted in the region now known as Albania during Roman rule by the middle of the first century. At first the new religion had to compete with Oriental cults, such as the worship of Mithra, known in the region due to Rome's growing interaction with eastern regions of the Roman Empire. For a long time it also competed with Illyrian pagan religions. The steady growth of the Christian community in Dyrrhachium (the Roman name for Epidamnus) led to the creation of a local bishopric in 58 AD. Later, episcopal seats were established in Apollonia, Buthrotum (modern Butrint), and Scodra (modern Shkodra).

After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, Albania fell under the umbrella of the Eastern Roman Empire, but remained ecclesiastically dependent on Rome. During the final schism on 1054 between the Western and Eastern churches, the Christians in southern Albania came under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch in Constantinople, and those in the north under the purview of the Papacy in Rome. The arrangement prevailed until Albania passed to Ottoman control in 14th century, and Islam gradually became the dominant religion. The Hoxha regime, which took control of Albania after World War II, suppressed religious observance and institutions, to the point where Albania was officially declared to be the world's first atheist state. Although religious freedom has returned to Albania since Hoxha's death in 1985, the vast majority of Albanians today do not practice any religion whatsoever.

Armed Forces

Military personnel from the 1st Infantry Company of the Rapid Reaction Brigade.

The Patrol Boat "Damen Stan Type 4207" for the Albanian Coast Guard being prepared in Netherland.

Main article: Military of Albania

See also: Albanian Air Force, Albanian Naval Defense Forces, Albanian Joint Forces Command, and Albanian Logistic Support Command

The Albanian Armed Forces (Forcat e Armatosura të Shqipërisë) first formed after independence in 1912. Today it is made up of the General Staff Headquarters, the Albanian Joint Forces Command, the Albanian Support Command and the Albanian Training and Doctrine Command.One of the most important conditions to fulfill due to NATO integration, was the increasing of the military budget. According to Government of Albania plans, military expenditure will reach 2% of GDP in 2008 (already approved by the parliament on the budget of 2008 - for the defense 2.01% of GDP).Since February 2008, Albania participates officially in NATO's Operation Active Endeavor in the Mediterranean Sea[32] and received a NATO membership invitation on 3 April 2008.[33]

International Rankings

Main article: International rankings of Albania


  • Population ranked 133 out of 221 countries

  • CIA World Factbook: Life expectancy ranked 50 out of 221 countries

  • CIA World Factbook 2008: infant mortality rate ranked 112 highest infant mortality rate out of 222 countries

  • United Nations Development Programme: literacy rate ranked 45 out of 177 countries


  • Yale University: Environmental Sustainability Index 2005, ranked 24 out of 146 countries


  • The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation: Index of Economic Freedom 2006, ranked 52 out of 157 countries

  • International Monetary Fund: GDP (nominal) per capita 2006, ranked 95 out of 182 countries

  • International Monetary Fund: GDP (nominal) 2006, ranked 111 out of 181 countries

  • World Economic Forum: Global Competitiveness Index 2006-2007, ranked 98 out of 125 countries

  • World Bank: Ease of Doing Business Index 2008 report, ranked 136 out of 178 countries

  • Foreign exchange reserves as of December 2007 ranked 112 out of 156 countries


Main article: Demographics of Albania

Albania Population pyramid, 2005

In July 2007, Albania's population was 3,600,523, with an annual growth rate of 0.73%.[34] Albania is a largely ethnically homogeneous country with only small minorities. A large majority of the population is ethnically Albanian. Minorities include Greeks, Aromanians (Vlachs), Torbesh, Gorani, Macedonians, Roma, Montenegrins, Bulgarians, Balkan Egyptians and Jews. The dominant language is Albanian, with two main dialects, Gheg and Tosk. Many Albanians are also fluent in English, Italian and Greek.

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   53

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət