Decline and Threats
The following major threats apply across all land tenures and uses:
Clearing and habitat destruction
Clearing and habitat destruction is associated with urbanisation (intensive residential, industrial, infrastructure development), rural and farming infrastructure and development, installation and management of public utilities, herbicide use, dumping of material, inappropriate fire prevention works, ploughing, cropping, and overgrazing by introduced and native herbivores.
Fragmentation of grasslands into small isolated remnants within largely agricultural and urbanised landscapes, and the associated site degradation arising from it, may now represent the greatest threat to the long-term conservation of these communities.
Pest plants and animals
Even very small remnants of native grasslands will generally maintain their integrity if properly managed. However soil disturbance, including overgrazing, fertilising, stock movements, machinery movements, promote the growth of more fast growing exotic weeds, including otherwise desirable pasture species. Once significant invasion has occurred, immediate control is necessary or the grassland will eventually become degraded and destroyed. Pest animals such as foxes and rabbits can cause considerable damage to flora and fauna.
In the absence of suitable burning or grazing, dominant grass species will generally out-compete and smother smaller flowering herbs, and in turn senesce and become smothered themselves. In such cases species diversity will decline, fauna habitat will be lost and the grassland will eventually degraded beyond repair.
Legal and planning protection
The native flora and fauna of these listed communities are legally protected, but this is not widely understood. Poor understanding of, and compliance with, legislation and planning controls allows deliberate and accidental removal to continue.
Loss of key component species
These can include species of flora, vertebrate fauna and invertebrates, with roles as pollinators, providing nutrient recycling, creating suitable vegetation disturbance and other essential elements of structural habitat. There has been an almost complete loss of mammalian fauna on the plains south of the Divide, with a number of species becoming extinct or endangered at a statewide or regional level (Seebeck 1984).
Land uses and tenures
Grasslands and grassy woodlands occur on a wide variety of public land reservations and on private land. They are poorly represented in the conservation reserve system. Land tenures and uses are summarised in Table 2 on Page 20
Stakeholders and interest groups
Department of Sustainability and Environment
Department of Primary Industries
Department of Infrastructure
Department of State and Regional Development
Traditional (Aboriginal) owners
Utilities providers (power, gas, telecommunications)
Commonwealth agencies, especially Department of Defence and Environment Australia
Local government authorities
Victorian Catchment Management Council and Catchment Management Authorities
Victorian Farmers Federation
Business (developers, manufacturers, transport operators, construction companies, environmental consultants, planning and engineering consultants)
Trust for Nature
Country Fire Authority
Melbourne Fire Brigade
National conservation groups (e.g. World Wide Fund for Nature)
State-wide conservation groups (e.g. Victorian National Parks Association)
Local community and conservation groups, Field Naturalists
There are a number of policy and legislative mechanisms that identify actions and processes and provide guidance for decision-making. Some of the most important are described below.
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
This Action Statement forms a part of the implementation of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. Among the objectives of the FFG Act is “…to conserve communities of flora and fauna.”
The communities that are the subject of this Action Statement are listed as threatened under the Act. As a result of listing, the flora of these communities is protected flora under sections 46-51 of the FFG Act, and must not be taken without authorisation wherever they occur on public land, including reserves, parks, roadsides, rail reserves and cemeteries.
Victoria’s Biodiversity Strategy
Victoria’s Biodiversity Strategy states that the goals for biodiversity management are to ensure that within Victoria:
there is a reversal, across the entire landscape, of the long-term decline in the extent and quality of native vegetation, leading to a net gain with the first target being no net loss by the year 2000;
the ecological processes and the biodiversity dependent upon terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments are maintained and, where necessary, restored; the present diversity of species and ecological communities and their viability is maintained or improved across each bioregion;
there is no further preventable decline in the viability of any rare species or of any rare ecological community;
there is an increase in the viability of threatened species and in the extent and quality of threatened ecological communities.
Victoria’s Native Vegetation Management – A Framework for Action
The Framework’s primary goal for native vegetation management in Victoria is to achieve:
“A reversal, across the entire landscape, of the long-term decline in the extent and quality of native vegetation, leading to a Net Gain.”
‘Net Gain’ is where, over a specified area and period of time, losses of native vegetation and habitat, as measured by a combined quality-quantity measure (habitat-hectare), are reduced, minimised and more than offset by commensurate gains.
The Framework provides a basis for determining the conservation significance of areas of native vegetation, and the habitat hectares approach provides a method for assessing the condition/quality of native vegetation. The Framework prioritises rare vegetation types such as grasslands.
The Planning and Environment Act 1987 sets the legal framework for planning in Victoria. The Act allows for the creation of municipal planning schemes by a responsible authority, which is usually a local council. The planning scheme provides the responsible authority with the means to make decisions on land use and development.
The Victoria Planning Provisions (VPP) are best considered as a statewide reference document or template from which planning schemes are sourced and constructed. It is a statutory device to ensure the consistent provisions for various matters are maintained across Victoria. The VPP includes the State Planning Policy Framework (SPPF) that provides responsible authorities with the State policy outcomes and the relevant policy documents that should be referred to and implemented in decision making, where relevant. The Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 and Victoria's Biodiversity Strategy are referenced in this way. The forthcoming update of the VPP, due in July 2003, will include Victoria's Native Vegetation Management - A Framework for Action within the SPPF . The SPPF also suggests that responsible authorities should take into account any regional catchment strategies or regional vegetation plans in decision making.
A municipal planning scheme is constructed by taking the VPP as the basic template and inserting the local vision and policy framework (the Municipal Strategic Statement and local policies), selecting the zones and overlays needed to implement these and writing the appropriate local provisions to support the zones and overlays (the schedules).
Regional Catchment Strategies
The Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 requires that Regional Catchment Strategies be prepared and periodically revised by the Catchment Management Authorities. The Regional Catchment Strategy must:
assess the land and water resources of the catchments in the region and how they are used;
assess the nature, causes, extent and severity of land degradation of the catchments in the region and identify areas for priority attention;
identify objectives for the quality of the land and water resources of the catchments in the region;
set a program of measures to promote improved use of land and water resources and to treat land degradation;
state the action necessary to implement the strategy and who should take it;
specify procedures for monitoring the implementation of the strategy, achieving the land and water resource quality objectives and assessing the effectiveness of the program.
The Catchment Management Authorities have included consideration of biodiversity assets and threats within the scope of their Regional Catchment Strategies.
Regional Vegetation Plans
Each Catchment Management Authority has commenced preparation of a Regional Vegetation Plan. The Regional Vegetation Plans contain information on the extent and condition of native vegetation within each catchment and identify rare, depleted or threatened vegetation types. The Regional Vegetation Plans are consistent with “Victoria’s Native Vegetation Management – A Framework for Action”.
Biodiversity Action Planning
Biodiversity Action Planning is a structured approach to identifying priorities and mapping significant areas for native biodiversity conservation at the landscape and bioregional scales. This will assist Regional Catchment Strategies, local government, public and private landowners and land managers to deal with the complexity of Victoria’s native biodiversity and strategically direct their efforts. It supports the notion of a “net gain” in vegetation quality and quantity.
Major Conservation Objectives and Strategic Approaches
The listed grasslands and grassy woodland are gravely under-represented in the conservation reserve system. With the exception of a few bushland and game reserves that incidentally contained native grasslands, there were no reserves set aside specifically for grassland conservation until the early 1980s. This situation has improved slightly over the last twenty years with the purchase and reservation of several blocks of private land, especially on the Western and Northern Plains, but there are still threatened grassland and woodland species and sub-communities that are completely unprotected.
A major long-term conservation goal is to establish a comprehensive, adequate and representative reserve system for these communities and to ensure that they are managed to recover and retain their biodiversity values.
Objectives of this Action Statement
There are three key objectives of this Action Statement which, if met, would contribute substantially to achieving this goal:
To protect all significant remnants of the five listed communities currently within the conservation reserve system
To enhance and restore priority degraded remnants of the five listed communities currently within the conservation reserve system
to incorporate into the reserve system additional significant remnants of the five listed communities to achieve a comprehensive, adequate and representative system
In pursuit of these objectives, this Action Statement adopts the following strategic approaches:
preparation and implementation of site management statements which will specify the active management required to maintain, enhance and/or restore the biodiversity values of the site.
application of adaptive management approaches to refine management and restoration techniques
regular monitoring of sites and constituent biodiversity values
voluntary acquisition of significant remnants from private or corporate landholders;
transfer to the Crown of significant remnants as a result of planning decisions (e.g. open space contributions);
transfer to the Crown of land formerly used for other purposes (eg. Defence Department land);
changes to use of existing Crown land (eg. Victorian Environment Assessment Council recommendations).
Other public land (including publicly-owned freehold)
Remnants occur on public land used for purposes other than nature conservation, including rail reserves, roadsides, cemeteries, and on land reserved for purposes other than conservation. These sites retain high quality grassland and woodland remnants as a result of accidentally benign management, such as burning or light sporadic grazing.
The long-term goal for remnants occurring on other public land is to work with the relevant management agencies to ensure that the values of the remnants are recognised, that responsibilities for biodiversity conservation are accepted within the organisational culture, and the remnants are managed to maintain and enhance their conservation values. This goal is to be achieved without unduly constraining the existing land use.
Objective of this Action Statement
The objective of this Action Statement for remnants occurring on other public land, is to protect and enhance all significant remnants of the five listed communities.
This will be achieved by pursing the following strategic approaches:
survey, mapping, documentation and fencing (if appropriate) of all significant remnants
preparation of management guidelines and protocols to ensure that conservation objectives are met and legal compliance is achieved
preparation and implementation of site management statements which will specify the active management required to maintain and enhance the biodiversity values of the site
regular monitoring of biodiversity values
Private agricultural land
Remnants of the grasslands and grassy woodland occur on private land throughout Victoria. Only a small proportion of these remnants have been identified and assessed. Based on those that are known, the remnants are of variable size and condition, and have a range of management histories.
Some are quite degraded and would be difficult to restore. In some cases, these might continue to provide habitat for threatened fauna species, or continue to support populations of threatened plants. In other cases, the remnants may be so degraded that the investment required to restore and manage them may outweigh the benefits to be gained.
Other remnants will be in much better condition, retaining most if not all of their biodiversity values. Areas of agricultural land that have not been cropped or undergone intensive pasture improvement can support high quality remnants, especially on the Northern and Western Plains. If the grasslands and grassy woodland are to be conserved on private land, the cooperation and involvement of the farmer is essential.
Landholders have commented that many farmers are struggling with the complexities and fluctuations of international markets for wool and grain, and are faced with financial pressures to implement different farming systems. Adding to this complexity has, at times, been the conflicting messages to farmers from government agencies, on the one hand encouraging land use changes without considering the impact on biodiversity, while on the other hand advocating conservation without addressing farmers’ financial viability.
Ultimately, the best long-term arrangement for conservation of grasslands on private agricultural land is for farmers to derive sufficient income from their properties to allow them to work co-operatively with Government agencies and community groups to conserve the relatively small area of significant remnants.
The long term goal for private land remnants is to maintain and enhance as many of the significant remnants as possible, without necessarily acquiring them. It is important to note that, due to the relatively poor representation of the grasslands and grassy woodland in conservation reserves or other public land, the long-term conservation of these communities relies heavily on retaining remnants on private agricultural land.
Objectives of this Action Statement
For private agricultural land, the objectives of this Action Statement are:
To protect and enhance significant remnants of the listed grasslands and grassy woodland on private land, and
To recognise and address the economic and social issues confronting farmers and farming communities in managing native grasslands and grassy woodlands.
These objectives will be achieved by consistently applying the Victorian Planning Provisions and Victorian Government policies relating to native vegetation, in particular ‘Victoria’s Native Vegetation Management – A Framework for Action’. It is intended that these controls be used to conserve the most endangered communities, such as the listed grasslands and grassy woodland.
A key element of Government policy is the goal of ‘Net Gain’. However, in some cases landholders have already managed and improved for conservation, and it would be very difficult to obtain net gain at a future point in time, by either improving existing remnants or purchasing others. The ‘Net Gain’ concept recognises vegetation management and enhancement works previously undertaken by landholders, as these are automatically built into the way ‘Net Gain' is structured. Vegetation that is of higher quality is potentially more valuable as a conservation ‘offset’ as it is eligible for a higher potential gain with less effort. Vegetation remnants of higher conservation significance are also more valuable, particularly as offsets for permitted clearing in lower conservation significance patches.
The regulatory approach will be complemented by the continuing development and use of voluntary conservation programs, including Land for Wildlife, conservation covenants and incentives programs such as BushTender. Farmers with significant remnants would be encouraged to undertake whole farm planning, including options for continuing to derive income from the remnants. In many cases, maintaining existing management regimes will be the preferred option.
Some areas of very high quality grasslands or grassy woodland on private land may be identified for voluntary land purchase or exchange. In general terms, such grasslands remain because they have been managed in such a way as to retain native biodiversity, generally by light grazing. If purchased for inclusion in the conservation reserve system, management would tend to copy that of the previous owner, at least in the short term, and the advice of the previous manager would be sought. In some cases the landholder could continue to graze the reserve under a license agreement, and stocking rates and timing varied to reflect conservation targets for threatened flora and fauna.
DSE will also focus on improving the information about remnant grasslands and grassy woodlands on private agricultural land, by undertaking survey and mapping of all significant remnants, subject to owners’ agreement.
Finally, the Victorian Government, through DPI and DSE, will engage landholders and farm advisers in developing solutions to grassland and grassy woodland conservation and management within the farm business context.
Private land on urban fringes
Grasslands and grassy woodlands on the urban fringes are generally old grazing properties that are no longer farmed. Many of these areas are on the northern and western fringes of Melbourne, but they also occur to the south-east of Melbourne, near Geelong and around other provincial cities and towns.
As cities and towns grow, demand for industrial, commercial and residential land results in pressure to re-zone and subdivide these properties. Such developments can generate large financial windfalls for the owners.
The long-term goal for remnants on private land on the urban fringe is to ensure that all significant remnants of grasslands and grassy woodlands are securely protected and managed for their biodiversity values and that, where appropriate, restoration and enhancement of degraded remnants is undertaken to improve the viability of the remnants.
Objectives of this Action Statement
The objectives of this Action Statement for grasslands and grassy woodlands remnants on private land on the urban fringe are:
to prevent further loss of significant remnants of grasslands and grassy woodlands.
to improve our knowledge of the type, distribution, condition and biodiversity values of remnants and
to improve our understanding of the management practices required to maintain, enhance and restore the biodiversity values
Where new industrial, commercial and residential developments are proposed, DSE will pursue, in co-operation with local government authorities and developers, sophisticated planning outcomes which meet fully the requirements of the Victorian Planning Provisions and Victorian Government policies relating to native vegetation, in particular ‘Victoria’s Native Vegetation Management – A Framework for Action’. Such planning outcomes will include mechanisms to provide permanent protection to retained remnants, such as conservation covenants and s173 agreements, and ongoing provision for active management and monitoring of the retained remnants.
DSE will also pursue, in co-operation with local government authorities and developers, planning controls on the use of the remainder of the area being developed to ensure that future use is not incompatible with the long-term conservation requirements of the retained remnants.
DSE will assist prospective developers in understanding the information requirements and approval processes as they relate to biodiversity, land and water management.
Intended Management Actions
The intended management actions listed below will be further elaborated in DSE’s Actions for Biodiversity Conservation database. Detailed information about the actions and locations, including priorities, is held in this system and will be provided annually to land managers. This system identifies responsibilities for implementation, timelines and progress of implementation.
Site Management Statements will be prepared in conjunction with landholders and managers (see Local Action L4) to identify management aims, actions, responsibilities, timing and resourcing. These will give clear future directions, and identify opportunities for advice, assistance and incentives.
Developing the policy and institutional framework
S1 Develop a policy statement in regard to the conservation of lowland grasslands and grassy woodlands consistent with Growing Victoria Together, Victoria’s Biodiversity Strategy and Victoria’s Native Vegetation Management: A Framework for Action.
Information and identification
S2 Compile and maintain information on all grassland and grassy woodland remnants, including assessment of their biological assets, conservation significance, levels of risk and priorities for action.
S3 Develop a research and monitoring program to maintain, enhance and restore the condition of lowland grasslands and grassy woodlands, including research and development into management techniques for native grasslands within farming systems.
Integrating production and conservation
S4 Identify the institutional, organisational and on-farm barriers to the conservation and retention of grasslands and grassy woodland and their component species on private land.
S5 Identify a range of ecologically sustainable farm management operations that can provide for the retention of native grasslands and grassy woodlands within a viable farm business.
S6 Identify the strategic options open to private landholders to allow them to retain grassland and grassy woodland communities and species on land subject to development plans eg offset arrangements.
S7 Provide landholders with the latest information about on-site management requirements, and encourage preparation of site management statements, incorporating adaptive management principles that facilitate landholder input and feedback into management decisions.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI, CMAs
S9 Include information on appropriate management techniques and standards for native pastures and native grasslands into relevant agricultural and land management programs and into guidelines such as EMS, whole farm or property management planning, best management practice and codes of practice.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI
Planning and regulation
S10 Publicise and enforce the provisions of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 and the native vegetation controls in planning schemes in regard to lowland grassland and grassy woodlands, including providing encouragement and support to landholders, land managers and local planning authorities to achieve improved compliance.
Responsibility: DSE, local governments
S11 Ensure that landholders and local planning authorities are aware of the range of activities that may disturb, damage or destroy native grassland, such as rock removal, ploughing, fertilising, draining and laser-grading.
S12 Analyse and assess the impact and trends of planning approvals on endangered vegetation classes on private land and determine the outcomes for ‘net gain’, using information contained in the DSE/DPI case management tracking system.
Moving towards appropriate management
S13 Discourage the use of inappropriate techniques for fuel reduction and weed management in lowland grassland and grassy woodlands.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI, CFA , local government authorities
S14 Encourage ecological burning as a management tool on appropriate sites, especially those with a history of burning, in partnership with CFA management and brigades.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI, CFA , local government authorities
S15 Promote ecologically sustainable weed control practices, such as cell grazing and burning, with emphasis on minimising soil disturbance, reducing soil nutrient levels and replacing weeds with suitable native species.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI, CFA , local government authorities
S16 Endeavour to resolve impediments to ecological burning and pest plant and animal control activities in significant sites on rail and other linear reserves. Issues include public safety, occupational health and safety and public liability.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI, Vicroads, local government authorities, rail managers
S17 Develop Environmental Standards and Procedures for works and maintenance operations on Crown land and incorporate them into contracts where appropriate.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI, DoI, VicTrack, VicRoads
Reserve system development
S18 Further develop Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative reserve system design models and apply to lowland grasslands and grassy woodlands at a bioregional level to identify key gaps.
S19 Pursue the voluntary acquisition of significant sites in private ownership. Where appropriate, equivalent public land may be exchanged for private land supporting significant grassland and grassy woodland remnants.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI
S20 Encourage non-government organisations (e.g. Trust for Nature, Australian Bush Heritage Fund), philanthropic trusts and other organisations to sponsor conservation management activity, including land purchase.
S21 Undertake permanent reservation for conservation purposes of significant remnants on public land.
Responsibility: DSE (Parks, Flora and Fauna Division, Regions)
Engaging with the community
S22 Explore improved options to incorporate grassland and grassy woodland biodiversity values into farm extension programs and activity , especially through commercial farmer cropping groups at the subregional level. Extension programs to engage include:
DPI wool, meat and grains as well as national equivalents sponsored by Australian Wool Innovations, Meat & Livestock Australia and the Grains Research and Development Corporation, and Land & Water Australia, FarmBiz
farmer-led programs eg. Bestwool 2010, Southern Farming Systems, Birchip Cropping Group,
Conservation programs such as Land for Wildlife and those run by Trust for Nature and Greening Australia.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI
S23 Prepare informational material on the conservation significance of native grasslands and grassy woodlands and their practical, ecological and financial values, for distribution by local government planning offices and officers to private landholders contemplating development applications.
Responsibility: DSE, DPI, Catchment Management Authorities, local government authorities
L1 Incorporate targets and actions to protect, enhance and restore lowland grassland and grassy woodlands into Regional Catchment Strategies and subordinate strategies, including Regional Vegetation Plans .
Responsibility: Catchment Management Authorities
L2 Provide information (including maps and supporting data) and advice to assist local government authorities to conserve lowland grassland and grassy woodlands through the implementation of native vegetation controls and application of local planning schemes.
Responsibility: DSE Regions
L3 Ensure that all relevant municipal planning schemes include the objective of conserving and restoring native grasslands and grassy woodlands, and achieve this objective through the optimal use of environmental zones, environmental overlays, local policy and non-statutory programs (see Biodiversity Planning Practice Note (DOI 2002)).
Responsibility: DSE, local government authorities
L4 Develop bioregional Conservation Management Networks for lowland grasslands and grassy woodlands.
Responsibility: DSE Regions
Agreements and incentives
L5 Negotiate management agreements, in their various forms, as a means of increasing certainty about conservation outcomes, especially for sites of high and very high conservation significance. On private land these agreements will include covenants, Land for Wildlife voluntary agreements, and agreements reached via planning schemes or incentives schemes such as BushTender. On public land these will include Public Authority Management Agreements under the FFG Act.
Responsibility: DSE Regions
L6 Continue to implement mechanisms and programs to facilitate voluntary conservation action on private land (including whole farm planning, conservation covenants, management agreements and financial incentives such as rate reductions, tax incentives and payments of services through approaches such as BushTender) and seek to ensure that native grasslands and grassy woodlands are given high priority in funding programs such as the Natural Heritage Trust and the National Action Plan for Water Quality and Salinity.
Responsibility: DSE Regions, Catchment Management Authorities, Trust for Nature, local government authorities
L7 Promote and support participation by community groups, landholders and managers and education institutions in management, research and monitoring of lowland grasslands and grassy woodlands. Assist such groups to obtain funding for suitable projects.
Responsibility: DSE Regions
Science-based decisions and management
L8 Conduct targeted flora and fauna survey mapping and site documentation to fill key information gaps.
Responsibility: DSE Regions
L9 Develop and implement management trials (adaptive experimental management) at priority sites.
Responsibility: DSE Regions, land managers
On-ground management responsibility and action
L10 Clarify responsibilities for various site management actions with managers and lessees of Crown land, including road and rail managers, and formalise (where necessary) in agreements (eg. Public Authority Management Agreements)
Responsibility: DSE Regions
L11 Prepare, implement and review Site Management Statements for all priority sites in each listed community, in consultation with landholders and land managers, to maintain or improve existing biodiversity, including provision for biomass management, weed control, signposting and fencing, adaptive management methodology and baseline and ongoing monitoring, by 2008.
Responsibility: DSE Regions
L12 Undertake urgent management at priority sites prior to preparation of Site Management Statements, including actions specified below.
Responsibility: land managers
Central Gippsland Plains Grassland
Continue ecological burning at Munro, Marriage Lane , Hillside Lindenow South, Fernbank rail reserves, Briagolong cemetery and Golden Beach.
Undertake weed control for African love-grass and St John’s Wort, and tree and shrub removal (e.g. burgan, casuarinas, eucalypts, black wattles) from significant sites that suffered a cessation of burning from 1980 – 1990, especially Munro and The Knob.
Undertake a Rabbit control program on Briagolong cemetery, and rail reserves from Munro to Lindenow South
Repair and maintain fences at all fenced sites to prevent accidental damage
Forest Red Gum Grassy Woodland
Prepare and implement a management plan for The Knob Recreation Reserve, Moormung and Providence Ponds Flora and Fauna Reserves.
Undertake control of priority weeds such as Sweet Vernal Grass, Yorkshire Fog, Phalaris and Bridal creeper, at Moormurng Flora and Fauna Reserve, Providence Ponds FFR, Stratford Highway Park, The Knob Recreation Reserve, The Billabong FFR
Plains Grassland (South Gippsland)
Undertake control of introduced pasture grasses (Phalaris, Paspalum, Yorkshire Fog and Sweet Vernal Grass), Blue Periwinkle, Watsonia and native shrubs such as Swamp Paperbark and Prickly Teatree at all sites
Northern Plains Grassland
Undertake ecological burning of priority rail and road reserves e.g. Hunter, Mitiamo-Pyramid Hill, Glenrowan, Boorhaman rail reserves; Mitiamo, Lalbert-Kerang, Bael Bael-Quambatook, Suttie, Adamthwaite, and Tungamah roads.
Undertake control of priority weeds such as African Box-thorn, Bathurst Burr, Wheel Cactus, Horehound, Paterson’s Curse, Annual Rye-grass, Wild Oats at Terrick Terrick National Park. Undertake weed control at Hunter Flora Reserve and Thunder Swamp (Spear thistles, Paterson’s Curse and Artichoke thistles).
Phase out commercial wildflower harvesting from grassland remnants on roadsides.
Undertake appropriate grazing management at Terrick Terrick National Park and Terrick Terrick East, incorporating ecological research findings.
Western (Basalt) Plains Grassland
Undertake ecological burning at Yalla- y-poora Recreation Reserve, priority roadsides e.g. Chatsworth, Dundonnell, Woorndoo, Carngham - Streatham, Chepstowe-Mt Emu; priority cemeteries e.g. Truganina and Bannockburn; and priority rail reserves e.g. Bannockburn, Middle Creek, Dobie, Wingeel, Little River and Manor
Undertake control of priority weeds such as Phalaris, African Love-grass, Furze, Nassella spp. and Paterson’s Curse at key sites - Yalla- y-poora Recreation Reserve, Middle Creek and Werribee-Geelong rail reserves, Ballarat-Skipton Rail Trail.
Discourage weed control practices that involve broadscale herbicide application, especially on paddocks containing remnant native grasslands and minor Serrated tussock infestations.
Control access along railway reserves in rapidly urbanising areas to stop destruction of sites by 4WD and trail bikes, rubbish dumpers etc.
Phase out commercial wildflower harvesting from grassland remnants on roadsides.
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Compiled by Vanessa Craigie and Adrian Moorrees, Biodiversity & Natural Resources Division, Department of Sustainability and Environment
Further information can be obtained from Department of Sustainability and Environment Customer Service Centre on 136 186.
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statements are available from the Department of Sustainability and Environment website: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au
This Action Statement has been prepared under section 19 of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 under delegation from Professor Lyndsay Neilson, Secretary, Department of Sustainability and Environment, September 2003.
© The State of Victoria, Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2003
Published by the Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria. 8 Nicholson Street, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 Australia
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