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Education of the republic of uzbekistan state world languages university

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2.3. Translation problems of Fashion Industry Terminology
The terms "fashionable" and "unfashionable" are used to illustrate whether or not someone or something fits in with the current fashion trend or even a certain type of popular mode of expression. The term "fashion" is often used positively as a synonym for style, glamour and beauty. However the term "fashion" can have negative connotations of fads and trends. Popular fashion trend centers include New York, London, Milan and Paris.

Fashion design is a form of art. To work as a designer, one should have an artistic and creative personality and have to be good at drawing and able to express the ideas in sketches. Having some special skills for combining colors, tones and shades is crucial as well as being able to work with fabric and use textiles in a creative and original manner. Fashion designers have a good visual imagination and are able to think in three-dimensions and put their ideas into garments.

Fashion designers have to be aware of the fashion market requirements. They have to be very interested in learning new things and read magazines, journals and books on fashion design history and new trends. They also have to be interested in art, visit art galleries and interact with all kinds of artists whenever they have the opportunity. A designer should also have some knowledge and experience of tailoring (cutting, draping, sewing etc.) and be able to tell the difference between different fabric quality levels.

A good understanding of the audience's lifestyle and customer needs and requirements is also needed in fashion design. Designers should have good communication skills and be able to express their ideas clearly. But most important, they have to be very original and have fresh, innovative ideas.

Despite the features stated above, a good designer must be aware of international fashion terms used in a global scale, as it is quite important in creating new collections and providing the consumers with the clothes of a coming trend.

A work of a skilled translator is applied here. For he/she must be good at not only translating skills but also fashion sphere as well as its history, development, designers, brands, trends, shows and many other things. While translating the terms of some field, translator should take into consideration the cultural background of this or that language. It must be done in the way that is acceptable by nation.

While concentrating on terms, it is worth to give some information about them in general. The terms are the words or phrases which have a special and strictly defined meaning in the field of science. They must definitely express the sense, the processes and the names of the objects in any sphere of industry. The terms in fashion industry are not exception, too.

In order to analyze the terms in the defined tools of translation and give their proper translation in Russian and Uzbek, we should, firstly, define the morphological structure of the words.

All terms in their structure we divided into three groups:

  • simple – jumper, blouse, skirt, jeans, coat, suit, collar, shirt, gown;

  • compound – frockcoat, micro-mini, handbags, underwear, swimwear, outerwear, pin-striped;

  • phrases – younger-looking skin, dinner jackets, ballerina-thin figure, close-fitting skirt, long-sleeved blouse;

Simple words are found in the frame of only one system and are characterized as monosemantic and they can be as the key words of the given subject.

Compound terms can be found in one system, but they have different meanings depending on the context. For example, the word cover-up has the meaning a lightweight garment, such as a sarong, pareo, skirt or hooded jacket, used to cover a swimsuit; concealment of illegal activity; a blunder. According to this it is necessary to look for such kind of terms in the thesaurus or explanatory dictionaries where the given word can be found.

Phrasal terms introduce the chain of words. The main element of these terms is the last word, and the key one is the pinultimate word, word combination or compound term. Because of the usual use such terms can be substituted by the abbreviations. For example, VFP - Vogue Fashion Police.

Among the main methods of translation of the fashion means the following is observed: Method of semantic development is applied when a dictionary equivalency of a word does not coincide with the context. For example, the word which is commonly used in fashion industry – scooter, it has several meanings in the dictionary: детский самокат – samokat (bolalarning bir oyoqlab yer tepib yuritiladigan ikki g’ildirakli aravachasi); мотороллер – motoroller. Having studied the given versions in the dictionary and having compared them with the English dictionary of synonyms and an explanatory dictionary, we get the following versions of translation: юбка – yubka

The process of the semantic development suggests to be made in different stages: a)perception of the whole context; b) specification of the meaning of separate words; c) check on the conformity to the context; d) construction of the logical chains; e) a choice of a comprehensible variant; f) check of the words in the whole context. Thus the logical reasoning plays a main role, taking into account the content of the initial text.

Owing to the features of the language while translating from English into Russian or Uzbek the translator is compelled quite often to resort to a various sorts of substitution of separate words, word-combinations, parts of the sentences and translation of the whole sentence to express fully the content of the text being translated in a target language. Substitution happens when changing the word with another one and not changing the sense. Different ways of substitution are defined, such as concretization, generalization, antonymous translation, compensation, extension of thought and perception as a whole. Some of them are applied in the translation of fashion terms.

Necessity in applying the methods of the additions or omissions is often required by the norms of language. For example, the term Swimsuit is translated as женский купальник in Russian. The term is translated by addition, because if we do it as it is given in English, not using the addition, there will be no sense. In Uzbek it will be as ayollar cho’milish kostyumi.

The omission is also widely used as the addition. For example, ballerina-thin figure – худощавая фигура – sarvqomat. The word ballerina does not bear the most necessary sense, so it is not much important to translate it. The words худощавая and sarv can give its sense.

During the research we defined five tools of fashion terms:

  • untranslatable terms, which can be only transcribed in TL;

  • transliteration;

  • semantic equivalents;

  • calque;

  • description

The first tool of translation is observed in the names of companies, firms and in the names of brands such as Christian Dior, Roberta Cavalli, Calvin Klein, Versace, Chanel, Prada, Gucci and many others. For example, the brand company Victoria’s Secret is never translated as Секреты Виктории or Viktoriya Sirlari. They are only transcribed in TL. That’s why they are considered as untranslatable terms.

Transliteration is the practice of converting a text from one writing system into another in a semantic way, word by word, or ideally letter by letter. Transliteration attempts to use a one-to-one correspondence and be exact, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. To achieve the objective, transliteration may define complex convention for dealing with letters in a source script which do not correspond the letters in a goal script.

For example, the words corset, sandal, cocktail, vanguard, safari, bikini, model are transliterated into Russian and Uzbek as корсет, сандалия, коктейль, авангардный, сафари, бикини, модель. Both in Russian and Uzbek they are the same.

The third tool of translation of the terms is the using of the semantic equivalents. Analogy is a cognitive process of transferring a word, word combination or phrase from a particular language to another particular one, and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. It is mostly used when the translator finds the Russian or Uzbek root corresponding to the meaning of the English term. For example, dress – платье – libos, trousers – брюки – shim, collar – воротник – yoqa, glove – перчатка – barmoqlari ayri qo’lqop, underwear – нижнее белье – ichki kiyim and so on. From the academic point of view these translations are most adequate, but it is not always possible to pick up full equivalents.

We would like to analyze some fashion terms used in situations of three languages taken from the book.15
His suit was of a striped and crossed pattern of brown wool, new at that time, but since became familiar as a business suit. The low crotch of the vest revealed a stiff shirt bosom of white and pink stripes.

Его коричневый шерстяной костюм в клетку, был в то время еще новинкой, - потом он стал обычным костюмом делового человека. В глубоком вырезе жилета видна была накрахмаленная грудь сорочки в белую и розовую полоску.

Jigarrang katak kostyum o’sha paytlarda endigina rasm bo’la boshlagandi, keyin esa ishbilarmonlarning bari shuni kiyishni odat qilishdi. Bu kishining shunday kostyum tagidan kiygan jiletining ochiq joyidan kraxmallab qotirilgan oq va binafsha rang yol-yol koylagining qismi ko’rinib turardi.

Starting with the phrase term suit of a striped and crossed pattern of brown wool, Russian version of it is коричневый костюм в клетку. Though semantic equivalents of the words are given, the translator made an omission using one word клетку for the translation of two words striped and crossed. However, the Uzbek version is the shortest one, as there is an omission in two places. Brown wool is given with one word. The term vest is translated adequately both in Russian and Uzbek languages, using the lexico-semantic translation. The semantic equivalents of the phrase term stiff shirt bosom of white and pink stripes are given adequately in both languages. Though the addition is used in Uzbek translation in the word stiff - kraxmallab qotirilgan. Unlike English or Russian versions, Uzbek translation is wrong translation in using the colors. The word pink is given adequately in Russian - розовый whereas Uzbek version is binafsha, but the English version of this word is violet. The adequate translation is qizg’ish or pushti.

Junli jigarrang katak kostyum o’sha paytlarda endigina urfga aylangandi, keyin esa ishbilarmonlarning odatiy kostyumiga aylandi. Kostyum jiletining ochiq joyidan kraxmallab qotirilgan oq va pushti ranglardagi yo’l-yo’l ko’ylagining bir qismi ko’rinib turardi.” (own translation)

In lexicology the word calque (from French calque – a copy) is a special type of borrowing of foreign words, expressions, phrases.

Only by means of calques, the linguist Bali notices fairly, - idiomatic set phrases, the expressions consisted of several words are translated from one language into another. Especially, a lot of calques in all European languages make the translation possible, and also, knowing some European languages helps to master the others.

Compound terms are suggested to be translated by the replacement of components of a lexical unit of the original word by a lexical conformity in Russian and Uzbek. It shows the fourth way of translation – morphemic or lexical calques. For example, high fashion wardrobe – гардероб высокой моды – yuqori sifatli garderob, extra full skirts – слишком широкая юбка – o’ta keng yubka. Here the structure of the term is calqued, thus the separate components can be a transliteration or lexico-semantic substitution.

According to the examples above we can subdivide the calquing of words into two groups: word-formation and semantic.

Word-formation calques are the words received by morphemic translation of foreign words to Russian or Uzbek. The calques usually are not loan words, as they are made of primordially Russian or Uzbek morphemes. Therefore the real origin of such words seems unexpected for the person, learning etymology of words for the first time.

Semantic calques are the words which have received new values under the influence of corresponding words of another language as a result of literalism while translating.

If there is no other way to translate the terms, we can rely on the fifth tool of translation, so-called the descriptive translation. In most cases during the translation of terms related to fashion industry the translator applies this tool, giving the meaning as shortly as he or she is able. Let’s see it in the examples such as T-shirt – футболка с короткими рукавами – yengil kalta mayka or off-the-shoulder evening dress – вечерняя платье с открытыми плечами – ochiq yelkali oqshom libosi. It is impossible to give the meaning by calc or analogy. The terms require descriptive translation, of course, we use some additions too.

Traditional Uzbek costume remained unchanged until the end of the nineteenth century. As in all Muslim countries, Islamic values in Uzbekistan were reflected in the style of dress. Men and women alike had limited items in their wardrobe; these included a long tunic shirt, pants, and a coat. The style of a garment was not subject to change and was similar for both sexes and all social classes. For example, the only difference in a tunic shirt for men and women was in the neckline openings—horizontal for men, vertical for women. Wealthy people could be distinguished from the poor by the superior quality of their fabrics, their more expensive jewelry, and the presence of decorative elements in their costume, such as embroidery, studded stones, and beads.

Despite similarities in costume style, each ethnic group created a unique look, artistically combining the elements of design, color palettes, textile patterns, and trims. Within an ethnic group or region, costume differed because each family had to spin, weave, and dye its own fabrics to make clothing. This led to the colorful variety in Uzbek traditional dress

When remembering Uzbek national clothing and fabrics, as adras, atlas, tubeteykas (traditional headwear), khan-atlas, bekasam, djiyak (national decoration of a cloth), shoyi, chapan (traditional national men’s costume), duppi ( the most widespread kind of tybiteika of the town Chust – it is characterized by a black background and white pattern depicted in the form of four pods of pepper – “kalampir”; the band is embroidered in small arches settled in the row) and many others come to mind.

Oriental fabrics and costumes have long been considered not only as a way of self-expression but also a reflection of a particular nation’s culture, traditions and spiritual world. Exquisite patterns and ornaments of national fabrics have always drawn a keen interest across the world. As of today ikat fabrics are equated to other works of art of international significance.

We would like to state some information about the Uzbek ikat fabrics exhibition showcased in Seoul in 2010. It was organized by the Fund Forum and the Ministry of Foreign Economic Affairs, Investment and Trade on the Uzbek side, and the Ministry of Knowledge Economy and the Association of Designers on the Korean side.

The exhibition titled “Uzbekistan Fashion Blue and Green. Endless Silk Road” showcased rare samples of Uzbek national fabrics, a traditional costume show and a music program with the participation of leading performers from Uzbekistan.

The event which took place at Lotte Hotel in Seoul was attended by almost 600 people: officials, diplomats and public circles, representatives of textile and sewing enterprises, culture and art professionals from Korea and all those interested in Uzbek culture.

Here is an analysis of translation done in three languages, as it shows the way of Uzbek national fabrics’ usage in other languages.

The Uzbek ikat exhibition included samples of khan-atlas, adras, shoyi, bekasam – fabrics with extraordinary colors and patterns, thereby enabling the visitors to discover the entire palette and diversity of traditional Uzbek fabrics. The showroom presented rare exhibits as well as modern fabrics made with the use of restored ancient technologies. Each sample was accompanied by a technical description and additional information on how it is made, natural dyes used and the history of its making. The exhibition also demonstrated ancient national costumes symbolizing historical traditions, lifestyles and centuries-old traditions.

Выставка узбекского иката в Сеуле включала в себя лучшие экземпляры хан-атласа, адраса, шойи и бекасам. Гости, посетившие выставку, открыли для себя все богатство и разнообразие традиционных узбекских тканей с их удивительным цветовым колоритом и узорами. Здесь представлены как редкие раритетные экспонаты, так и современные ткани, созданные по восстановленным старинным технологиям. Стоит особо отметить, что каждый образец ткани сопровождается техническим описанием и дополнительной информацией о процессе ее создания, натуральных красителях, истории производства. В рамках выставки также были представлены старинные национальные костюмы, символизирующие исторические традиции, образ жизни, вековые обычаи народа.

O’zbek xon atlas ko’rgazmasi turfa olamdagi ranglar jilosini va bezaklarni o’zida aks ettiruvchi matolar bo’lmish – xon-atlas, adras, shoyi, bekasam kabilarning namunalarini o’z ichiga oladi. Ushbu ko’rgazma tashrif buyurganlarga o’zbek milliy matolarida rangalar mutanosibligini va rang-barangligini kashf etish imkoniyatini berdi. Shuningdek, ko’rgazma zali noyob eksponatlarni, qayta tiklangan qadimiy texnologiyalar asosida yaratilgan zamonaviy matolarni namoyish qildi. Har bir namuna o’z texnik ko’rsatmasiga, yaratilganligi haqidagi qo’shimcha ma’lumotga, tabiiy ranglar, hamda uning yaratilish tariixiga ega. Va yana ko’rgazma qadimiy urf-odatlarni, yashash tarzini, hamda asrlarga teng an’analarni ifoda etuvchi qadimiy milliy liboslarni namoyish etdi.
Here, the words - xon-atlas, adras, shoyi, bekasam are transliterated into the English and Russian languages. In both languages they remain the same, as they relate to a particular cultural background. Furthermore, it is not an easy task to define the letters in a source language which do not correspond the letters in a target language.

It is worth to note the designer Kite Brewster’s collection Fall 2013 on the last day of the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week in New York, as he used Uzbek national fabrics brought from Tashkent.

The designer, inspired by his trip to Uzbekistan, presented collections for men and women out of silk, leather, velvet and adras, which were brought from Tashkent.

A vivid yellow scarf out of Uzbek adras with hand embroidery and dress with elements of golden ornaments on dark blue velvet attracted attention of visitors. He brought some samples of Uzbek fabrics to the USA; thus, he has been using them in his collections since that time.

Uzbek culture is also rich in various precious jewelries. The special men involved in making them are called “zargar”. The traditional Samarkand jewelry, as well as Bukhara's and Tashkent's, consisted of pendants, filigree and openwork, looking very light and exquisite. Silver and gold, precious and semiprecious stones, such as coral, nacre and turquoise were the major materials. The works of the Samarkand jewellers bear traces of Bukhara influence as Bukhara was one of the largest jewelry centers.

Almost all kinds of jewelry: tilla-bargak, tilla-kosh (gold eyebrows. It consisted of the massive metal plates, which imitated a line of bent eyebrows with petalshaped pendents, fixed along the lower edge. The upper detail was formed by the openwork plate decorated with the stones), gajak, tavk, marjon, kukrak tumor, zebi-gardan, nozi-gardan, earrings and bracelets were the obligatory components of the dowry. They served as protective amulets for the brides and young women. They consisted of the massive metal plates, which imitated a line of bent eyebrows with petal-shaped pendants, fixed along the lower edge. The upper detail was formed by the openwork plate decorated with the stones. Tilla-kosh was known in Tashkent, Kokand and in Bukhara.

Conclusion to the Chapter II
As we analyzed the fashion terms, we come to the conclusion that in most cases they are not translated, but are given by the way of transliteration/transcription, because the background of the terms is considered to be brought from French. Nevertheless, people around the world understand the French terms, which are in common use, and if they do not there are some explanatory dictionaries, which are helpful for descriptive translation, which we used to translate some fashion terms into Russian and Uzbek.

Sometimes it is impossible to consider these methods and tools of translation, mentioned in the Chapter II, as the most helpful in translation. If the translator faces the term of which he is not sure in translation, first, it is necessary to check up whether it does not concern the untranslatable group. If it does it is necessary to find out whether there already exists a settled version of this term. It is possible to use the Internet, electronic dictionaries for this purpose, as they are the most updated sources. If the translation of the term already exists, it is necessary to choose it no matter what model is used. It is practically impossible even to make attempts to change the name of this or that term. Only in that case when the traditional equivalents have not appeared yet, the translator has the right to choose the way of translation independently. It is necessary to give the preference to the semantic equivalents, providing the adequate translation of a detail-logic sense of the term. In comparison with a transliteration, the way of translation allows the native speakers of any language to reach understanding of the translated term. In translation of the compound terms it is also necessary to choose elements from Russian and Uzbek, instead of the borrowed bases.

So, not only an adequate version of giving the sense of the initial text are singled out as the main thing in the translation process, but also cognitive knowledge, logic, a context, ability to abstract concept at a synonym choice are available.

It is important to use dictionaries and the additional literature in a target language for the search of Russian and Uzbek equivalents.

Working on the second chapter, we come to a conclusion that while translating the terms of a definite field, the translator is required to know a morphological structure of terms, the semantic features, distinguishing them from common words, the basic types of phrasal terms, their structural peculiarities and specificity of the use to understand and translate the terms correctly.

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