Conclusion to the Chapter I
In this particular chapter we tried to overview actually some issues such as what the fashion is and development of fashion industry, going back to its history; we analyzed a role of fashion in Uzbekistan and the opportunities that are given to young designers.
We viewed some fashion designers’ ideas, viewpoints and some sayings concerning fashion. Here, we turned to such designers as Coco Chanel, Elizabeth, Valerie and others.
As a natural, we used the general information was obtained form the web-sites of Internet. Having observed what a fashion is we tried to look into the meaning of if differs completely from other ones.
But the concept of fashion is not monosemantic and as designer Coco Chanel mentions that fashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ides, the way we live, what is happening.
In this chapter, we overviewed the fashion industry on a broader scale, looking into its history as well as the main levels of it. Also a role of fashion designers in setting some kind of new trends for every season. Rather than prior time, there are many of them in our present time. Besides, we concentrated on production process in fashion industry that has its peculiarities and some clothing coming to the century of high technology as well as differences between two levels of fashion industry such as couture and ready-to-wear clothing.
Thus, writing this chapter we tried to build the theoretical basis of our dissertation.
CHAPTER II. Terminology in Fashion Industry and its Translation
1.2.Terminology in the World of Industry
France, and in particular Paris, has played an important role as a center of high culture and of decorative arts since the 17th century, first in Europe, and from the 19th century on world wide. From the late 19th century, France has also played an important role in cinema, fashion and cuisine. The importance of French culture has waxed and waned over the centuries, depending on its economic, political and military importance. French culture today is marked both by great regional and socio-economic difference and by strong unifying tendencies.
Paris is the leading capital of fashion and design. As we mentioned above, along with Milan, London and New York Paris is the center of an important number of fashion shows. Some of the world’s biggest fashion houses such as Chanel have their headquarters in France.
The association of France with fashion (French: la mode) dates to the reign of Louis XIV when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe.
France renewed its dominance of the high fashion (French: haute couture) industry in the years 1860-1960 through the establishing of the great couturier houses, the fashion press (Vague was founded in 1892; Elle was founded in 1945) and fashion shows. The first modern Parisian couturier house is generally considered the work of the Englishman Charles Frederick Worth who dominated the industry from 1858-1995.
In the early twentieth century, the industry expanded through such Parisian fashion houses as the house of Chanel (which first came to prominence in 1925) and Balenciaga (founded by a Spaniard in 1937). In the post war year, fashion returnet to prominence through Christian Dior’s famous “new look” in 1947 and through the houses of Pierre Balmain and Hubert de Givenchy (opened in 1952). In the 1960’s “high fashion” came under criticism from France’s youth culture while designers like Yves Saint Laurent broke with established high fashion norms by launching prêt-a-porter (ready to wear) lines and expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing and marketing.
Further innovations were carried out by Paco Rabanne and Pierre Cardin. With a greater focus on marketing and manufacturing, new trends were established in the 70s and 80s by Sonia Rykiel, Thierry Mugler, Claude Montana, Jean-Paul Gaultier and Christian Lacroix.
Since the 1960s, France’s fashion industry has come under increasing competition from London, New York, Milan and Tokyo, and the French has increasingly adopted foreign fashions (such as jeans, tennis, shoes).
Learning the terminology in the fashion industry is an important part of fashion education. By using correct terminology, one may show that he/she is familiar with this field. Many fashion industry terms came from the French language, because France has long been the capital of fashion innovation.
Clothing terminology comprises the names of individual garments and classes of garments, as well as specialized vocabularies of the trades that have designed, manufactured, marketed and sold clothing over hundreds of years.
Clothing terminology ranges from the arcane (watchet, a pale blue color name from the 16th century) to the everyday (t-shirt), and changes over time in response to fashion which in turn reflects social, artistic and political trends.
An area of “concepts” should be mentioned that has its importance in fashion industry.
It would be better to put a few words that goes around key topics and areas of interest to the apparel industry as well as consumer of fashion products. Mostly, fashion terms are relevant to “Woman’s Fashion”. Knowing them, one may be bale to find methods to purchase woman’s clothing, manufacturer woman’s clothing. In addition, one could view career opportunities or fashion tips that are relevant to woman’s fashion.
Women typically wish to look their best. On occasion, this may require a bit of cosmetic. Make up and skincare are not officially a fashion accessory. However, it may be helpful for those, who tries, all the time, to look fashionable.
The term Woman’s apparel comes around through the term Woman’s Fashion.
First of all, a definition should be given for the term Woman’s apparel. To understand the meaning of it, it would be a good idea to first understand the meaning of the word apparel. Apparel is synonymous with the words; clothing, fashion, clothes, and garments. Often footwear will also fall under the umbrella of the term apparel. As every girl dreams about being the most beautiful bride on her wedding day, bridal clothing plays an important role in it. Through this term, various kind of preparations are meant, e.g. wedding gowns that are initial for all the brides, then veils, corsets, bridal shows and even bridesmaid dresses.
Furthermore, there are many terms that belong to Woman’s Fashion, e.g. exotic clothing, corsets, dresses, fashion accessories, furs, natters, handbags, jewelry, kimono, maternity, outerwear, Petite, Sarongs, Shawls – Scarves, shoes for Woman, sleepwear, underwear, swimwear, urban clothing, Yoga clothing and so on.
In general, clothing terminology is subdivided into some categories defined by Mary Brooks Picken11:
a)Classes of basic garments: Shirt, coat, skirt, dress, suit, underwear; b)Length for skirt and dresses: Micro-mini, mini, tea length, ballerina length, full length, midi, maxi; c)Contemporary and historical styles of garments: Corset, frockcoat, t-shirt, doublet; d)Parts of garments : Sleeve, collar, lapel; e)Styles of these: Juliet sleeve, Peter Pan collar; f)Clothing details: Pocket, French cuff, zipper; g)Functional uses: Base layer, insulation layer, outer shell; h)Traditional garments: Cheongsam, kilt, dirndl; i)Fashion and “anti-fashions”: Preppy, New Look, hip-hop, national dress; j)Fabrics: Denim, wool, chiffon, velvet, satin, silk, cotton; k)Fabric treatments: Fabric painting, transfers, ikat, tie-dye, batik; l)Fabric manipulation: Pleat, tuck, gather, smocking; m)Colors and dyes: Madder red, indigo, Isabella; n)Sewing terms: Cut, hem, arm safe, lining; o)Pattern making terms: Sloper, toile; p)Methods of manufacture: haute couture, bespoke tailoring, ready-to-wear
Retailer’s terms:1)Size ranges: Misses, phi’s size, big and tall;2)Retail seasons: Back-to-school, holiday, resort, seasonal;3)Departments: Special occasion, sportswear, bridge fashion;4)Degrees of formality: Formal wear, bridal, business, casual;5)Market: High end, high street, ethical consumer, cut price
Despite the constant introduction of new terms by fashion designers, clothing manufacturers and marketers, the names for several basic garment classes on English are very stable over time.
Gown, skirt/shirt, frock and coat are all attested back to the early medieval period.
There is term that comes along with the word fashion and is important in fashion designer’s and model’s life that is the term runway.
In fashion, a runway or catwalk is a narrow, usually flat platform that runs into the auditorium, used by models to demonstrate clothing and accessories during a fashion show.
In fashion jargon, “what’s on the catwalk” or similar phrasing can refer to whatever is new and popular in fashion.
There is a term exclusive among the lists of runway terms. Mostly, the term is much more relevant to catwalk models.
When a model scores an exclusive for a fashion label it means that they have been picked to walk for that particular designer only. This usually launches their career and elevates their states in the fashion industry, guaranteeing them spots on the world’s best catwalks.
Landing a Prada or Balenciaga catwalk exclusive is considered by some to be the “holy grail” of runway bookings, turning on unknown face into one to watch (Irina Kulikova, Sasha Pivorovna and Lindsey Wixon)
Catwalk, a documentary covering life on the fashion runways, was filmed in 1993 by director Robert Ledcock and premiered in 1996. The film followed models Christy Turtington, Naomi Cambell, Yasmin Le Bon, Kate Moss and Corla Buni. As they jetted around London, Milan, Paris and New York during Spring Fashion Week, including behind-the-scenes footage. The film shot in black and white and color and featured many top designers at work, like a young John Galliano, Justin Thomas, Karl Lagerfeld and Gianni Versace for years before his death.
Haute couture (French word) means high sewing, high dressmaking, high fashion. Whereas Haute means elegant or high and Couture means dressmaking, sewing or needlework.
Everyday people wear some kind of clothes, not being aware of what sense do the clothes give. They can provide modesty, protection, uniform, function, adornment, for I.D., self-expression and so on.
What does the fashion term style mean?
A particular design, shape or type of apparel item
Determined by the distinct features that create it’s overall appearance
Various styles have been repeated in the history of clothing
Expressions of fashion terms:
Empire, Waist, A-line, Scoop, Capri, Princess, Yoke, Retal, Cuff, Flared, Straight, Off the shoulder, Peter Pan
The Fashion Movement
The ongoing change in what is considered fashionable. Everyone from the original designer to the final consumer benefits and encourages the movement of fashion.
e.g. Obsolescence Factor, Fashion Trend, Fashion Leaders, Fashion Followers, Fashion Lagers.
There are five basic principles defined by:
Consumer acceptance or rejection establishes fashion
Price does not determine fashion acceptance
Sales promotion does not determine fashion
Fashion Movement is evolutionary, not revolutionary
Fashion extremes cause reversals or abrupt changes
Bad economic condition, cultural customs, religion, government regulations, disruptive world events, mass media, increased competition, technological advances, social and physical mobility, more leisure time, higher levels of education, changing roles of woman, seasonal changes.
It should be mentioned that the origin of fashion terms is important one while learning them. As etymology provides with full information this or that term.
In English, there are thousands of French words, especially in the field of culture, art, fashion - some studies say that as much as 40% of English comes from French sources – although English is really part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Besides, there is Norman domination in areas such as government, law, the church and the arts contributed expressions like: Costume, art, color, music, poems.
During the 19th century the flow of French words into English was steady, with imports such as: chef, menu, cliché, restaurant, blasé, etc. These were, in fact, outweighed by the number of English words entering the French language due to Britain’s increasing dominance in industry, textile, sports and fashion.
As long as France has a dominant role in fashion industry, most of clothing – related words are rooted in French. Of course, there are such words that had an influence the English and Latin languages and became available in everyday spoken language.
Following, the analysis of origin of some fashion terms:
The word corset is derived from the Old French word corps and the diminutive of body, which itself derives from corpus – Latin for body
The word pocket in Middle English as pocket, and is taken from Norman diminutive of Old French poke, pouque, modern poche
The suit derives from the French suite, meaning “following”, from some Late Latin verb siquor – I follow because the component garments (jacket, trousers and waistcoat) follow each other and have the same cloth and color
Chiffon (fabric) from the French word for a cloth or rag, is made from cotton, silk or synthetic fibers
The word jacket comes from the French word jaquette. Speakers of American English sometimes informally use the words jacket and coat interchangeably12. The term comes from the Middle French noun jaquet, which refers to a small or lightweight tunic
Besides, there are some words with English origin:
The word coat is one of the earliest clothing category words in English. As it is a long garment worn by both men and woman.
A poncho, punchu in Quechua (Mapudungun pontro, blanket, woolen fabric) is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm or, if made from a watertight material, to keep dry during rain. Ponchos have been used by the Native American peoples of the Andes since pre-Hispanic times and are now considered typical South American garments13
Also, the word stroller (black jacket) which is worn with striped trousers in British English and tuxedo in American English
A few words about smoking jacket, it is an over garment designed to be worn while smoking tobacco, usually in the form of pipes and cigars, or for domestic leisure. One of the earliest mentions of this garment comes from Samuel Pepys. In French, Dutch, Italian, Portuguese, German, Spanish, Polish, Russian and also other European languages the term smoking indicates tuxedo
Gown (from medieval Latin gunna) was a basic clothing term for hundreds of years, referring to a garment that hangs from the shoulders. In medieval and renaissance England gown referred to a loose outer garment worn by both men and woman, sometimes short, more often ankle length, with sleeves
By the 18the century, gown had become a standard category term for a woman’s dress, a meaning it retained until the middle 20th century. Only in the last few decades gown lost this general meaning in favor of dress. Today the term gown is rare, except in specialized cases: academic dress or cap and gown, evening gown, nightgown, hospital gown and so on
Shirt/skirt are originally the same word, the former being the southern and the latter the northern pronunciation in early Middle English. Like gown, shirt is becoming a specialized term in Britain though it retains its general meaning in America
Coat remains a term for an over garment, its essential meaning for the last thousand years.
2.2. Development of fashion industry terminology
Today, fashion is far more widespread than ever before. Clothing is mass quantities, and people learn about it through new means of rapid communication. More people can now afford new clothing. The clothes of today reflect industrial and social progress, as well as economic conditions.
Fashion has become an important industry and its powerful influence extends to the people who design, manufacture, and buy clothing.
Throughout history, most fashions were a symbol of belonging to a privileged social group. By imitating the dress of this privileged group, a person attempts to disassociate himself from his own social class, and identify himself with a higher social class.
Today’s trend is toward simplification of clothing for both men and women. This simplification tends to wipe at the class destination that characterized fashion in ancient and medieval times.
Most people feel that fashion of earlier periods changed less frequently than styles do today. A style generally goes through a series of “compromise” stages in the period between the rejection of an old fashion and the acceptance of a radically different one. An example of a compromise style of dress that has remained popular over a long period of time is the classical skirt waist dress.
Some people interpret fashion change as desire for personal expression or merely a desire for change. But others interpret this change as a symbol of freedom from conformity. To be “in style” implies conformity, but with individual variation in detail. The desire to conform is generally stronger than the desire to be obviously different.
Although fashion usually refers to dress, it does not mean the same thing as clothing. People have worn clothing since at least 20,000BC; but people have only been concerned with fashion since the late Middle Ages. Before then, people wore clothes that reflected the long-standing customs of their communication, and clothing styles changed extremely slowly. Fashion, however. Causes styles to change rapidly for a variety of historical, psychological, and sociological reasons. A clothing style may be introduced as a fashion, but the style becomes a custom if it is handed down from generation. A fashion that quickly comes and goes is called a fad.
Before analyzing the role of a modern fashion, it is worth to state some words about the origins of it. As all the things in the world experiences the development through many stages.
True fashions began to appear in northern Europe and Italy when a system of social classes developed in the late Middle Ages. At this time, the people of Europe began to classify one another into groups based on such factors as wealth, ancestry, and occupation. The clothes people wore helped to identify them as members of a particular social class. Before the Middle Ages, only wealthy and powerful individuals concerned themselves with the style of their clothes. But when the class system developed, the general population began to compete for positions within society. Fashion was one means by which people competed with one another.
One of the first true fashions appeared among young Italian men during the Renaissance. While their elders dressed in long traditional robes, young Italian males began wearing tights and shorts, close-fitting jackets called doublets. German soldiers set another early fashion when they slashed their luxurious silk clothes with knives to reveal another colorful garment underneath.
Before 1800’s, many countries controlled fashion with regulations called sumptuary laws. Sumptuary laws controlled the amount of money people could spend only private luxuries. Many such laws were designed to preserve divisions among the classes and regulated fashion according to a person’s rank in society. In some countries, only the ruling class could legally wear silk, fur, and the colors red and purple. In Paris in the 1300’s, middle-class women were forbidden by law to wear high headdresses, wide sleeves, and fur trimmings.
Other sumptuary laws forced people to buy products manufactured in their own country to help the country’s economy. For example, an English law in the 1700’s prohibited people of all classes from wearing cotton cloth produced outside of England. But the lure of fashion causes many people to break this law. The cloth was so popular that people risked arrest to wear it.
Nowadays, girls and sometimes even boys follow fashion, wearing trendy clothes in order to look fashionable. But do the people know exactly the reason of it. Of course, people know that other people address looking at one’s clothing.
So, people follow fashion for many reasons. Often, people imitate the style of a person or group with whom they identify. In the past, most fashions originated in the upper classes and trickled down to the lower ones. Ordinary people sometimes hoped to raise their social position by following the fashions of privileged people. In a way, this still happens. But today, such celebrities as singers and athletes, rather than aristocrats, set fashion.
Fashion involves more than simply imitating another person’s style. It is a form of nonverbal communication that provides a way for people to express their identities and values.
Another reason people follow fashion is to make themselves more attractive. When the standard of beauty changes, fashion changes with it.
Fashions considered appropriate for men and women have changed as standards of masculinity and femininity have changed. Until the late 1700’s, upper-class European men dressed as elaborately as women. It was acceptable for men to wear bright-colored or pastel suits trimmed with gold and lace, hats decorated with feathers, high-heeled shoes, and fancy jewelry. But by the mid 1800’s, men had abandoned color and decoration in favor of plain, dark-colored wool suits. People considered this new fashion democratic, businesslike, and masculine. Until the early 1900’s, European and American women rarely wore trousers, and their skirts almost always covered their ankles. By the 1925’s, however, standards of feminine modesty had changed to the point that women began to wear both trousers and shorter skirts.
A clothing style may become fashionable over time with many different groups. For example, people began sold tough cotton work pants to gold miners in California. At that time, jeans functioned as ordinary work clothes. In the 1940’s and 1950’s, American teen-agers adopted blue jeans as a symbol of rebellious political and social beliefs. By the 1970’s, people no longer considered jeans rebellious, and expensive designer jeans had become widely fashionable.
Contrary to popular belief, political events seldom cause fashions to change. However, political events do sometimes speed up changes that have already begun. For example, during the French Revolution, simple clothing replaced the extravagant costumes made fashionable by French aristocrats. But simple styles had become popular years earlier when men in England started wearing practical, dark suits instead of elegant, colorful clothes. English people identified these plain suits with political and personal liberty. Because many French people admired English liberty, this style was already becoming fashionable in France before the revolution.
Occasionally, foreign wars or voyages of exploration have introduced people to new styles of clothing. For example, European soldiers brought back rich silks and other fabrics from the Crusades, military expeditions to the Middle East during the 1100’s and 1200’s.
The Industrial Revolution that occurred during the 1700’s and 1800’s caused rapid changes in the development of fashion. The invention of mechanical looms, chemical dyes, artificial fabrics, and methods of mass production made fashions affordable to many more people. In addition, new means of mass communication spread European and American fashions throughout the rest of the world. The Industrial Revolution caused people throughout the world to dress more and more alike.
Here, we should state that there was an event called Aesthetic Movement which began towards the end of 19th century. The Aesthetic Movement was a fashion rebellion against restrictive and unhealthy garments such as corsets and petticoats. Aesthetics dresses in styles that geared towards comfort and practicality, and were considered scandalous to mainstream society.
Since the 1800’s, the fashion industry has operated on two levels: couture and ready-to-wear. Couture refers to expensive, one-of-a-kind clothes created for rich costumers by high-fashion designers called couturiers. Before couturiers design new fashions, they try to guess which styles will be popular in the future. Couture design that prove successful are later copied by manufacturers of ready-to-wear. Ready-to-wear clothing is produced in large quantities and sold for lower prices.
The clothing industry is a giant business in many countries. Clothes and clothing materials are important items of trade between nations. Shoppers in many lands buy Italian knitwear and shoes, Australian wool, and Japanese silk. Stores throughout the world sell clothes designed in London, Paris and Milan. As a result, many people in different countries – especially people who live in cities – wear similar clothes. But there are still differences in dress among most regions of the world.
People in various regions dress differently for many reasons. They may need protection from different kinds of weather. They may have different materials and methods for making clothes, or they may have different habits of dress.
Most people, no matter where they live, wear some kind of clothing. Any person may wear certain clothing for a variety of individual reasons.
People wear clothes for three main reasons:
1) protection 2) communication 3) decoration
Most clothing serves all three purposes.14
Clothing helps protect people’s physical and emotional health.
Speaking about physical protection, people wear warm garments made of wool, fur or woven fabrics. They also wear warm shoes or boots. They might be against several kinds of weather.
According to emotional protection, most people need to feel they are accepted as members of society or of some special group. Many persons who want to feel they are independent individuals – different in at least some small way from everyone else.
As about communication, people communicate by means of the clothes they wear. Their clothes may tell others who they are, what they are like, how they feel, and what they would like to be.
Through decoration, most people want to wear clothing that makes them feel attractive – by wearing the latest fashion.
As we advance in fashion we have to appreciate the fact that what we wear today is excessively inspired by what we wore in the past.
In the 1990's to 2000, there has been no strict fashion that has been followed. However there have been very beautiful clothes for these years.
Rappers have been wearing brown baggy jeans. Men return to the later official look that was the suit only that this time it is the three piece suit. An elegant platinum gown made of satin was worn during dinner; women also wore these dresses that were designated specifically for these occasions. There is also the beach wear that has over the years changed, from unrevealing wear to the semi-nude.
In the late 20th century jeans could be worn with jeans and still count as a fashionable dress code. However much we have shifted from the former modes of dressing, and then we haven't let them go, instead we are in a way getting back to them, fusing them with the latest trends.
As we are looking upon the history of clothing it is worth noting some terms as well. The terms that were out of use coming to 21st century. As every period is defined with some particular clothing terms. For example, term bliant relates to 12th and 13th centuries. It is medieval garment worn by both sex. It could be of varying length for a man, but was floor length for a woman. It was a long flowing tunic with full sleeves, often adorned with black work embroidery or contrasting fabrics at the neckline and hems.
Period Renaissance has also most in common with clothing styles. As the Renaissance era is loosely defined as the late 15th century through the end of the 16th century, in fashion. It is often characterized by Elizabethan clothing styles, including the elongated and narrow – waisted gowns elaborately jeweled, pearled and slashed.
There is a term attifet that reflects ladies hat of a late 16th century. It came to a point just above the forehead and had a veil at the back.
The term baroque, relating to 1600 and mid 1700s, defined as a period of decadence and splendor as demonstrated by the amazingly elaborate gowns of Marie Antoinette and Mozart. Stunning brocades, yards and yards of lace and the wearing tall white wigs were standard for the upper classes.
The term drawers mean women’s undergarment relatively similar to modern day men’s boxer shorts. Drawers would tie at the waistline and were loose fitting. The entire crotch seam was left unsewn for convenience.
Sacque Dress is a term of 1750s, introduced by the French. It is a saque gown was an overdress constructed with box pleating at the shoulder blades, from which the gown would usually fall to a train. The saque gown was worn over a regular bodice and petticoat combination.
The Panniers were the hoop skirts of the 18th century. Also known as “hip improvers”, they were flat in front and back, and gave extremely wide hips to the wearer. They were often open in front and were no longer than knee length.
Women’s clothing choices are often influenced by their hobbies and interests. For centuries, clothing and fashion has been one of the most defining aspects of culture, society and time. While things like race, religion and socioeconomic status continue to impact style by a reflection of personality and identity. With the television and internet giving access to global trends and fashions, women in the 21th century are not immediate communities.
Consumers increasingly choose clothes that are multifunctional and socially responsible.
Fashion trends of the 21st century are less about creating new styles than recycling trends form past eras. At the same time, today’s clothing reflects consumer’s desire for clothes that is not stylish but highly functional.
Clothes can be worn according to different reasons, such as position of the work, depending on the nature of women’s work, her typical attire can be anything from a bathing suit to a business suit. Most office work environment demand professional clothing, usually consisting of a skirt or dress pants combined with a top, such a dress shirt or polo. Informal dresses of appropriate length are also acceptable. Informal or casual work environments often allow female employees to wear jeans and shorts to work. Person’s age is also important, as age also serves as an influencing factor in women’s clothing choices. While younger women often wear shorter, more prevailing clothing, garments for older women are frequently more conservative in their style and cut.
Surely religion would also be an influencing factor, many groups among Christians, Jews and Muslims prescribe a modest wardrobe that does not permit women to wear tight or prevailing clothing. The more traditional of these will sometimes require women to wear skirts, headscarves or other religiously significant clothing items.
Here, culture plays also a significant role in clothing, as people became more tolerant and aware of various backgrounds through their clothing. For example, women from India might sometimes wear highly ornate saris to pay beautifully embroidered kaftan dresses representative of their heritage.
And speaking about leisure time, the clothing worn by women on her time off may greatly differ from the clothing she wear to work. As they are made to be functional, comfortable and flattering to the body.
Speaking about fashion tendencies in the 21st century, there was no any clear direction but borrowed from past decades like the 80s and 90s, valued comfort and took inspiration from music and celebrities. Accessories such as cocktail rings became sought after fashion items. Celebrities led the way by pairing big and flashy rings with embroidery casual clothes.
Fashion shows are often the source of the latest style and trends in clothing fashions.
Coming to a new age, styles have changed. In the latter half of the 20th century, blue jeans became very popular, and are now worn to events that normally demand formal attire.
By the early years of the 21sy century, western clothing style had, to some extent, become international styles. Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less expensive, mass-produced. Western clothing used clothing from Western countries are also delivered to people in poor countries by charity organizations.
Nowadays, people may wear national dress only on special occasions. For example, most Korean men have adopted Western style dress for daily wear, but still wear traditional hanboks on special occasions like weddings and cultural holidays. There exists a diverse range of styles in fashion, varying by geography, exposure to modern media, economic conditions, and ranging from expensive haute couture to traditional grab to thriftstore grunge.
The world of clothing is always changing as new cultural influences meet technological innovations. Researchers in scientific labs have been developing prototypes for fabrics that can serve functional purposes well beyond their traditional roles, for example, clothes that can automatically adjust their temperature, repel bullets, project images, and generate electricity. Some practical advances already available to consumers are bullet-resistant garments made with keylar and stain-resistant fabrics that are coated with chemical mixtures that reduce the absorption of liquids.
If we concentrate on activewear, most sports and physical activities own their special clothing for practical, comfort or safety reasons.
Common sportswear garments include shorts, T-shirts, tennis shirts, leotards, tracksuits and trainers. Specialized garments include wet suits (for swimming, diving or surfing) salopettes (for skiing) and leotards (for gymnastics). Also, spandex materials are often used as loose layers o soak up sweat. Spandex is also preferable for active sports that require form fitting garments, such as wrestling, track and field, dance, gymnastics and swimming.
As we analyzed the fact of how the terms were different in various periods, there is a difference in designers too. As every period fashion is characterized by its leading designers.
There are the names we wear our sleeves. We wear them all over body as a matter of fact, form skirts and trousers to underwear and jackets. Even our bags, perfume and jewelries are adorned with brands. Their names slip right off our tongues as if they are integral parts of our family who we have known for a long time.
If we concentrate on 19th and 20th century most influential fashion designers, such names are noted like Charles Frederick Worth, Paul Poiret, Mariano Fortuny, Madeleine Vionnet, Coco Chanel, Christian Dior, Cristobal Balenciaga, Yves St Laurent, Ralph Lauren, Isse Miyaki.
As about 21st century, the names like Emporio Armani, Christian Dior, Gucci, Versace, Chanel, Victora’s Secret, Calvin Klein, Prada, Dolce & Gobbana, Hugo Boss should be stated.
From a beneficial point of view of fashion, there is an event of supporting people in need.
New York – Fashion for Development, a global platform that works to advance the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), moves fashion industry to support women and youth.
In fact, it is a is a global awareness campaign that unites diplomacy, media, business and the creative industries for the purpose of helping to achieve the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
In full support of the United Nations, Fashion for Development seeks to harness the power of the fashion and beauty industries to implement creative strategies for sustainable economic growth and autonomy for individuals and communities worldwide.
The project sets the goal of bringing together the fashion community with governments, civil society, media, and international organizations with the aim to harness the power and economic opportunities of the fashion industry to lift from poverty the most vulnerable, particularly women and youth. By scouting and supporting local crafts, talents and manufacturers in the developing world, and brokering market access and opportunities in rich countries, Fashion for Development aims to use the fashion industry to create sustainable development initiatives, particularly target to women and youth. Recognizing the links between women’s empowerment and women’s and children’s health, Fashion for Development announced in particular their commitment to act as a catalyst for urgent action against preventable death and disease among the world's most vulnerable people. To that end, Fashion for Development joins the Every Woman Every Child movement, an unprecedented global effort spearheaded by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to mobilize and intensify global action to improve the health of women and children around the world. By mobilizing the fashion industry sensitizing as well as actively supporting the implementation of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, the framework for action for Every Woman Every Child, Fashion for Development joins governments, multilateral organizations, the private sector and civil society, in a global effort to save the lives of 16 million women and children by 2015.
As we know that fashion marks its trends for every season. So, the trends for spring and summer we could expect some pieces of clothing that is more light and floral, taking the climatic changes into consideration. Designers try to keep the freshness in peoples’ clothes, accessories and even in shoes, making them more colorful.
Here, we have to put some few words about fashion forecasting. As it is a global career that focuses on upcoming trends. A fashion forecaster predicts the colors, fabrics and styles that will be presented on the runway and in the stores for the upcoming seasons. The concept applies to not one, but all levels of the fashion industry including haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market, and street wear. Trend forecasting is an overall process that focuses on other industries such as automobiles, medicine, food and beverages, literature, and home furnishings. Fashion forecasters are responsible for attracting consumers and helping retail businesses and designers sell their brands. While talking about fashion forecasting, we have to state that there are two types of it. They can be long-term and short-term forecasting.
Long-term forecasting Long-term forecasting is the process of analyzing and evaluating trends that can be identified by scanning a variety of sources for information. When scanning the market and the consumers, fashion forecasters must follow demographics of certain areas, both urban and suburban, as well as examine the impact on retail and its consumers due to the economy, political system, environment, and culture. Long-term forecasting seeks to identify: major changes in international and domestic demographics, shifts in the fashion industry along with market structures, consumer expectations, values, and impulsion to buy, new developments in technology and science, and shifts in the economic, political, and cultural alliances between certain countries. There are many specialized marketing consultants that focus on long-term forecasting and attend trade shows and other events that notify the industry on what is to come. Any changes in demographics and psychographics that are to affect the consumers needs and which will influence a company's business and particular are determined.
So, the short-term forecasting focuses on current events both domestically and internationally as well as pop culture in order to identify possible trends that can be communicated to the customer through the seasonal color palette, fabric, and silhouette stories. It gives fashion a modern twist to a classic look that intrigues our eyes. Some important areas to follow when scanning the environment are: current events, art, sports, science and technology.
So, the fashion week is a fashion industry event that is important in setting the coming trends. Usually, it lasts approximately one week, which allows fashion designers, brands or "houses" to display their latest collections in runway shows and buyers and the media to take a look at the latest trends. Most importantly, these events let the industry know what's "in" and what's "out" for the season.
The most prominent fashion weeks are held in the four fashion capitals of the world: New York City, London, Milan, and Paris. Some other important fashion weeks in the world are held in Australia, Bangalore, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Copenhagen, Dubai, Jakarta, Los Angeles, Madrid, Tokyo and Toronto. Actually, fashion week happens twice a year in the major fashion capitals of the world which we have stated above. Fashion weeks are held several months in advance of the season to allow the press and buyers a chance to preview fashion designs for the following season. From January through April designers showcase their autumn and winter collections. Fashion week for spring and summer is held from September through November. This is also to allow time for retailers to arrange to purchase or incorporate the designers into their retail marketing. The latest innovations in dress designs are showcased by renowned fashion designers during these fashion weeks, and all these latest collections are covered in magazines such as Vogue.
As we have put some few words about the fashion week of where the clothes are shown, it is worth to note about how fashion designers carry out their jobs. They attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. They must consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn. They have a wide range and combinations of materials to work with and a wide range of colors, patterns and styles to choose from. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are usually sought for special occasions, such as evening wear or party dresses.
Some clothes are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring. Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual and every-day wear. Also, fashion designers can work in a number of many ways. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion as ‘in-house designers’ which owns the designs. They may work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients. Other high-fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-fashion department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men’s, women’s, and children’s fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a 'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are likely to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a designer director.