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On the rights of manuscript

Vazira RashidovnaYuldasheva
Peculiarities of Fashion Industry Terminology Translation
Specialty: 5А – 120201

Translation theory and practice

Dissertation paper for Master’s degree

The work has been discussed Scientific advisor:

And recommended for defense Doctor of philology

The head of Translatology Department assistant prof. D. E. Muratova

N.M. Khambarov

“____” _____________ 2013 y.

Tashkent – 2013



CHAPTER I. Fashion Industry Product of a Modern Age………………………...8

    1. General Background of the Fashion Industry……………………………………..8

    2. Fashion Development in Uzbekistan……………………………………………18

    3. Comparative Analysis of Fashion Terms through the Films of Different Periods…………………………………………………………………………...29


CHAPTER II. Terminology in Fashion Industry and its Translation………….. .39

2.1. Terminology in the World of Industry …………………………………….........39

2.2. Development of Fashion Industry Terminology………………………………..46

2.3. Translation Problems of Fashion Industry Terminology………………………..58


Final Conclusion……………………………………………………. …..70

The List of Literature Used………………………………………………………..73
ANNEX 1. English –Russian – Uzbek Glossary of Fashion Terms …………….78

ANNEX 2. English – Russian – Uzbek Explanation of Fashion Types………….85

Languages are different from each other, they are different in form having distinct codes and rules regulating the construction of grammatical structures of a language and these forms have different meanings. Language is a formal structure, a code which consists of elements and can combine to signal semantic “sense” and, at the same time, a communication system which uses the forms of the code to refer to entities (in the world of sense and in the world of mind) and create signals which possess communicative “value”.

Every nation has its language and it is a tool of communication within the people. Through the language, people could communicate and share the ideas in different spheres. As the mission of translator is to put an inter lingual communication. Through the communication, a country puts a good cooperation in different fields with other countries of the world.

As President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I.A. Karimov says “Independent Uzbekistan is traveling along the road chosen by the nation, along the road of open and free market relations, along the road of building a just society and a strong law-governed democratic state. The state we are building belongs to the world civilization and is based on the experiences of other advanced nations in building their statehood and in common social values.”1

Fundamental changes in the education system of Uzbekistan were started in 1992 by the law “On Education” and “National Program on Training Personnel”. National Program on Training Personnel is a long-term program to improve the education and development of continuing education in the country. “A reform sets out a new framework for the whole concept of personnel training which is entered on the idea of lifelong learning which means that education goes beyond the boundaries of educational establishments such as schools or universities”.2

There are deep economic and socio-political transformations currently taking place in Uzbekistan.

Circumstances had it that from the very outset Uzbekistan had to independently solve the most acute problems inherited by a hypertrophied and one sided economy with deformities in the utilization of natural and mineral resources, in the development and distribution of productive forces, price-formation and the population consumption structure; to independently identify mechanisms and forms of transforming administrative-planning into market economic relations; to look for optimal ways for integrating with the system of world economic ties and establishing inter-state economic relations.3

According to expanding contacts among the people of economic, political, cultural, scientific relations necessity of theoretical researchers put these themes in the problems row.

More and more scholars around the world are adding theoretical knowledge to translation. Translation has been developed in many parts of the world and is clearly destined to continue developing well into the 21st century. Translation studies bring together the work in a wide variety of fields, including linguistics, literary study, history, anthropology, psychology and economics. The developments are made in many fields of translation, especially in the translation of scientific and technical texts.

First of all, necessary to define what stands up for the concept “translation”. Speaking simply, translation is an expression of the thought stated in one language with grammatical and stylistic means of language.

Russian philologist L.K. Latishev suggests that translation is one of the linguistic intermediaries the point of which is to bring about bilingual communication to common, one language , and communication. According to this definition, it is an interpretation that excludes creative characteristics.

As long as our dissertation paper deals with the translation issues of fashion terms, some words about fashion should be stated.

Fashion is a general term for popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing or furniture. “Fashion” refers to a distinctive; however, often-habitual trend in a look and dress up of a person, as well as to prevailing styles in behavior. “Fashion” usually is the newest creation made by designers and are bought by only a few numbers of people; however, often those “fashions” are translated into more established trends.

Today Uzbekistan is emerging as a leading and internationally orient fashion destination. The country itself, the heart of the historical Silk Road, is a must-visit destination as it is a treasure trove of oriental beauty seen in its cities, rich history and traditions. A few words about the most high-profile cultural event in Central Asia that is Style.Uz Art Week, which is aimed at helping develop modern and traditional Uzbek fashion and art. Now in its seventh year, the project brings together a large number of guests from across the world in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan and a city where the past blends with the present. The major week-long event is held annually in October and presents both art and high fashion. The project annually offers a diverse art menu of traditional and contemporary art exhibitions, photo exhibitions, catwalk shows by Uzbek and international fashion designers, National Dress Festival, theatre plays, charity events, as well as concerts by world – famous pop stars, cocktail parties, master classes by celebrities and meetings with the youth.

Furthermore, it is a unique opportunity for young talented people with limited financial resources to strut their stuff by demonstrating their collections alongside world-famous fashion brands. At the same time, the event honors a number of young talents and masters engaged in restoring ancient fabric weaving techniques by providing them with grants. It is also an opportunity for the youth to attend catwalk shows by world-famous fashion labels, exhibition and concerts held as part of the Art Week free of charge. All told, around 2,000 young people benefit from the major event.

The project has drawn increasing internationally attention and is annually attended by around 100 internationally known people – fashion designers, artists, musicians, owners of jewelry and fashion labels, influential culture and art professionals, representatives of the media and show business stars from Austria, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, the USA, the UK and other countries.

Thus, our dissertation paper is dedicated to the study English, Russian and Uzbek terminology in fashion industry and their peculiarities.

Meanwhile, such researchers study object of applied nature, directly connected with translation and methods of mastering of the second language, the elaboration of which includes primary tasks modern linguistics face in the term of continuously developing international contacts. The above mentioned defines the topicality of this problem.

The aim of the given dissertation paper is to analyze all terms related to fashion by their lexica-semantic features corresponding to the English, Russian and Uzbek languages.

The tasks of the research are as followings:

  1. to give general background of fashion industry

  2. to analyze the terminology in the World of Industry

  3. find out all fashion terms

  4. to put them in a system by analyzing them

  5. to give their correspondences in Russian and Uzbek languages.

The object of the dissertation paper contains the terminology in fashion industry, and it is dedicated to the study of the problems of fashion terminology in its system.

The subject of the research is the terms related to fashion industry and to analyze linguistic materials which bear clothing feature according to the theory and practice of translation.

Research methods. The main research method is comparative typological method, the main point of which is in the description of language on the basis of typological categories, and based on the samples of component analysis method of modeling.

Scientific novelty is determined by the necessity of detailed and comprehensive analysis of the term is related to the fashion industry, which have never been studied before, analyzing the fashion terms and giving their equivalents in Russian and Uzbek.

The theoretical value of the dissertation paper is described by making a certain contribution to the resolution of the question of translation of fashion terms in different languages as well as the development of common topics of terminology in theory of translation.

The practical value of this work is in the fact that methods and results of research may be used in studying process when elaborating lecture courses and when conducting practical classes on lexicology, translation, comparative typology, as well as they may be considered in lexicographic practice when composing dictionaries.
Material of the research. Scientific books, textbooks, dissertations, thesaurus and two-language dictionaries, encyclopedias, lexicographic manuals as well as web sites from the global internet are considered as the material of this dissertation paper.

Structure of the dissertation paper. There are two chapters in our dissertation paper, each of them consisting three paragraphs. And conclusions of each chapter, final conclusion and list of used literature. At the end, the same work provides with the glossary of fashion terms and explanation of fashion terms in English, Russian and Uzbek languages.

Actually, the first chapter deals with the theoretical issues whereas general information about fashion industry and its role in Uzbekistan. So, the second chapter is stresses on the development of fashion industry in 21st century and translation analysis of the fashion Industry Terminology.


1.1. General background of the Fashion Industry
It is not that easy to answer the question, "what is fashion?" because it means different things to different people. Fashion is an art. It is a religion. It is a job. It is a peek into a personality. It is playfulness. It is an escape or a disguise. It is a feast for the eyes. But ultimately, fashion is an individual statement of expression for each of us.

"Fashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening."4
It is true. Fashion is not defined solely by our clothing choices, but is also conveyed through the way we carry ourselves, our personalities and our views of the world. At its most fundamental, fashion is simply the prevailing style or custom, as in dress or behavior.

Fashion is a general term for a popular style or practice, especially in clothing, footwear, accessories, makeup, body piercing or furniture. This term is commonly used to describe a style of clothing worn by most of a country. Its characteristic feature in that fashion may remain popular for about 1-3 years and then is replaced by another fashion. Thus, the concept of fashion implies a process of style change, because fashions in dress, as well as in furniture and other objects, have taken very different forms at different times in history. So, when English playwright William Shakespeare observed in the 16th century that “the fashion wears out more apparel than the man,”5 he meant that clothing becomes unfashionable long before it has worn out. Back in Shakespeare’s day, only upper-class people dressed fashionably; the mass of the rural peasantry wore simple clothing that hardly changed over many generations. Since the beginning of the 20th century, however, fashions have changed rapidly. And most people – at least in the West – follow fashion to some extent, because fashion refers to much more than the haute couture, the exclusive and expensive clothing produced by leading designers. Nevertheless, we do tend to distinguish, however imprecisely, between basic clothing, such as blue jeans, parkas, and T-shirts, and the latest trendy fashions created by fashion designers.

"Fashion" usually is the newest creations made by designers and are bought by only a few number of people; however, often those "fashions" are translated into more established trends. The more technical term, "costume," has become so linked in the public eye with the term "fashion" that the more general term "costume" has in popular use mostly been relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear, while the term "fashion" means clothing generally, and the study of it.

Since the 1800’s, the fashion industry has operated on two levels: couture and ready-to-wear. Couture refers to expensive, one-of-a-kind clothes created for rich costumers by high fashion designers called couturiers. Before couturiers design new fashions, they try to guess which styles will be popular in the future. Couture designs that prove successful are later copied by manufacturers to ready-to-wear. Ready-to-wear clothing is produced in large quantities and sold for lower prices.6

Fashion reflects the society of which it is part. It has been influenced by wars, conquests, laws, religion, and the arts. Individual personalities have also had an impact on fashion. Royalty and heads of state have set fashion, and in the 20th century media stars have emerged as leaders of fashion. French writer Anatole France said that if he could come back to Earth 100 years after his death and have only thing to read, he would choose a fashion magazine because that would show him the way people lived.

In our research, it is worth to have a more concentrated look at the fashion industry, its development in the course of years or even centuries.

It is considered to be one of the multibillion-dollar global enterprise devoted to the business of making and selling clothes. Surely there might be some distinguishing features between the fashion industry (which makes “high fashion”) and the apparel industry (which makes ordinary clothes or “mass fashion”), but by the 1970s the boundaries between them had blurred. In general, fashion is best defined simply as the style or styles of clothing and accessories worn at any given time by groups of people. Expensive designer fashions shown on the runways of Paris or New York differentiate from the mass-produced sportswear and street styles sold in malls and markets around the world. However, the fashion industry includes actions of design, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, retailing, advertising, and promotion of all types of apparel (men’s, women’s, and children’s) from the most rarefied and expensive haute couture (literally, “high sewing”) and designer fashions to ordinary everyday clothing from couture ball gowns to Juicy Couture-brand sweatpants. Despite, the broader term “fashion industries” may also refer to a large amount of industries and services that employ millions of people internationally.

Obviously, fashion industry serves to unite all the nations of the world with the same interest. Also, the fashion industry was on a worldwide scale not only in our modern age, but more earlier.

If we look into history, prior to the mid-19th century, virtually all clothing was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors. By the beginning of the 20th century—with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores—clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices. Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, today it is an international and highly globalize industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold in a third. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally.

The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States, and it remains so in the 21st century. However, employment declined considerably as production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China. Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry’s many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain. However, by any measure, the industry inarguably accounts for a significant share of world economic output. Due to many kind of innovations, fashion industry became so globalize in our modern age.

Before looking upon the production of fashion industry, it is worth noting to put a few words about the levels of fashion industry.

In fact, the fashion industry consists of four main levels: the production of raw materials, principally fibers and textiles but also leather and fur; the production of fashion goods by designers, manufacturers, contractors, and others; retail sales; and various forms of advertising and promotion. Though these levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors, all of them are devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit.

So, the production process in fashion industry has its peculiarities and some changes, coming to the century of high technology.

In general, most fashions are made from textiles. The partial automation of the spinning and weaving of wool, cotton, and other natural fibers was considered as a leading accomplishments of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Coming to the 21st century those processes are changed and became highly automated and carried out by computer-controlled high-speed machinery. In a large sector of the textile industry, the production of both natural fibers (such as wool, cotton, silk, and linen) and synthetic fibers (such as nylon, acrylic, and polyester) are used in apparel. Actually, fabrics are produced with a wide range of effects through dyeing, weaving, printing, and other manufacturing and finishing processes. Together with fashion forecasters, textile manufacturers work well in advance of the apparel production cycle to create fabrics with colors, textures, and other qualities that anticipate consumer demand.

As we know, fashion designers have a leading role in setting some kind of new trends for every season. Rather than prior time, there are many of them in our present time.

Historically, very few fashion designers have become famous “name” designers, such as Coco Chanel or Calvin Klein, who create prestigious high-fashion collections, whether couture or prêt-á-porter (“ready-to-wear”). These designers were influential in setting trends in fashion, but, contrary to popular belief, they did not dictate new styles, instead, they endeavored to design clothes that would meet consumer demand. Nowadays, designers draw inspiration from a wide range of sources, including film and television costumes, street styles, and active sportswear. With the help of innovations of the modern age, traditional design methods, such as doing sketches on paper and draping fabric on mannequins, have been supplemented or replaced by computer-assisted design techniques. As they allow designers to rapidly make changes to a proposed design’s silhouette, fabric, trimmings, and other elements and afford them the ability to instantaneously share the proposed changes with colleagues whether in the next room or on another continent.

Traditionally, pattern making was a highly skilled profession. As the translation of the clothing design into a pattern in a range of sizes plays a significant role in garment production. Because the proportions of the human body change with increases or decreases in weight, patterns cannot simply be scaled up or down uniformly from a basic template. Though there were innovations in computer programming, in the early 21st century, designs in larger sizes are difficult to adapt for every figure. Whatever the size, the pattern whether drawn on paper or programmed as a set of computer instructions determines how fabric is cut into the pieces that will be joined to make a garment. For all but the most expensive clothing, fabric cutting is accomplished by computer-guided knives or high-intensity lasers that can cut many layers of fabric at once.

The process of getting the clothes from manufacturer to the customer is important one.

As long as this or that clothe has made, it is time for fashion designers to demonstrate it with the help of catwalk models.

Fashion designers and manufacturers promote their clothes not only to retailers (such as fashion buyers) but also to the media (fashion journalists) and directly to customers. Already in the late 19th century, Paris couture houses began to offer their clients private viewings of the latest fashions. By the early 20th century, not only couture houses but also department stores regularly put on fashion shows with professional models. In imitation of Parisian couturiers, ready-to-wear designers in other countries also began mounting fashion shows for an audience that combined private clients, journalists, and buyers. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, fashion shows became more elaborate and theatrical, were held in larger venues with specially constructed elevated runways (“catwalks”) for the models, and played an increasingly prominent role in the presentation of new fashions.

By the early 21st century, fashion shows were a regular part of the fashion calendar. The couture shows, held twice a year in Paris (in January and July) by the official syndicate of couture designers (comprising the most exclusive and expensive fashion houses), present outfits that might be ordered by potential clients but which often are intended more to showcase the designers’ ideas about fashion trends and brand image.

In general, ready-to-wear fashion shows, separately presenting both women’s and men’s wear, are held during spring and fall “Fashion Weeks,” of which the most important take place in Paris, Milan, New York, and London. Extensively covered in the media, fashion shows both reflect and advance the direction of fashion change.

Photographs and videos of fashion shows are instantaneously transmitted to mass-market producers who produce inexpensive clothing copied from or inspired by the runway designs.

One of the influential way of introducing one’s product to the consumers is to address the media.

Media of all kinds are essential to the marketing of fashion. The first dedicated fashion magazines appeared in England and France in the late 18th century. In the 19th century, fashion magazines such as the French La Mode Illustrée, the British Lady’s Realm, and the American Godey’s Lady’s Book proliferated and flourished. The development of effective and inexpensive methods of reproducing photographs in print media in the early 20th century led to the rise of fashion photography and of heavily illustrated fashion magazines such as Vogue. Magazine advertising rapidly became a principal marketing tool for the fashion industry.

Every people has his own style of clothing. However, there is a style that became traditional for the people of the world.

Fashion fades, only style remains the same.”7

Most people in the world today wear what can be described as “world fashion,” a simplified and very low-cost version of Western clothing, often a T-shirt with pants or a skirt, manufactured on a mass scale. However, there are also numerous smaller and specialized fashion industries in various parts of the world that cater to specific national, regional, ethnic, or religious markets. Examples include the design, production, and marketing of saris in India and of boubous in Senegal. These industries operate in parallel with the global fashion industry on a minor and localized scale.

One significant development in the field of ethno-religious dress was widespread adoption of the hijab (religiously appropriate attire) among Muslim women not only in the Middle East but throughout the Islamic world in the early 21st century. With millions of Muslim women living in numerous countries worldwide, veiling norms and styles are myriad. Muslim and non-Muslim designers produced a widening selection of appropriate and stylish looks, and numerous fashion blocs and magazines targeting Muslim women became available.

Some designers and manufacturers confronted not only the aesthetics of modest attire but also the practical challenges associated with conservative dress, as seen in efforts to produce modest yet effective swimwear and sportswear for Muslim female athletes.

When hearing the word fashion, one could get a meaning as a style of clothing. On the one hand, it is not a wrong concept. On the other hand, the word involves all the processes where there is a beauty. All of them are joined under a whole system that is “fashion system”.

“Fashion system” is a concept that embraces not only the business of fashion but also the art and craft of fashion, and not only production but also consumption. It embraces all the factors that are involved in the entire process of fashion change. Some of them are intrinsic to fashion, which involves variation for the sake of novelty (e.g., when hemlines have been low for a while, they will rise). Other ones are external (e.g., major historical events such as wars, revolutions, economic booms or busts, and the feminist movement). Individual trendsetters (e.g., Madonna and late Diana, princess of Wales) also play a role, as do changes in lifestyle (e.g., new sports such as skateboarding) and music (e.g., rock and roll, hip-hop). Fashion is a complex social phenomenon, involving sometimes conflicting motives, such as creating an individual identity and being part of a group, emulating fashion leaders and rebelling against conformity. The fashion industry thrives by being diverse and flexible enough to gratify any consumer’s desire to embrace or even to reject fashion ability, however that term might be defined.

We speak of fashions in automobiles, furniture, or interior decoration, as well as in music, literature, and art. However, as we mentioned above, fashion refers to style of clothing that is worn at a given time but is expected to change. For example, women’s fashion changed frequently during the 1800s. At various times, women wore high-waisted dresses, enormous puff-sleeves, big hoop skirts, and bustles (cushions that padded the seat of a skirt).

Although fashion usually refers to dress, it does not mean the same thing as clothing. People have worn clothing since at least 20,000B.C., but people have only been concerned with fashion since the late Middle Ages. Before then, people wore clothes that reflected the long-standing customs of their communications, and clothing styles changed extremely slowly. Fashion, however, causes to change rapidly for a variety of historical, psychological, and sociological reasons. A clothing style may be introduced as a fashion, but the style becomes a custom if it is handed down from generation to generation. A fashion that quickly comes and goes is called a fad.8

Turning back to history, we should state that true fashions began to appear in northern Europe and Italy when a system of social classes developed in the late Middle Ages. At this time, the people of Europe began to classify one another into groups based in such factors as wealth, ancestry, and occupation. The clothes people wore helped to identify them as members of a particular social class, before the late Middle Ages, only wealthy and powerful individuals concerned themselves with the style of their clothes. But when the class system developed, the general population began to compete for positions within society. Fashion was one means by which people competed with one another.

Before the 1800’s, many countries controlled fashion with regulations called sumptuary laws. Sumptuary laws controlled the amount of money people could spend on private luxuries. Many such laws were designed to preserve divisions among the classes regulated fashion according to person’s rank in society. In some countries, only the ruling class could legally wear silk, fur, and the colors red and purple. In Paris in the 1300’s, middle-class women were forbidden by law to wear high headdresses, wide sleeves, and fur trimmings.

Other sumptuary laws forced people to buy products manufactured in their own country to help the country’s economy. For example, an English law in the 1700’s prohibited people of all classes from wearing cotton cloth produced outside of England. But the lure of fashion caused many people to break this law. The cloth was so popular that people risked arrest to wear.

It is interesting to know of why people follow fashion. They can do it for many reasons. Often, people imitate the style of a person or group with whom they identify.

It is form of nonverbal communication that provides a way for people to express their identities and values.

Historically, many people rejected adult values by rejecting mature styles of clothing. Large numbers of young people adopted an international youth style that included miniskirts and mod jackets. These fashions probably appealed to young people because, at first, many adults disapproved of them. Eventually, adults began copying them.

Another reason people follow fashion is to make themselves more attractive. When thе standard of beauty changes, fashion changes with it. For example, when physical fitness became a popular standard of good looks in the 1980’s, people began to wear exercise and athletic clothing more often.

Fashions considered appropriate for men and women have changed as standards of masculinity and femininity have changed. Until the late 1700s, upper-class European men dressed as elaborately as women. It was acceptable for men to wear bright-colored or pastel suits trimmed with gold and lace, hats decorated with feathers, high-heeled shoes, and fancy jewelry. By the mid-1800s, men had abandoned color and decoration in favor of plain, dark-colored wool suits. People considered this new fashion democratic, businesslike, and masculine. Until the early1900’s, European and American women rarely wore trousers, and their skirts almost always covered their ankles. By the 1920’s, however, standards of feminine modesty had changed to the point that women began to wear both trousers and shorter skirts.

A clothing style may become fashionable over time with many different groups. For example, people began wearing blue jeans in the 1850s when Levi Strauss & Co. sold tough cotton work pants to gold miners in California. At that time, jeans functioned as ordinary work clothes. In the 1940s and 1950s, American teen-agers adopted blue jeans as a comfortable, casual youth fashion. Young people during the 1960s wore blue jeans as a symbol of rebellious political and social beliefs. By the 1970s, people no longer considered jeans rebellious, and expensive designer jeans had become widely fashionable.

Contrary to popular belief, political events seldom cause fashions to change, However, political events do sometimes speed up changes that have already begun. For example, during the French Revolution, simple clothing replaced the extravagant costumes made fashionable by French aristocrats. But simple styles had become popular years earlier when men in England started wearing practical, dark suits instead of elegant, colorful clothes. English people identified these plain suits with political and personal liberty. Because many French people admired English liberty, this style was already becoming fashionable in France before the revolution.

Occasionally, foreign wars or voyages of exploration have introduced people to new styles of clothing. For example, European soldiers brought back rich silks and other fabric form the Crusades, military expeditions to the Middle East during the 1100’s and 1200’s.

In fact, the Industrial Revolution that occurred during the 1700’s and 1800’s caused rapid changes in the development of fashion. The invention of mechanical looms, chemical dyes, artificial fabrics, and methods of mass production made fashions affordable to many more people. In addition, new means of mass communication spread European and American fashion throughout the rest of the world. The Industrial Revolution caused people throughout the world to dress more and more alike.9

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