PRACTICAL (10) 
Determination of M.P. and B.P. of organic substance.

Identification of organic compounds: alcohol, glycerin, acetone, oxalate, formate, acetate, etc.

Preparation of organic compounds: Nitrobenzene, Phenol etc.

Preparations of plant extract in different solvent systems.

Test for alkaloid, terpenoid, flavanoid, steroid, tanins & coumarins
TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS

Advanced Organic Chemistry, B.S. Bahl & Arun Bahl.

A Text book of Organic Chemistry, K.S. Tiwari & others.

Foundation of Chemistry, vol. 3 by R.R. Pradhanaga & M.K. Sthapit.

Chemistry of Organic Natural Products Vol I & II, O.P. Agarwal

Advanced Practical Chemistry for B.Sc. by R. R. Pradhanagha
COURSE CODE: BSH 361 (F)
COURSE TITLE: MATHEMATICS FOR FORESTRY
FULL MARKS: 75
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: The students will gain general knowledge about different branches of mathematics applicable to forestry and natural resource management.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE: After the completion of this course, the students will be able to:

Understand mathematical procedures and basic principles in the study of statistics, forest mensuration, forest economics, forest engineering etc.

Find the solution of differential equation as applied in different tradition of forestry.

Understand the general concepts about coordinate geometry, limit and continuity, differential calculus, integral calculus, and vectors.

Calculate maximum and minimum values of different functions applied in forestry and natural resource management.

Calculate area of different geometrical plane figures by the method of integration.
CALCULUS
UNIT 1 LIMIT AND CONTINUITY (6)
1.1. Limit of algebraic function (Revision)
1.2. Limit of trigonometric function
1.3. Limit of exponential and logarithmic function.
1.4. Definition of continuity
1.5. Properties of continuous function
UNIT 2 DIFFERENTIATION (8)
2.1. Differentiation of algebraic and trigonometric function
2.2. Derivative of inverse circular function
2.3 Differentiation of logarithmic and exponential function
UNIT 3 APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES (6)
3.1. Rates and increments
3.2. Maxima and minima
3.3 Tangent & normal
3.4 Equation of tangent and normal
3.5 Angle of intersection of two curves
UNIT 4 HIGHER ORDER DERIVATIVE AND PARTIAL DERIVATIVES (7)
4.1 Successive differentiation
4.2 Successive derivative of type e^{ax +b}, (ax +b)^{m} Sin (ax +b), Cos(ax+b), log (ax+b) etc.
4.3 Partial derivative (Simple problems only)
UNIT 5 INTEGRATION (8)
5.1. Integration of algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic function
5.2. Integration by parts
5.3 Definite integral
UNIT 6 Application of antiderivative (5)
6.1 Area between two plane curves
UNIT 7 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (10)
7.1 Ordinary differential equation
7.2 Equations of the first order and the first degree

Separation of variables

Homogeneous equation

Exact equation

Linear equation
VECTOR ANALYSIS
UNIT 8 ELEMENTS OF VECTORS (5)
8.1 Scalars and vectors
8.2 Notation
8.3 Modulus of vectors
8.4 types of vectors
8.5 Algebra of vectors
UNIT 9 PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS (5)
9.1. Scalar or dot product
9.2. Angle between two vectors
9.3 Properties of scalar product
9.4 Coplanar and non coplanar vectors
9.5 Vector or cross product of two vectors
9.6 Properties of vector product vectors
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
UNIT 10 PAIR OF STRAIGHT LINES (5)
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Homogeneous equation of second degree
10.3 Angle between two lines
10.4 Bisectors of the angle between two lines
10.5 Condition of a general equation to represent a pair of lines
UNIT 11 CIRCLE (5)
11.1 Equation of circle
11.2 Equation of tangent and normal
11.3 Condition of Tangency
UNIT 12 PARABOLA (5)
12.1 Equation of parabola
12.2 Equation of tangent & normal
12.3 Condition of tangency
UNIT 13 COORDINATE IN SPACE (5)
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Distance & section formula
13.3 Direction cosines
TEXT AND REFERENCES BOOKS

Basic Mathematics Vol. I & II by B. C. Bajracharya, R. M. Shrestha & others, Sukunda Pustak Bhawan

Differential Calculus by M. B. Singh and B. C. Bajracharya

Integral Calculus by G. D. Pant & G. S. Shrestha

Coordinate Geometry by G.D. pant

Vector Analysis by M. B. Singh , B. C. Bajracharya

Three Dimensional Geometry by Y. R. Sthapit &

Mathematics for Biological Sciences by Arya/Lardner
COURSE CODE: BSH 362 (F)
COURSE TITLE: FOREST ZOOLOGY
FULL MARKS: 50 THEORY: 40 PRACTICAL: 10
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: This course has been designed to familiarize students with the general principle of animal physiology
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After the completion of this course the students will be able to:

Familiarize with digestive system, Circulatory system and sense organs.

Familiarize with the genetics and endocrinology in animals

Familiarize with adaptive system in animals.
UNIT 1 PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF ANIMALS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BIRDS & MAMMALS (28)
1.1 Nutrition Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation
1.2 Respiration
1.3 Circulation  Structure and function of heart, origin & conduction of heart beat controlling factors, Functions of blood, blood groups, Rhfactor, Blood pressure and blood coagulation.
1.4 Osmoregulation & Excretion
1.5 Reproduction  Gametogenesis (spermatogenesis & oogenesis) Male & female reproductive system, menstruation cycle.
1.6 Nervous System: The central and peripheral nervous system, types of nerves (Afferent, efferent and mixed), Nerve cells and their types (uni coagulation polar, bipolar and multipolar), origin & conduction of nerve impulses and saltatory conduction.
1.7 Sense organ – Eye and Ear
UNIT 2 STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS IN BIRDS (10)
2.1 Types & structure of typical feather
2.2 Flight muscles & flight mechanism
2.3 Perching mechanism
2.4 Types of beak & legs
UNIT 3. ENDOCRINOLOGY (8)
2.1 Structure & functions of following endocrine glands
2.2 Pituitary
2.3 Thyroid
2.4 Adrenal
UNIT 4 GENETICS (10)
4.1 Structure & functions of genetic materials (DNA and RNA)
4.2 Population & gene pool
4.3 Eugenics
4.4 Inbreeding, out breeding and cross breeding
PRACTICAL
 Histological slide study of birds & mammals
 Test of carbohydrate, protein & lipid
 Dissection of pigeon, rat/squirrel
 Structural Adaptation  Mammal, bird, reptile, Pisces
TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Hickman, Cleveland P, Sr., C.P. Hickman, Jr., F. M. Hickman. (Latest Edition). Integrated Principles of Zoology. The C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis
2. Animal physiology by Hurkat and Mathur
3. Evolutionary Biology by prof T. C. Majupuria
4. Genetics & Evolution by S.S. Khanna. Central book Depot Allahabad  Latest Edition.
COURSE CODE: SFM 363 (F)
COURSE TITLE: FIELD TRAINING
FULL MARKS: 25 Days: 7
Practical field observation training for one week related to Botanical/Zoological aspects will be conducted in Kathmandu. The field visit program will be provided by respective campus. At the end of field training students, the supervising faculty will do evaluation of students.
COURSE CODE: SFM 401
COURSE TITLE: FOREST EXTENSION AND COMMUNICATION
FULL MARKS: 50
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: After completing this course, the students will be able to manage and work confidently in rural development activities.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course, the students will be able to:
1. Manage successful dealings with persons of various backgrounds.
2. Design and manage programs appropriate for rural settings.
3. Give advice and make appropriate decisions quickly.
4. Provide good leadership and coordinate with different line agencies.
UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO EXTENSION EDUCATION (5)
1.1 Philosophy of Extension Education
1.2 Principles and Objectives of Extension Education
UNIT 2 COMMUNICATION PROCESS (5)
2.1 Definition and Importance of Communication in Extension
2.2 Interpersonal Communication
2.3 Barriers to Interpersonal Communication
2.4 Strategies for effective interpersonal communication
UNIT 3 MOTIVATION IN EXTENSION EDUCATION (10)
3.1 Definition and concept of Perception and Motivation
3.2 Theories of Motivation (X, Y, Z)

Elements and Strategies to enhance motivation

Group dynamics

Strategy to involve all the members of community (Gender, Class, Ethnicity)

Appreciative approach

Right based approach
UNIT 4 TEACHING METHODS IN EXTENSION EDUCATION (5)
4.1 Extension Teaching Methods
4.2 Selection of Appropriate Teaching Methods in Forestry Extension
4.3 Integrated Approach in Extension
UNIT 5 TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS (5)
5.1 Principles of Teaching and Learning
5.2 Adult learning process
5.3 Organizing learning process
UNIT 6 DIFFUSION AND INNOVATION PROCESS (7)
6.1 Diffusion and Adoption
6.2 Characteristics of Innovation
6.3 Adoption Process
6.4 Innovativeness and Adopter Categories
UNIT 7 PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF EXTENSION PROGRAM (7)
7.1 Definition and Importance of Planning
7.2 Extension Planning Process
UNIT 8 EVALUATION OF EXTENSION PROGRAM (7)
8.1 Definition and purpose of Extension Evaluation
8.2 Objectivesbased Evaluation models
8.3 Basis of Evaluation Process

Questionnaire

Focus Group discussion

Observation

Sampling methods

Analysis of the findings and lesson learnt

Reporting and recommendation of findings
EXERCISE

Development and preparation of Extension materials

Audio

Visual

Audio Visual

Printed

Use of Extension materials.

Simulation exercise
TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS

B. B. Singh Dongol and N. N. Joshi. A Textbook of Extension Education. Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur Campus, Chitwan, Nepal.

O. S. Rathore, M. S. Chauhan, S. D. Dhaker, and S. N. Ojha. Handbook of Extension Education. Agrotech Publishing Academy, Udaipur, India.

S. V. Supe. An Introduction to Extension Education. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., India.

K. Singh, and A. K. Nayak. Extension Education. Commonwealth Publishers, India.

R. K. Samanta and S. K. Arora. Management of Agricultural Extension in Global Perspectives. B. R. Publication, Delhi, India.

A.S. Sadhu. Extension Program Planning. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. India.

G. L. Roy. Extension, Communication and Management. Naya Prakash, Culcutta, India.

O. P. Dahama. Extension and Rural Welfare. Ramprasad and sons, Agra, India.

RWEDP. Planning Forestry Extension Programs. Report, Field Document No. 8. FAO, Bangkok.

B.B. Basnyat. Extension Education. Trainers Manual No. 13. Department of Agriculture. Central Agricultural and Training Center, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education. A publication of AIAEE.

Forestry Extension Organization. FAO Forestry Paper 66. FAO, Rome.
Course Code: FPE 402
Course Title: FOREST SURVEYING
Full Marks: 75 Theory: 50 Practical: 25
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course, the students will be able to prepare and interpret different types of maps and plans correctly. In addition, they will be able to estimate the quantities of earthwork and areas of community and natural forests.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course, the student will be able to:
1 Record field data in a clear and standard form.
2. Prepare various maps and plans from field data, which are necessary in natural resource management.
3. Understand terminology, methods and operation of instruments.
4. Apply standard survey methods in carrying out survey in horizontal and vertical planes, angular and linear measurements, traversing and Triangulation.
5. Demarcate/check forest boundaries & detect encroachment areas.
6. Work effectively with user groups in mapping and estimating forest resources areas.
UNIT 1 FUNDAMENTAL DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS (4)
1.1 Early history of surveying
1.2 Surveying defined: Plane and geodetic surveys (Review)
1.3 Classifications of survey (Review)
1.4 Importance of forest surveying and its objective (Review)
1.5 Principles of surveying (Review)
1.6 Units of measurements (Review)
1.7 Scale, methods of denoting scale and shrunk scale (Review)
UNIT 2 ERRORS AND ACCURACY (4)
2.1 Necessity for accurate surveys
2.2 Accuracy and precision
2.3 Errors and mistakes
2.4 Sources of errors
2.5 Systematic and accidental errors
2.6 Theory of probability
2.7 Probable errors
2.8 Accuracy in surveying and permissible errors
UNIT 3 METHODS OF LINEAR MEASUREMENT & TAPE CORRECTION IN LENEAR MEASUREMENT (6)
3.1 Distance corrections with numerical
3.1.1 Type of distance corrections and slope corrections
3.1.2 Wrong length of tape
3.1.3 Temperature variation
3.1.4 Sag
3.1.5 Tension correction
3.1.6 Combined correction
3.2 Common mistakes made in taping
3.2.1 Errors in chaining/taping
3.2.2 Suggestions for good chaining/taping and chaining/taping precision
UNIT 4 COMPASS TRAVERSING AND TRAVERSE COMPUTATION (7)
4.1 Meridian, bearing and azimuths (Review)
4.2 The compass, system of bearings, conversion from one system to another. Calculation of angles from bearing and vice versa. (Review)
4.3 Magnetic declination and dip, variation in magnetic declination, relation between T.B, M.B. and declination.
4.4 Errors in compass survey (Local attraction and observational error)
4.5 Compass and chain traversing: Types of traverse & traverse, definition
4.6 Fieldwork and field book
4.7 Computation and plotting a traverse
4.7.1 Methods of balancing the closing error
4.7.2 Coordinate method in detail (Latitude and departure method)
UNIT 5 CALCULATION OF AREA AND VOLUME (7)
5.1 Methods of calculating the area
5.2 Area computed by subdividing in triangles
5.3 Area by coordinates
5.4 Area within the irregular boundaries
5.4.1 Trapezoidal rule
5.4.2 Simpson's 1/3 rules
5.5 Area by using planimeter
5.6 Measurement of volume
5.6.1 Measurement of volume from cross sections
5.6.2 Use of trapezoidal formula & prismoidal formula for computation of volume
5.6.3 Volume by spot levelling
5.6.4 Volume by contour plan
UNIT 6 LEVELLING (8)
6.1 Importance of leveling
6.2 Basic definitions
6.3 Methods of leveling
6.4 Levels and level rods (name its type)
6.5 Setting up the level and care of the equipment
6.6 Theory of direct leveling
6.7 Methods of direct leveling
6.7.2 Height of instrument (HI)
6.7.3 Rise and fall method
6.8 Balancing the back and foresight
6.9 Curvature and refraction
6.10 Reciprocal leveling
6.11 Adjustment of level circuits and computation of most probable elevations
6.12 Profile leveling and cross sectioning: Plotting a profile
6.13 Common leveling mistakes
6.14 Suggestions for good leveling
6.15 Precision of differential leveling
UNIT 7 TRANSIT AND THEODOLITE (4)
7.1 Basic definitions
7.2 Parts of transit and Theodolite
7.3 Care of the instrument
7.4 Temporary adjustment of transit and Theodolite
7.5 Reading the transit and Theodolite vernier
7.6 Sighting
7.7 Measurement of horizontal angles
7.8 Closing the horizon
7.9 Measuring the angle by repetition
7.10 Measurement of vertical angles
7.11 Sources of errors and mistakes in angle measurement
7.12 Angle distance relationship
UNIT 8 TACHEOMETRY (3)
8.1 Definition
8.2 Introduction to stadia
8.3 Principles of stadia method
8.4 Distance and elevation formula derivation for staff vertical and related numericals.
8.5 The anallatic lens
UNIT 9 CONTOURING (6)
9.1 Basic definitions
9.2 Contour interval and characteristics of the contour
9.3 Methods of locating the contours
9.4 Interpolation of the contours
9.5 Contour gradient
9.6 Uses of the contour maps
UNIT 10 MAP PROJECTION SYSTEM (3)
10.1 Map Coordinate System
10.2 Real world Coordinate system
10.3 Map Projection with examples (Nepal)
UNIT 11 INTRODUCTIONS TO GPS IN FOREST SURVEYING (3)
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Types of Equipments
11.3 Absolute GPS
11.4 Differential GPS
11.5 Real Time Kinematic GPS
11.6 Data acquisition and Processing (Point Data & Navigation)
11.7 Errors & Accuracy
PRACTICAL (Note: 1 practical class of 2 hrs)

Compass and chain traversing =3 x 2 = 6 hrs.

Drafting techniques and map reading =1 x 2 = 2 hrs.

Leveling =4 x 2 = 8 hrs.

Transit and Theodolite =3 x 2 = 6 hrs.

Tacheometry =1 x 2 = 2 hrs.

Contouring and calculation of volume =3 x 2 = 6 hrs.

Preparation of resource map using GPS =2 x 2 = 4 hrs

Student presentation =3 x 2 = 6 hrs 
Total = 40 hrs.
TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Surveying, Jack C. McCormack
2. Surveying, Vol 1 & 2, Dr. B.C. Punmia.
3. Forest Surveying, Ram Prakash.
4. Surveying and Leveling, Vol. 1 & 2, T. P. Kanetkar.
5. Class Lessons in Surveying and Leveling, Dr. P. B. Sahani.
6. Surveying Theory and Practice, Davis, Food and Kelly.
7. Principles of Surveying and Its Application. Barry F. Kavanagh and S. J. Glenn Bird
8. Surveying – Francis H. Moffitt and Harry Bouchard
9. Text Book of Surveying – S. K. Hussain and M. S. Nagraj
10. Surveying – A. K. Arora
11. Mapping and Compliation Methods and Technique – Rampal K.K., 1993, Concept Publishing House, New Delhi
12. GIS for Beginers, ICIMOD Maual
COURSE CODE: BSH 403
COURSE TITLE: FOREST STATISTICS
Full Marks: 50 Theory: 40 Practical: 10
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of this course, the students will be able to:
1. Demonstrate the basic concepts and limitations of standard statistical procedures.
2. Compute the different central values and measures of dispersion and demonstrate their uses and importance.
3. Understand the basic probabilistic concepts and calculate probability of different events.
4. Demonstrate the concepts of probability distribution and their application.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the completion of this course, the students will be able to:
1. Demonstrate the concepts of averages, values of dispersion, concept of probability in the applied field of forestry research.
2. Demonstrate basic concepts of hypothesis testing, interval estimation, probability distributions, regression, and analysis of variance in practical works or research activities.
3. Be prepared for the forthcoming course of statistical methods and experimental design of B. Sc. III year.
UNIT 1 BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS (2)

Origin, definition, scope and limitation of statistics

Use of statistics in forestry

Definition of standard terms:

Statistical notation, population and sample, parameter and statistic, variables.
