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# Course code: sfm 301 (S) Course Title: forest extension and communication full marks: 50 Theory: 50 general objective

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### Surveying and Leveling – T.P. Kanetkar Vol., I

• Forest Engineering without tears – N.J. Masani

• Estimating and costing – B.N. Datta

• Building Construction – Sushil Kumar

• Building Construction – Sharma and Kaul

• Standard Norms (HMG)

COURSE CODE: SFM 304 (S)

COURSE TITLE: FOREST MENSURATION

FULL MARKS: 50 Theory: 40 Practical: 10
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course students will gain general knowledge about principles and practices of forest measurement.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After the completion of this course, the students will be able to:

1. Take the measurements of standing and felled trees.

2. Prepare local volume table and use different V.T.S.

3. Execute different methods of sampling enumeration of the forest.

4. Demonstrate an understanding of increment.

5. Calculate the weight and volume of different forest products.

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION (2)

1.1. Definition of forest mensuration

1.2 Scope of forest mensuration
UNIT 2 MEASUREMENT OF STANDING TREES (13)

2.1 Diameter measurement and its importance (3)

2.1.1 Diameter at breast height & Rules of dbh measurement

2.2 Height measurement and its importance (6)

2.2.1 Hypsometer and clinometer

2.2.2 Abney's level and its use

2.2.3 Measurement of height of trees on plane areas

2.2.4 Measurement of height of tree on sloped areas

2.2.5 Sources of error in height measurement

2.3 Forms of trees and Metzger's theory (4)

2.3.1 Form factors

2.3.2 Form quotients
UNIT 3 MEASUREMENT OF FELLED TREES & FUELWOOD (4)

3.1 Measurement of logs

3.1.1 Measurement of length, diameter and sectional areas of logs.

1. Different formulae for the calculation of volume (Newton's, Huber's, Smalian's, and Quarter Girth) of logs.

2. Calculation of volume of sawn timber

3.2 Measurement of fuelwood

3.2.1 Dimensions and volume of a chatta (stacked fuelwood and solide volume percentage)

UNIT 4 VOLUME TABLE (5)

4.1 General volume table: Use of Govts.

4.2 Local volume table: Preparation of LVT (graphical method)

4.3 Differences between LVT & GVT

UNIT 5 SAMPLING AND ENUMERATION (6)

5.1 Definition and scope of sampling

5.2 Types of sampling

5.2.1 Random sampling

5.2.2 Systematic sampling

a. Line plot sampling

b. Strip sampling

c. Stratified sampling

5.3. Computation of volume & crop density

5.4 Inventory of commercially important five NTFPs

UNIT 6 INCREMENT (3)

6.1 Definition and types of increment

6.1.1 Basic concept of DBH, height and volume increment

6.1.2 Concept of CAI and MAI

6.1.3 Estimation of increment e.g. diameter growth percentage, volume growth percentage
UNIT 7 WEIGHT AND VOLUME CALCULATION (2)

7.1 Weight and volume calculation of seed, and other forest products

PRACTICAL

1. DBH measurement of standing trees.

2. Height measurement of standing tree.

3. Preparation of LVT Graphical method.

4. Line plot sampling

5. Strip sampling

6. Log volume calculation.
TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Forest Mensuration – L.S. Khanna and A.N. Chaturvedi

COURSE CODE: SFM 305 (S)

COURSE TITLE: FOREST LAW AND OFFICE MANAGEMENT

FULL MARKS: 50 THEORY: 50
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: The students will gain general Knowledge about the principles and practices of forest policy, forest law and policy of Government of Nepal.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After the completion of the course, the students will be able to:

1. Understand the legal procedures of forest protection and conservation.

2. Understand the implementation and procedures of forest rules and regulations.

PART - A FOREST LAW AND POLICY

UNIT 1 SALIENT FEATURES OF FOREST LAW (10)

1.1 Private forest nationalization act 2013

1.2 Forest act 2049

1.3 National park and wildlife conservation act 2029 & 2050

1.4 Plant protection act 2029 and 2050

1.5 Soil and water conservation act

1.6 Environment Act; 2053

1.7 Constitution of Kingdom of Nepal; 2047

UNIT 2 SALIENT FEATURES OF FOREST POLICY RULES AND REGULATIONS (15)

2.1 Introduction, concept, History

2.2 Sales and distribution rules of forest produce

2.3 Wild life rules and regulations

2.4 Legal procedures and charge sheets

2.5 Buffer zone regulation; 2052

2.6 Environment Regulation; 2054

PART - B OFFICE MANAGEMENT

UNIT 3 OFFICE MANAGEMENT (4)

3.1 Meaning and objectives management

3.2 Meaning of Office

3.3 Office lay-out

UNIT 4 GOVERNMENTACCOUNTING (4)

4.1 Government accounting system

4.2 Objectives

4.3 District treasury and Account controller's office

UNIT 5 GOVERNMENT BUDGET (3)

5.1 Meaning and Objectives

5.2 Budget Estimation and Formulation

UNIT 6 INVENTORY ACCOUNTING (4)

6.1 Meaning and Objectives

6.2 Classification

6.3 Procurement system

UNIT 7 OFFICIAL PROCEDURES (7)

7.1 Correspondence

7.2 Filing and Indexing

7.3 Authority-letter

7.4 Benefits (Leave, retirement, pension & gratuity)

TEXT AND REFERENCES BOOKS

1. Government Budget and Accounting System (with Audit)--B. G. Bista and S. N. Shrestha

2. Government Accounting System and Budgetary System in Nepal--M. M. Shrestha & M. Bajimaya

3. Byabasayik Siddhanta Tatha Karyalaya Bysthapan--Kul Nar Singh

4. Byabasayik Siddhanta Tatha Karyalaya Karyabidhi, Amuda Shrestha (Publisher: Educational Enterprises).

5. Nepal Ain Sangrah, Volume 7, revised.

6. Forest Act 2049.

7. Muluki Ain 2049.

8. Nepal Niyam Sangrah, volume 7, revised.

* Case study-at least two regarding with forest.

COURSE CODE: BSH 306 (S)

COURSE TITLE: SOCIOLOGY FOR FORESTRY

#### FULL MARKS: 50

GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this course, the students will be able to analyze and comprehend the social factors those play role in effective management of natural resources in the country.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the course, students will be able to develop basic understanding of Sociology/Anthropology. Understand the value of group dynamics in natural resource management. Analyze the role of Social system/Structure on natural resource management.

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY/ ANTHROPOLOGY (4)

1. Definition, nature, scope, and branches of sociology and anthropology. Historical development of sociology/anthropology in Nepal.

1.2 Demography.

1.3 Transhumance

UNIT 2 BASIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY (8)

2.1 Society, Culture, Group, Community, Institutions, Class, Caste, Status and Roles

2.2 Norms and Values, Family and Kinships, Ethnicity, Assimilation, Socialization, and Sanskitization.

2.3 Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

2.4 Religion

2.5 Holism, System Approach

2.6 Gender and Feminism
UNIT 3 GROUP AND COMMUNITY (5)

3.1 Definition, Features, and types of groups

3.2 Basic Component of a group:

1. Insider/Outsider (emic, etic perspective),

2. Primary and Secondary group

3. Users Group

4. Interest group

5. Group vs community

6. Basic Elements of a Community

7. Society vs Community

8. Ethnicity

9. Tribe

UNIT 4 VALUES AND NORMS (5)

4.1. Values

4.1.1 Characteristics

4.1.2 Values orientation (Local vs. Govt.)

4.2. Norms

4.2.1 Decision-Making

4.2.2 Politics and power, distribution and equity

4.2.3 Good Governance: Definition, types and application in Forestry.

4.2.4 Role of Caste, Class, Gender and Age in decision making
UNIT 5 SOCIAL SYSTEMS, ORGANIZATION AND CHANGE (5)

5.1 Social Structure

5.2 Social system: Feudalism, Capitalism and Socialism

5.4 Social change

5.5 Some General Aspects of social change

5.6 Social change and Development
UNIT 6 SOCIAL PROCESSES AND INTERACTION (5)

6.1 Basic Concepts of Social Process

6.2 Conflict resolution/Group cohesion

6.3 Causes of Conflicts

6.4 Conflict resolution

6.5 Social control

6.6 Social Stratification and inequality: Caste, Class, Gender and Ethnicity

1. The forms of accommodation

UNIT 7 THEORETICAL APPROACH TO SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT (6)

1. Modernization theory

2. Dependency theory

3. World system theory

4. Human Ecology

UNIT 8 INTRODUCTIONS TO NEPALI SOCIETY AND CULTURE (5)

1. Cultural Diversity – mountain, hill, Terai

2. Economic structure of Nepalese society

3. Ethnic/Caste & class structure and change

4. Gender structure and change

UNIT 9 SOCIAL PROCESS IN NEPAL (3)

1. Acculturation

2. Process of Nepalization & Sanskritization

3. Regionalism and National Integration

4. Westernization and Modernization

UNIT 10 INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEMS OF FOREST MANAGEMENT (4)

10.2 Resource management through indigenous knowledge and practice.

1. Importance and relationship of social sciences in resource management

TEXT AND REFERENCES BOOKS

1. Readings in Social Forestry: Edited by Don Messerschmidt and N.K. Rai. Winrock International Kathmandu.

2. Introduction to Sociology: Sadhu and Singh

3. Forest, Tree and People of Nepal; Gilmour and Fisher

4. Proceedings of International training on participatory process, tools, Techniques in Community Forestry organized by RECOFTC/DOF/IOF

5. An Introduction to Sociology by Vaidhya Bhusan Sachdeva, Kitab Mahal, India.

6. Rural Sociology by K. Singh, Prakashan Kendra, Lucknow, India.

7. Modern Sociological Theory by M. Francis Abraham, Oxford University press, 1992.

8. The Structure of Sociological Theory by H.Jonathan Turne, Rawat Publication, Jaipur, 2002.

Course Code: SFB 307 (S)

Course Title: INTRODUCTORY AGROFORESTRY

Full Marks: 50
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: After the completion of the course, the students will know the general concepts and practices of agroforestry and its production and management systems.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: By the end of the course, the students will be able to:

1. Define and classify agroforestry systems.

2. Select species suitable for different agroforestry practices.

3. Identify suitable species for horticulture and animal farming along with tree crops.

UNIT 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION (4)

1. Definition and basic concepts of agroforestry

2. Scope and importance of agroforestry in Nepal

3. Components of agroforestry and their interactions

UNIT 2 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS (9)

2.1.1 Structural basis

2.1.2 Functional basis

2.1.3 Ecological basis

2.1.4 Commercial basis

2.2 Agro-forestry systems

2.2.1 Agro-silviculture

2.2.2 Horto-silviculture

2.2.3 Silvipasture

2.2.4 Agri-silvi-pasture

2.2.5 Sericulture and aqua-silviculture

2.2.6 Taungya & Shifting cultivation
UNIT 3 AGROFORESTRY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN NEPAL (14)

1. Cereal-based production systems (4)

2. Fruit and vegetable-based production systems (4)

3. Animal-based (6)

3.3.1 Management of livestock (3)

3.3.2 Management of forest resources (3)

UNIT 4 CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF AGROFORESTRY TREE SPECIES IN DIFFERENT CLIMATIC ZONES (8)

1. Timber

2. Fuel wood

3. Food-fruit-vegetables

4. Fodder & forage

6. Green manuring

7. Windbreak and shelter belts

UNIT 5 DESIGN OF SMALL AGRORESTRY PROJECTS (7)

1. Description of agroforestry

2. Biophysical consideration

3. Socio economic consideration

4. Case study (Hills and Terai )

5. Preparation of agroforestry projects

FIELD EXERCISE:

1. Visit nearby agroforestry projects and farm activities. (1)

2. Collection and identification of agroforestry species and crops. (1)

3. Rapid collection methods of socio-economics and bio-physical information. (2)

4. Study of Agroforestry Systems, Windbreak, and shelterbelts should be done during the field visit (1).

5. Design and drawing of simple agroforestry models

TEXT AND REFERENCES BOOKS

1. Agroforestry Principles and Practices A.P. Dwivedi

2. Hand Book of Agroforestry S.P. Singh

3. Agroforestry in india K.G. Tejwani

4. Text Book of Agroforestry Dr. B.S. Chundwat & Mr. S.K. Gautam

5. Agroforestry – Classification & management Edited by Kenneth G. Mac Dicken Napoleon T. Vergera

6. Agroforestry Land use Systems NFTA Special Publication 90-02-1990

7. Agroforestry Practices in Nepal Dr. S.M. Amatya

8. Tree Fodder & Fodder Tree in Nepal K.K. Pandey

COURSE CODE: BSH 321 (F)

COURSE TITLE: PHYSICS FOR FORESTRY

FULL MARKS: 75 THEORY: 50 PRACTICAL: 25

GENERAL OBJECTIVE: Upon completion of this course, the students will gain in-depth knowledge and skill of physical concepts applied in forestry.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course, the students will be able to demonstrate understanding:

1. To acquire sufficient knowledge in Physics

2. Heat as sources of energy.

3. Laws of thermodynamics used in ecology.

4. Shrinking and swelling of wood.

5. Thermal and electrical conductivity of wood.

6. Modulus of elasticity of a wooden beam.

7. To solve mathematical problem in related topics.

8. To deduce mathematical equations and formulas.

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTORY courses in applied PHYSICS (3)

1. Motion in straight line:

1. Displacement, velocity, acceleration, Scalars and Vectors, Equation of motion in a straight line,

2. Newton's laws of motion.

3. Circular Motion:

4. Angular Velocity, Time period, Acceleration, Centripetal and Centrifugal force.

UNIT 2 MECHANICS (15)

2.1 Harmonic motion (3)

2.1.1 Simple harmonic motion and its characteristics

2.1.2 Energy in simple harmonic motion

2.1.3 Phase of vibration

2.1.4 Simple pendulum

2.2 Gravitation (4)

2.2.1 Newton's law of gravitation

2.2.2 Gravitation and variation of g with altitude

2.2.3 Depth

2.2.4 Gravitational and inertial mass

2.2.5 Gravitational potential energy

2.3 Motion (4)

2.3.1 Motion of a projectile

2.3.2 Motion of a satellite

2.3.3 Escape velocity

2.3.4 P.E. and K.E. of a satellite

2.4 Rotation of rigid bodies (4)

2.4.1 Moment of inertia

2.4.2 Torque on a body

2.4.3 Angular momentum and its conservation

UNIT 3 ELASTICITY (4)

3.1 Particle nature of matter (4)

3.1.1 Intermolecular forces

3.1.2 Elasticity of metals

3.1.3 Proportional and elastic limits

3.1.4 Hook's law and its verification

3.1.5 Young's modules and its determination

3.1.6 Energy stored in a wire

3.1.7 Bulk modules

UNIT 4 VISCOSITY (4)

4.1 Definition

4.1.1 Newton's formula

4.1.2 Coefficient of viscosity

4.1.3 Unit and dimension

4.1.4 Streamline and turbulent motion

4.1.5 Stoke's law

4.1.6 Terminal Velocity

UNIT 5 SURFACE TENSION (4)

5.1 Surface tension phenomenon

5.1.1 Molecular theory

5.1.2 Capillarity

5.1.3 Angle of contact

5.1.4 Measurement of surface tension by capillary tube method

UNIT 6 HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS (13)

6.1 Change of Phase (2)

6.1.1 Latent heat of fusion of ice and latent heat of steam

6.2 Gases (5)

6.2.1 Gas laws and the equation of state (Boyles law, Charles law)

6.2.2 Work done by a gas

6.2.3 Internal energy of a gas

6.2.4 First law of thermodynamics

6.2.5 Molar and specific heat capacity

6.2.6 cp & cv, cp - cv = R

6.3 Kinetic theory of gases (1)

6.3.1 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of gaseous

6.4 Saturated and unsaturated vapors (2)

6.4.1 Behavior of saturated vapor (Definition)

6.4.2 The equilibrium of solid, liquid and vapor (Triple point)

6.5 Hygrometry (3)

6.5.1 Dew point

6.5.2 Absolute humidity

6.5.3 Dryness and dampness

6.5.4 Relative humidity and its determination

6.5.5 Wet and dry bulb hygrometers

6.5.6 Humidity control

UNIT 7 energy physics (7)

7.1 Forms of Energy

7.2 Mechanical Energy, Heat Energy, Light Energy, Nuclear Energy (Concept of fission and fusion), Wood Energy

7.3 Alternative sources of wood energy in context of Nepal (Biogas, solar battery, hydroelectricity).

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Advanced Level Physics, M. Nelkon & P. Parker.

2. Principles of Physics, Brij Lal & N. Subramanyam.

3. A Text book of Physics, S.K. Gupta & J.M. Pradhan

4. Physics Practical Guide, U.P. Shrestha

5. A Text Book of Practical Physics, Prakash & Ramakrishna.
PRACTICAL
1. Using a simple pendulum to determine the length of second pendulum and the value of 'g' in the laboratory.

2. Determining the modulus of elasticity of a wire by vernier apparatus.

3. Determining the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid using the Stoke's method.

4. Determining the moment of inertia of a fly wheel.

5. Determining the % of R.H. by dry and wet hygrometer

6. Determination of surface tension of a given liquid by capillarity rise method.

COURSE CODE: BSH 322 (F)

COURSE TITLE: FOREST BOTANY

FULL MARKS: 50 THEORY: 40 PRACTICAL: 10
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: The students will be able to describe the lower plants, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms and their importance.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After the completion of the course the students will be able to understand:

1. General characteristic, economic importance of lower as well as higher plants.

2. Familiarize with the commonly used systems of classifications of plants.

UNIT 1 CRYPTOGRAMS (16)

1.1 General characteristics classification and economic importance of virus bacteria, algae, fungi, bryophyta, pteridophyta.

1.2 Brief Life Cycles of Spirogyra, Mucor, Marchantia and Fern
UNIT 2 GYMNOSPERMS (8)

2.1 General characteristics and classification, distribution and economic importance of gymnosperms

2.2 Life Cycle of Pinus
UNIT 3 TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS (14)

3.1 A brief history of classification of angiosperms.

3.2 Systems of classification – Bentham and Hooker, and Engler and Prantle's Systems.

3.3. Study of systematic positions, distribution, general characters, floral formula, floral diagram and economic importance of plant members of following families:

1. Magnoliaceae 6. Fagaceae

2. Rosaceae 7. Betulaceae

3. Verbenaceae 8. Combretceae

4. Dipterocarpaceae 9. Leguminosae

5. Ericaceae
UNIT 4 PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF NEPAL (2)
PRACTICAL (12)
1. Study of the structures of the following representative plant members.

a. Bacteria - any bacterial cell

b. Algae - Volvox, Spirogyra, Nostoc

c. Fungi -Mucor , Puccinia & Agaricus

d. Bryophyta - Marchantia, Moss

e. Pteridophyta - Lycopodium, and Fern

2. Gymnosperm: Structure of male and female cone of Pinus.

3. Herbarium preparation, Identification, nomenclature and classification of representative plants from the above mentioned families.

TEXT AND ERENCES BOOKS
1. Modern Approach to Botany -KN Bhatia and Khanna

2. Text Book of Botany (for Degree students) - A.C. Dutta

3. Forest Botany --Dr. MP Shiva

4. Taxonomy of Angiospermic plants –V.S.Lawrence

5 .Flora of British India Vol-I-VII- Sir Josheph D.Hooker

6 .Flowers Of Himalayas –JDA Stainton

COURSE CODE: BSH 323 (F)

COURSE TITLE: FOREST ZOOLOGY

FULL MARKS: 50 THEORY: 40 PRACTICAL: 10
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: his course has been designed to familiarize students with the vital roles and activities of forest dwelling animals.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After the completion of this course the students will be able to:
1. Classify different animals in different groups

2. Understand the different parts of cell and their functions

3. Familiarize with the principle of organic evolution and its theories and the process of Fossilization

4. Familiarize with major Zoo-geographical regions

5. Familiarize with some of the common forest pests & their control.

UNIT 1 CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL KINGDOM (25)

1.1 Animal phylogeny

1.2 General characteristics & classification of following

Phylum Anthropoda with special reference to Insecta (upto order)

Class – Pisces (upto order)

Amphibia (upto order)

Reptilia ( upto order )

Aves (upto important families)

Mammals (upto important families)
UNIT 2 CELL BIOLOGY (10)

2.1 Organization of an animal cell

2.2 Structure & functions of cell organelles: Plasma membrane, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, Lysosome, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Nucleus and Chromosome.
UNIT 3 PALEONTOLOGY (9)

3.2 Fossils, fossilization & its significance
UNIT 4 ZOOGEOGRAPHIC REGIONS (4)

1. Boundary, Climatic condition and common and peculiar faunas of following regions:

• Palaeartic region

• Oriental region

• Ethiopian region

• Australian region

• Neartic region

• Neotropical region

• Dispersal and its barriers

• Discontinuous distribution

UNIT 5 CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION (6)

5.1 Principle of organic evolution

5.2 Evidences of organic evolution

5.3 Origin and evolution of Man

5.4 Origin of species & speciation

UNIT 6 FOREST PEST AND THEIR CONTROL (4)

6.1 Forest Pests and their types

6.2 Host parasite relationship

6.3 Pest control:

• Mechanical control

• Biological control: Use of pathogenes, sterilization, Pheromones, Insect hormones.

• Silvicultural Control

• Pesticide control

• Chemicals

• Bio-pesticides

1. Integrated Pest management

PRACTICAL (12)

1. Museum specimens & collections

2. Study Mouth parts of insects - Grasshoppers

3. Slide preparation

• Cockroach

• Bee

• Housefly (Diptera)

• Moth/Butterfly

4. Study of adaptational characteristics found in birds and mammals (At least two from each group).

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS
Hickman, cleveland and P., Sr., C. P. Hickman, Jr., F. M. Hickman. Latest edition. Integrated Principles of Zoology. The C. V. Mosby Company St. Louis

Chordate Zoology by Prof. T. C. Majupuria

Entomology by Metcalf and Flint

Kotpal, R. L. (Latest edition) Arthropoda. Rastogi Publications, Meerut, India.

Cell Biology By De Robertis

COURSE CODE: BSH 324 (F)

COURSE TITLE: MATHEMATICS FOR FORESTRY

FULL MARKS: 75
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: The students will gain general knowledge about different branches of mathematics applicable to forestry and natural resource management.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course, the students will be able to:

1. Understand mathematical procedures and basic principles in preparation for studying statistics, forest economics, forest engineering etc.

2. Understand general concepts about algebra, trigonometry and relation and mapping.

ALGEBRA
UNIT 1 SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS (5)

1.1 Solution of system of linear equations

1.2 Application of matrix and determinant
UNIT 2 SYSTEMS OF LINEAR INEQUALITIES (5)

2.1 Linear inequalities

2.2 Elementary properties of simple inequalities

2.3 System of inequalities

2.4 Linear programming with convex polygonal region

UNIT 3 SEQUENCE AND SERIES (6)

3.1 Definition, concept of A.P, G.P., H.P & means (Revision)

3.2 Infinite series.

3.3 Sum of the natural numbers.

3.4 Use of ∑ notation.
UNIT 4 MATRICES AND DETERMINANT (9)

4.1 Definition of Matrix

4.2 Addition, subtraction and multiplication of matrices

4.3 Trans pose, Adjoint Inverse of a matrix

4.4 Rank of matrix

4.5 Definition of determinant

4.6 Minors and cofactors

4.7 Properties of 3x3 determinant

UNIT 5 COMPLEX NUMBER (5)

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Algebra of complex numbers

5.3 Imaginary units

5.4 Conjugate and Modulus of a complex number

5.5 Polar form of a complex number

5.6 De Moivre’s Theorem (without proof)

5.7 Square roots of a complex number

5.8 Cube roots of unity

UNIT 6 SIMPLE PARTIAL FRACTION (4)

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Partial fractions

6.3 Determination of partial fraction

UNIT 7 PERMUATION AND COMBINATION (7)

7.1 Definition

7.2 Formulas on Permutation and Combination (without proof)

7.3 Solution of problems

UNIT 8 BINOMIAL THEOREM (7)

8.1 Expansion of Binomial expression for any index (Positive, negative, fraction)

8.2 General term

8.3 Middle terms

8.4 Properties of Binomial Coefficients
UNIT 9 LOGARITHM (5)

9.1 Definitions

9.2 Properties of logarithms

9.3 Study of characteristic and mantisa

9.4 Study of log and antilog table
Trigonometry, Relation and Mapping
UNIT 10 RELATION AND MAPPING (5)

10.1 Ordered pairs and cartesian product of sets (Revision)

10.2 Symmetric, Reflexive and Transitive relation

10.3 Equivalence relation

10.4 Definition of Mapping

10.5 Types of Mapping

10.6 Inverse Mapping

UNIT 11 PROPERTIES OF TRIANGLES (10)

1. The Cosine Law

2. Sine law

3. Projection law

4. Half angle formula

5. Tangent law

6. The area of triangle

UNIT 12 SOLUTION OF TRAINGLE (5)

12.1 Solution of triangle

12.2 Use of logarithm in solution of triangle
UNIT 13 HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES (5)

13.1 Solution of problems

TEXT AND REFERENCES BOOKS
1. Basic Mathematics Vol. I & II by B.R. Bajracharya, R.M. Shrestha & others

2. Intermediate Algebra by Ganguli & Mukherji

3. Intermediate Trigonometry by Das and Mukherji

4. College Algebra by Raymond

COURSE CODE: BSH 325 (F)

COURSE TITLE: CHEMISTRY FOR FORESTRY

FULL MARKS: 75 THEORY: 60 PRACTICAL: 15
GENERAL OBJECTIVES:
1. To understand the basic theory of physical chemistry

2. To understand inorganic and organic chemistry.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course the students will be able to:

1. Understand the role of Chemistry in natural resources.

2. Explain the structure of atom; combining nature of elements and bond formation in a compound focused in Forest plants.

3. Write a chemical equation and explain its importance in a chemical reaction

4. Find out the strength of solution of acids, bases and salts

5. Explain electrochemistry, solution, colloids and suspensions.

6. Understand Hybridization and the system of naming of organic compounds
UNIT 1 BASIC CONCEPTS (6)

1.1 Chemistry and its importance

1.2 Atomic structure.

1.2.1 Rutherford Model & its Defects,

1.2.2 Bohr's Model & Idea about Summerfield modification.

1.2.3 Quantum Numbers

1.2.4 Hund's rule, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Auf bau Principle and electronic configuration of elements (Atomic Number from 1-30).

1.3 Isotopes and the uses of Labeled Isotopes (N, P, C, H, Fe) in forest.

UNIT 2 BONDINGS (4)

2.1 Dipole moment and its applications

2.2 Hydrogen bonding, types and its significance

2.3 Resonance

UNIT 3 PERIODIC TABLE AND IT's PROPERTIES (5)

3.1 Modern periodic table and its significance.

3.2 Long form of periodic table, Periodicity

3.3 Electro-negativity

3.4 Atomic size

3.5 Ionization potential

3.6 Electron-affinity

3.7 Metallic character

UNIT 4 ACIDS, BASES, SALTS AND ACIDIMETRY/ALKALIMETRY(8)

4.1 Theories of acids and bases

ii. Bronsted-Lowry concept

iii. Lewis concept

4.2 Types of salts - simple salts, double salts and complex salts

4.3 Strength of acids and bases, pH & pH scale and its uses in the determination of different type of solutions.

4.4 Normality, molarity, molality, gram per litre, %(W/W), % (W/V), Mole fraction

4.5 Acid base titration:

4.6 Indicators

4.7 Normality equation, simple problems related to normality, molarity gram per litre of acids & bases
UNIT 5 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION (6)

5.1 Old concept

5.2 Electronic concept

5.3 Oxidation number and its counting

5.4 Redox reactions

5.5 Balancing of redox reactions by oxidation number method or ion electron method (only in acidic medium)

5.6 Some common oxidizing and reducing agents, e.g. KMnO4. K2Cr2O7, SO2, H2S. HNO3 etc.

UNIT 6 SOLUTION, COLLIDES AND SUSPENSION (3)

1. Difference between solution, colloids & suspension

2. Vapor pressure & boiling point

3. Introduction to colligative properties of solution

UNIT 7 CHEMICAL KINETICS AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (5)

7.1 Concept of rate law, order and molecularity

7.2 The law of mass action

7.3 Common ion effect

7.4 Solubility product

7.5 LeChatelier's principle and its applications

UNIT 8 ELECTROCHEMISTRY (4)

8.1 Electrolytes and non-electrolytes

8.2 Electrolysis

8.2.1 Arrhenius theory of electrolysis

8.2.3 Problems related to electrolysis

UNIT 9 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (10)

9.1 Introduction: Source of organic compounds

9.2 Classification of organic compounds

9.3 Functional groups, Homologous series

9.4 Nomenclature of organic compounds by common and IUPAC systems

9.5 Isomerisms

9.6 Role of organic chemistry in forestry
UNIT 10 HYBRIDIZATION, ORGANIC REACTIONS AND THEIR MECHANISMS (6)

10.1 Hybridization (Sp, Sp2, Sp3) & formation of sigma & pi-bonds

10.2 Inductive effect and its applications

1. Mechanism of Substitution, Elimination and Addition reactions

PRACTICAL (18)
1. Titration (alkalimetry & Acidimetry)

1.1 Preparation of Standard solution of Na2CO3, Oxalic Acid (N, N/5, N/10 etc)

1.2 Preparation of approx. solns. Of NaOH, H2SO4, KOH, HCl, (N, N/5, N/10 etc.)

1.3 Determination of strength of Acids/bases by titration methods.

2. Determine Acidity of various types of soils by using pH meter universal indicator.

3. Salt Test (at least 6 practical)

3.1 Simple salt analysis

4. Detection of elements (N, S, Cl, Br and I) present in the organic compounds.

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Essential of Physical Chemistry by B.S. Bahl

2. Advance Inorganic chemistry by Satya Prakash

3. Text Book of Physical Chemistry by K.K. Sharma

4. Text Book of Physical Chemistry by Sharma and Puri

5. Text Book of Physical Chemistry by P.C. Rakshit

6. Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry by R.C. Agarwal

7. Basic Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis by P.N. Yadav

8. Basic Qualitative Analysis by K.R. Palak

9. A Hand Book of Practical Chemistry by K.R. Palak or K.K. Vaidya

10. Foundation of Chemistry vol I & II, by R.R. Pradhananya & M.K.Sthapit.

COURSE CODE: SFB 350 (S)

COURSE CODE: INTRODUCTORY SILVICULTURE

FULL MARKS: 50
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: By the end of the course, the students will:

1. Have gained a general understanding of silviculture.

2. Have learned skills which will enable them to work in the national, community and private forestry sectors.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Students will understand silviculture, locality factors, succession, forest types based on ecological basis and management objectives, silvicultural systems and nursery management.
UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION (3)

1.1 Definition and objectives of silviculture

1.2 Common terms in silviculture

1.3 Relation of silviculture with other branches of forestry

UNIT 2 ENVIRONMENTAL (LOCALITY) FACTORS (10)

2.1 Definition, importance and classification

2.2 Climatic factors

2.3 Topographical factors

2.4 Edaphic factors

2.5 Biotic factors

2.6 Other factors (Pollution, stress)
UNIT 3 CONCEPT OF SUCCESSION (5)

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Kinds of succession (Primary, Secondary)

3.3 Causes of succession

3.4 concept of climax
UNIT 4 FOREST TYPE OF NEPAL ON ECOLOGICAL BASIS (5)

4.1 Tropical

4.2 Sub tropical

4.3 Temperate

4.4 sub Alpine

4.5 Alpine

UNIT 5 FOREST CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVE AND OWNERSHIPS (5)

5.1. Types of forests

5.1.1 National forest

5.1.1.1 Protection forest

5.1.1.2 Production forest

5.1.1.3 National parks, reserves, conservation area and buffer zone forest.

5.2 Community forest

5.3 Private forest

5.4 Lease forest

5.5 Religious forest

5.6. Urban forest
UNIT 6 INTRODUCTION TO NURSERY (5)

6.1 Types of nursery (Permanent, Temporary)

6.2 Nursery tools and equipments

6.3 Construction of nursery

6.4 Preparation of nursery beds

6.5 Seed treatment & seedling production

UNIT 7 INTRODUCTION TO PLANTATION FOREST (6)

7.1 Introduction to plantation activities in Nepal

7.2 Artificial regeneration and its imporatance

7.3 Seed production, extraction and storage

7.4 Plantation techniques

7.4.1 Pitting

7.4.2 Spacing

7.5 Silvicultural operations

7. 5.1 Wedning, cleaning

7..5.2 Casuality replacement

7..5.3 Thinning

7..5.4 Prunning

UNIT 8 INTRODUCTION TO SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM (5)

8.1 Natural regeneration and its importance

8.2 Factors effecting natural regeneration

8.3 Methods of natural regeneration

8.3.1 Classification of silvicultural system

8.3.2 Clear felling system

8.3.3 Shelter wood system

8.3.4 Selection system

8.3.5 Coppice system
UNIT 9 CONCEPT OF FOREST PROTECTION (4)

1. Delimitation and important

2. Factors causing damages to forest

3. Principles of forest protections

FIELD EXERCISE

1. Study of primary and secondary successions and the concept of climax (excursions and field visits).

2. Study of forest types (three days field trip to show tropical, sub-tropical and temperate forests)

3. Study of silvicultural systems.

4. Nursery practices (during practical hours and excursions)

- Preparations of beds

- Seed treatments, germination percentage

- Sowing & mulching

- Polybag filling and transplanting of seedlings in polybags

- Weeding

5 Study of damages caused by pests and pathogens (excursion)
TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Principles and Practice of Silviculture, L.S. Khanna.

2. Silvics of Trees of Nepal, Baban Prasad Kayastha.

3. Handbook of Silviculture, Champion and Trevor.

4. Manual of Afforestation in Nepal, Vol I, J.K. Jackson.

5. Forest Act of Nepal 1993, HMG.

6. Elements of general silviculture - Dr. S.S. Negi.

7. Forest protection by: Dr. S.S. Negi

COURSE CODE: BSH 351 (SF)

COURSE TITLE: BASIC ECONOMICS

FULL MARKS: 50
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course, the students will be able to understand and apply the theories and principles of micro and macro economics to planning, management and decision- making schemes at various levels in the natural resources sector.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After completion of this course, the students will be able to:

1. Apply knowledge of microeconomic theories in analyzing the behavior of individuals and organizations.

2. Analyze the relationships among theories of microeconomic and macroeconomics.

3. Demonstrate an understanding of basic Nepalese economic systems and the role of natural resources in the economic development of Nepal.

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION (2)

1.1 Economic problem - problem of scarcity and choice

1.2 Concept of microeconomics and macroeconomics

UNIT 2 THEORY OF DEMAND (4)

1. The demand function, demand schedule and demand curve (law of demand)E

2. Exception to the law of demand

3. Change in demand and causes of change in demand.

UNIT 3 ELASTICITY OF DEMAND (3)

1. Meaning

2. Types – price

3. Income and cross elasticity

4. Degrees of price elasticity

5. Measurement of price elasticity

UNIT 4 THEORIES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR (13)

1. Cardinal utility analysis – concept of total and marginal utility

2. Law of diminishing marginal utility

3. Law of substitution

4. Derivation of demand curve0

5. Criticism

6. Concept of consumer surplus

7. Ordinal utility analysis (indifference curve approach) – indifference schedule

8. Indifference curve and indifference map

9. Properties of IC

10. Budget lines

11. Equilibrium of the consumers, income

12. Substitution and price effect

13. Derivation of the demand curve

UNIT 5 THEORY OF PRODUCTION (7)

1. Meaning of production

2. Production functions – long run and short run

3. Concept of TP, AP and MP

4. Law of variable proportions

5. Concept of isoquant and iso-cost curves

6. Laws of returns to scale

7. Conditions for equilibrium of the firm with profit maximisation objective, single and multiple commodities (production possibility curve)

UNIT 6 COSTS (5)

1. Concept of money cost, real cost, social cost, implicit and explicit cost and opportunity cost

2. Short run costs and cost curves (conventional) - total fixed and variable costs

3. Average costs and marginal costs

4. long run cost curves (conventional) – derivation of LRAC and LRMC

UNIT 7 REVENUE AND REVENUE CURVES (1)

1. Concept and forms of market including duopoly and oligopoly

2. Concept of total, average and marginal revenues

3. Revenue curves – under perfect competition and monopoly.

UNIT 8 SUPPLY (2)

1. Supply schedules and supply curves (law of supply)

2. Change in supply

3. Factors determining supply.

UNIT 9 MARKET EQUILIBRIUM (8)

1. Equilibrium of firms and industry

2. Price and output determination under perfect competition

3. Monopoly and monopolistic competition

UNIT 10 NATIONAL INCOME (5)

1. Concept of national income including GDP, GNP, NNP, PI, DPI

2. Per capita income

3. GDP deflator

4. Real income

5. Methods of measuring national income

6. Difficulties in estimating national income

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Modern Microeconomics, A. Koutsoyiannis

2. Price Theory and its Uses, Donald Stevenson Watson and Malcolm Getz

3. Modern Economic Theory, K.K. Dewette

4. Principles of Economics, P.N. Chopra

5. Advanced Economic Theory, H.L. Ahuja

6. Macroeconomic Theory, M.C. Vaish

7. Macroeconomic Theory, M.L. Jhingan

8. Microeconomics: Theory and Policy, D. N. Dwivedi

9. Economic survey, HMG Nepal

10. Micro and Macroeconomics: Mankiew and N. Gregory

11. www.cbs.org

12. www.npc.org

COURSE CODE: SFM 352(S)

COURSE TITLE: REGULAR FIELD TRAINING 7 DAYS THEORY AND PRACTICAL

FULL MARKS: 25
Practical field observation training related to forestry, soil conservation and wildlife management for one week will be conducted in and around Gorkha, Sauraha, Daman, or any suitable area closer to that. The respective campuses will provide the field visit program. At the end of filed training students' evaluation will be done by the supervising faculty.
COURSE CODE: SFM 353 (S)

COURSE TILTLE: FOREST MANAGEMENT

FULL MARKS: 50 THEORY: 40 PRACTICAL: 10
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of the course, the students will gain knowledge and skills in forest management techniques.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to:

1. Explain the definition scope, logic and principles of forest management.

2. Understand and explain the interactions and interdependence between humans, forest resources, and the environment.

3. Estimate the growing stock of a given forest.

4. Prepare an operational plan of a given forest area.

5. Understand and explain the concept and importance of multiple use forest management.

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION (4)

1.1 Definition & scope of forest management

1.2 Goal and objectives of forest management

1.3 History of forest management in Nepal

UNIT 2 INTERACTION OF MAN AND FOREST (6)

2.1 Human dependence on forest resources in Nepal (historical); food, fuelwood, and fodder.

2.2 Human impact on the forest of an area

2.2.1 Wood/ fuelwood collection

2.2.2 Grazing systems

2.2.3 Agriculture cultivation

2.3 Scarcity of forest products and its impact and human response.
UNIT 3 CLASSIFICATION OF FORESTS (6)

3.1 Purpose and Classification of forest on the basis of

3.1.1 Geographical and climatic factors

3.1.2 Functional factors (Protective and productive)

3.1.3 Legal factors.
UNIT 4 NORMAL FOREST (Protective & Productive) (4)

4.1 Definition and concepts

4.2 Implication of the concepts to forest management
UNIT 5 GROWING STOCK, INCREMENT AND ROTATION (10)

5.1 Growing stock and Increment

5.1.1 Introduction and definition of growing stock, determination of growing stock by various methods.

5.1.2 Importance and determination of site quality

5.2 Rotation

5.2.1 Definition and concept of rotation

5.2.2 Rotation in regular and irregular forest

5.2.3 Types of rotation

5.2.3.1 Physical and silvicultural

5.2.3.2 Rotation of max volume production

5.2.3.3 Rotation of high income

5.2.4 Choice of rotation

5.2.5 Rotation and conversion period (8)
UNIT 6 YIELD REGULATION (5)

6.1 Introduction to yield regulation

6.2 Concept of yield regulation (by volume and area)

6.3 Sustained yield

6.4 Yield table
UNIT 7 FOREST PLANNING/ OPERATIONAL PLAN (5)

7.1 Definition, objectives, need and scope of operational plan

7.2 Steps in preparation of Operational Plan.

7.3 Write up of operational plan

UNIT 8 CONCEPTS OF MULTIPLE USE MANAGEMENT (3)

8.1 Concept

8.2 Its scope and practicality.
PRACTICAL
1. Study of traditional and C.F. (Indicator, effectiveness practicality analysis & reporting) management

2. Study of human response to FR scarcity

3. Observation and classification of forests and forest land

4. Normal forest analysis

5. Preparation of operational plan (including steps and methods)

Course Code: FPE 354 (S)

Course Title: INTRODUCTORY FOREST PRODUCTS UTILIZATION

Full Marks: 50 Theory: 40 Practical: 10
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this course is to provide the knowledge and skills regarding the proper utilization of wood, and apply appropriate technology for economical harvesting and logging in Nepal.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: After completion of the course student will be able to:

1. Apply the appropriate techniques of harvesting and logging.

2. Identify the wood through physical features.

3. Know & explain about the structure of wood and uses, wood defects, wood based industries.

UNIT 1 HARVESTING and conversion (6)

1.1 Harvesting tools- Axes, saws, power chain-saw, bill hooks, cant hook, debarking spade, ropes, stem tightener and wedges.

1.2 Season of felling,

1.3 General rules of felling

1.4 Felling with different tools

1.5 Conversion of felled trees

UNIT 2 TRANSPORTATION (3)

2.1 Animal, carts, men

2.2 Sliding and skidding

2.3 Trucks, tractor, railways

2.5 Transportation by water: floating & rafting

UNIT 3 STRUCTURE OF WOOD (4)

3.1 Gross structure of wood e.g. bark, pith, sapwood/heartwood, growth rings (annual rings), early wood and late wood, grain and texture.

3.2 Minute (Fine) structure of wood e.g. pores (Vessels), fibers, tracheids, wood parenchyma (soft tissue), pith flecks, rays, ripple marks.
UNIT 4 DENSITY AND MOISTURE OF WOOD (4)

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Density and specific gravity

4.3 Variation of density in wood

4.4 Moisture content and its variation and measurement

4.5 Factors affecting strength of wood

UNIT 5 WOOD SEASONING (3)

1. Introduction, Importance and objectives

5.2 Methods of seasoning
UNIT 6 WOOD DEFECTS (4)

6.1 Natural defects

6.2 Other than natural defects
UNIT 7 USES OF WOOD (3)

7.1 Structural

7.2 Decorative

7.3 Specialized

UNIT 8 INTRODUCTION OF WOOD BASED INDUSTRIES (4)

8.1 Sawmilling

8.2 Composite Board Industry

8.3 Wood Preservation

8.4 Pulp and paper industries
UNIT 9 WOOD ENERGY (3)

9.1 Wood as fuel energy

9.2 Importance of fuel wood

9.3 Methods of efficient use of fuel wood energy, Improved Cook Stoves, Charcoal & Briquettes

UNIT 10 Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) (6)

10.1 Medicinal plants

10.2 Resin tapping

10.3 Bamboos and cane products

10.4 Lac, silk and Bee keeping

10.5 Tans, Dyes, Oil seeds, fiber, and flosses

PRACTICAL:

1. Wood identification at least 10 important species. 2 x 2 = 4 hrs.

2. Visit wood based and NTFP based Industries.

3. Introduction to power chain saw, tools, other equipments etc. 1 x 2 = 2 hrs.

4. Harvesting exercise. 2 x 2 = 4 hrs.

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Forest Utilization FRI, Vol. I and II, Deharadun, 1970

2. Forest Utilization by Tribhuvan Mehta

3. Hand Book on Appropriate technology for Forestry operation in developing countries (by Mikko Kantola and Klaus Virtanen)

4. Logging and Pulpwood production by J. Denneth Pearce and George Stenzel

5. Wood Energy News (Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia, Bangkok)

6. Forest Products Journals

7. Manual of Forest Utilization by S. Chowdhury, 2003

8. Manual of Important Woods of Nepal by D. Parajuli, S. Chowdhury, A.R. Gyawali and B.M. Shrestha, 1998.

9. A Manual of Forest harvesting and logging by A.R. Gyawali 1999.

COURSE CODE: WME 355 (S)

COURSE TITLE: INTRODUCTORY SOIL CONSERVATION AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

FULL MARKS: 50
GENERAL OBJECTIVES: The students will gain knowledge and skills regarding the concepts and practices of soil and soil conservation management in the context of Nepal.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the course, the students will be able to:

1. Understand the basic concept of soil and identify physical, chemical and biological properties of soil in the field.

2. Define a watershed and understand interactions among watershed components.

3. Understand the various kinds of erosion processes contributing to soil erosion and their control measures.

4. Understand the basic concept of hydrological cycle and its relationship to watershed management.

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO SOIL (4)

1.1 Definition and concept of soil

1.2 Introduction to rocks and minerals

UNIT 2 FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION AND SOIL DEVELOPMENT (3)

2.1 Climate

2.2 Living organisms

2.3 Relief

2.4 Parent material

2.5 Time

UNIT 3 PHYSICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS (6)

3.1 Soil texture

3.2 Soil structure

3.3 Soil Density

3.4 Soil porosity

3.5 Soil moisture

3.6 Soil organic matter

3.7 Soil color

3.8 Soil organisms

3.9 Soil PH

UNIT 4 BASIC IDEA OF FOREST SOILS (3)

1. Definition of Forest Soil

2. Difference between cultivated and forest soil.

3. Effect of vegetation on soil.