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Chapter Seven: Linkage, Recombination, and Eukaryotic Gene Mapping


*1. What does the term recombination mean? What are two causes of recombination?

Recombination means that meiosis generates gametes with different allelic combinations than the original gametes the organism inherited. If the organism was created by the fusion of an egg bearing AB and a sperm bearing ab, recombination generates gametes that are Ab and aB. Recombination may be caused by loci on different chromosomes that sort independently or by a physical crossing over between two loci on the same chromosome, with breakage and exchange of strands of homologous chromosomes paired in meiotic prophase I.
*2. In a testcross for two genes, what types of gametes are produced with (a) complete linkage, (b) independent assortment, and (c) incomplete linkage?

(a) Complete linkage of two genes means that only nonrecombinant gametes will be produced; the recombination frequency is zero.

(b) Independent assortment of two genes will result in 50% of the gametes being recombinant and 50% being nonrecombinant, as would be observed for genes on two different chromosomes. Independent assortment may also be observed for genes on the same chromosome, if they are far enough apart that one or more crossovers occur between them in every meiosis.

(c) Incomplete linkage means that greater than 50% of the gametes produced are nonrecombinant and less than 50% of the gametes are recombinant; the recombination frequency is greater than 0 and less than 50%.
3. What effect does crossing over have on linkage?

Crossing over generates recombination between genes located on the same chromosome, and thus renders linkage incomplete.
4. Why is the frequency of recombinant gametes always half the frequency of crossing over?

Crossing over occurs at the four-strand stage, when two homologous chromosomes, each consisting of a pair of sister chromatids, are paired. Each crossover involves just two of the four strands and generates two recombinant strands. The remaining two strands that were not involved in the crossover generate two nonrecombinant strands. Therefore, the frequency of recombinant gametes is always half the frequency of crossovers.
*5. What is the difference between genes in coupling configuration and genes in repulsion? What effect does the arrangement of linked genes (whether they are in coupling configuration or in repulsion) have on the results of a cross?

Genes in coupling configuration have two wild-type alleles on the same chromosome and the two mutant alleles on the homologous chromosome. Genes in repulsion have a wild-type allele of one gene together with the mutant allele of the second gene on the same chromosome, and vice versa on the homologous chromosome. The two arrangements have opposite effects on the results of a cross. For genes in coupling configuration, most of the progeny will be either wild-type for both genes, or mutant for both genes, with relatively few that are wild-type for one gene and mutant for the other. For genes in repulsion, most of the progeny will be mutant for only one gene and wild-type for the other, with relatively few recombinants that are wild-type for both or mutant for both.
6. How does one test to see if two genes are linked?

One first obtains individuals that are heterozygous for both genes. This may be achieved by crossing an individual homozygous dominant for both genes to one homozygous recessive for both genes, resulting in a heterozygote with genes in coupling configuration. Alternatively, an individual that is homozygous recessive for one gene may be crossed to an individual homozygous recessive for the second gene, resulting in a heterozygote with genes in repulsion. Then the heterozygote is mated to a homozygous recessive tester and the progeny of each phenotypic class are tallied. If the proportion of recombinant progeny is far less than 50%, the genes are linked. If the results are not so clear-cut, then they may be tested by chi-square, first for equal segregation at each locus, then for independent assortment of the two loci. Significant deviation from results expected for independent assortment indicates linkage of the two genes.
7. What is the difference between a genetic map and a physical map?

A genetic map gives the order of genes and relative distance between them based on recombination frequencies observed in genetic crosses. A physical map locates genes on the actual chromosome or DNA sequence, and thus represents the physical distance between genes.
*8. Why do calculated recombination frequencies between pairs of loci that are located relatively far apart underestimate the true genetic distances between loci?

The further apart two loci are, the more likely it is to get double crossovers between them. Unless there are marker genes between the loci, such double crossovers will be undetected because double crossovers give the same phenotypes as nonrecombinants. The calculated recombination frequency will underestimate the true crossover frequency because the double crossover progeny are not counted as recombinants.
9. Explain how one can determine which of three linked loci is the middle locus from the progeny of a three-point testcross.

Double crossovers always result in switching the middle gene with respect to the two nonrecombinant chromosomes. Hence, one can compare the two double crossover phenotypes with the two nonrecombinant phenotypes and see which gene is reversed. In the diagram on the facing page we see that the coupling relationship of the middle gene is flipped in the double crossovers with respect to the genes on either side. So whichever gene on the double crossover can be altered to make the double crossover resemble a nonrecombinant chromosome is the middle gene. If we take either of the double crossover products l M r or L m R, changing the M gene will make it resemble a nonrecombinant.

l m r l M r

L M R L m R
*10. What does the interference tell us about the effect of one crossover on another?

A positive interference value results when the actual number of double crossovers observed is less than the number of double crossovers expected from the single crossover frequencies. Thus positive interference indicates that a crossover inhibits or interferes with the occurrence of a second crossover nearby.

Conversely, a negative interference value, where more double crossovers occur than expected, suggests that a crossover event can stimulate additional crossover events in the same region of the chromosome.
11. List some of the methods for physically mapping genes and explain how they are used to position genes on chromosomes.

Deletion mapping: Recessive mutations are mapped by crossing mutants with strains containing various overlapping deletions that map to the same region as the recessive mutation. If the heterozygote with the mutation on one chromosome and the deletion on the homologous chromosome has a mutant phenotype, then the mutation must be located on the same physical portion of the chromosome that is deleted. If, on the other hand, the heterozygote has a wild-type phenotype (the mutation and the deletion complement), then the mutation lies outside the deleted region of the chromosome.

Somatic-cell hybridization: Human and mouse cells are fused. The resulting hybrid cell randomly loses human chromosomes and retains only a few. A panel of hybrids that retain different combinations of human chromosomes is tested for expression of a human gene. A correlation between the expression of the gene and the retention of a unique human chromosome in those cell lines indicates that the human gene must be located on that chromosome.

In-situ hybridization: DNA probes that are labeled with either a radioactive or fluorescent tag are hybridized to chromosome spreads. Detection of the labeled hybridized probe by autoradiography or fluorescence imaging reveals which chromosome and where along that chromosome the homologous gene is located.

DNA sequencing: Overlapping DNA sequences are joined using computer programs to ultimately form chromosome-length sequence assemblies, or contigs. The locations of genes along the DNA sequence can be determined by searching for matches to known gene or protein amino acid sequences.
12. What is a lod score and how is it calculated?

The term lod means logarithm of odds. It is used to determine whether genes are linked, usually in the context of pedigree analysis. One first determines the probability of obtaining the observed progeny given a specified degree of linkage. That probability is divided by the probability of obtaining the observed progeny if the genes are not linked and sort independently. The log of the ratio of these probabilities is the lod score. A lod score of 3 or greater, indicating that the specified degree of linkage results in at least a 1000-fold greater likelihood of yielding the observed outcome than if the genes are unlinked, indicates linkage.


*13. In the snail Cepaea nemoralis, an autosomal allele causing a banded shell (BB) is recessive to the allele for unbanded shell (BO). Genes at a different locus determine the background color of the shell; here, yellow (CY) is recessive to brown (CBw). A banded, yellow snail is crossed with a homozygous brown, unbanded snail. The F1 are then crossed with banded, yellow snails (a testcross).

(a) What will be the results of the testcross if the loci that control banding and color are linked with no crossing over?

With absolute linkage, there will be no recombinant progeny. The F1 inherited banded and yellow alleles (BBCY) together on one chromosome from the banded yellow parent and unbanded and brown alleles (BOCBw) together on the homologous chromosome from the unbanded brown parent. Without recombination, all the F1 gametes will contain only these two allelic combinations, in equal proportions. Therefore, the F2 testcross progeny will be ½ banded, yellow and ½ unbanded, brown.

(b) What will be the results of the testcross if the loci assort independently?

With independent assortment, the progeny will be:

¼ banded, yellow

¼ banded, brown

¼ unbanded, yellow

¼ unbanded, brown

(c) What will be the results of the testcross if the loci are linked and 20 map units apart?

The recombination frequency is 20%, so each of the two classes of recombinant progeny must be 10%. The recombinants are banded, brown and unbanded, yellow. The two classes of nonrecombinants are 80% of the progeny, so each must be 40%. The nonrecombinants are banded, yellow and unbanded, brown. In summary:

40% banded, yellow

40% unbanded, brown

10% banded, brown

10% unbanded, yellow

*14. In silkmoths (Bombyx mori) red eyes (re) and white-banded wing (wb) are encoded by two mutant alleles that are recessive to those that produce wild-type traits (re+ and wb+); these two genes are on the same chromosome. A moth homozygous for red eyes and white-banded wings is crossed with a moth homozygous for the wild-type traits. The F1 have normal eyes and normal wings. The F1 are crossed with moths that have red eyes and white-banded wings in a testcross. The progeny of this testcross are:

wild-type eyes, wild-type wings 418

red eyes, wild-type wings 19

wild-type eyes, white-banded wings 16

red eyes, white-banded wings 426

(a) What phenotypic proportions would be expected if the genes for red eyes and white-banded wings were located on different chromosomes?

¼ wild-type eyes, wild-type wings

¼ red eyes, wild-type wings

¼ wild-type eyes, white-banded wings

¼ red eyes, white-banded wings

(b) What is the genetic distance between the genes for red eyes and white-banded wings?

The F1 heterozygote inherited a chromosome with alleles for red eyes and white-banded wings (re wb) from one parent and a chromosome with alleles for wild-type eyes and wild-type wings (re+ wb+) from the other parent. These are therefore the phenotypes of the nonrecombinant progeny, present in the highest numbers. The recombinants are the 19 with red eyes, wild-type wings and 16 with wild-type eyes, white-banded wings.

RF = recombinants/total progeny × 100% = (19 + 16)/879 × 100% = 4.0%

The distance between the genes is 4 map units.
*15. A geneticist discovers a new mutation in Drosophila melanogaster that causes the flies to shake and quiver. She calls this mutation spastic (sps) and determines that spastic is due to an autosomal recessive gene. She wants to determine if the spastic gene is linked to the recessive gene for vestigial wings (vg). She crosses a fly homozygous for spastic and vestigial traits with a fly homozygous for the wild-type traits and then uses the resulting F1 females in a testcross. She obtains the following flies from this testcross:

vg+ sps+ 230

vg sps 224

vg sps+ 97

vg+sps 99

total 650

Are the genes that cause vestigial wings and the spastic mutation linked? Do a series of chi-square tests to determine if the genes have assorted independently.

To test for independent assortment, we first test for equal segregation at each locus, then test whether the two loci sort independently.

Test for vg:

Observed vg = 224 + 97 = 321

Observed vg+ = 230 + 99 = 329

Expected vg or vg+ = ½ × 650 = 325

= (321 – 325)2/325 + (329 325)2/325 = 16/325 + 16/325

= 0.098

We have n – 1 degrees of freedom, where n is the number of phenotypic classes = 2, so just 1 degree of freedom. From Table 3.4, we see that the P value is between 0.7 and 0.8. So these results do not deviate significantly from the expected 1:1 segregation.

Similarly, testing for sps, we observe 327 sps+ and 323 sps and expect ½ × 650 = 325 of each:

2 = 4/325 + 4/325 = .025, again with 1 degree of freedom. The P value is between 0.8 and 0.9, so these results do not deviate significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio.

Finally, we test for independent assortment, where we expect 1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratios, or 162.5 of each.



o – e

(o – e)2

(o – e)2/e





















We have four phenotypic classes, giving us three degrees of freedom. The chi-square value of 102.5 is off the chart, so we reject independent assortment.

Instead, the genes are linked, and the RF = (97 + 99)/650  100% = 30%, giving us 30 map units between them.
16. In cucumbers, heart-shaped leaves (hl) are recessive to normal leaves (Hl) and having many fruit spines (ns) is recessive to having few fruit spines (Ns). The genes for leaf shape and number of spines are located on the same chromosome; mapping experiments indicate that they are 32.6 map units apart. A cucumber plant having heart-shaped leaves and many spines is crossed with a plant that is homozygous for normal leaves and few spines. The F1 are crossed with plants that have heart-shaped leaves and many spines. What phenotypes and proportions are expected in the progeny of this cross?

The recombinants should total 32.6%, so each recombinant phenotype will be 16.3% of the progeny. Since the F1 inherited a chromosome with heart-shaped leaves and many spines (hl ns) from one parent and a chromosome with normal leaves and few spines (Hl Ns) from the other parent, these are the nonrecombinant phenotypes, and together they total 67.4%, or 33.7% each. The two recombinant phenotypes are heart-shaped leaves with few spines (hl Ns) and normal-shaped leaves with many spines (Hl ns).

Heart-shaped, many spines 33.7%

Normal-shaped, few spines 33.7%

Heart-shaped, few spines 16.3%

Normal-shaped, many spines 16.3%
*17. In tomatoes, tall (D) is dominant over dwarf (d), and smooth fruit (P) is dominant over pubescent (p) fruit, which is covered with fine hairs. A farmer has two tall and smooth tomato plants, which we will call plant A and plant B. The farmer crosses plants A and B with the same dwarf and pubescent plant and obtains the following numbers of progeny:
Progeny of

Plant A Plant B

Dd Pp 122 2

Dd pp 6 82

dd Pp 4 82

dd pp 124 4

(a) What are the genotypes of plant A and plant B?

The genotypes of both plants are DdPp.

(b) Are the loci that determine height of the plant and pubescence linked? If so, what is the map distance between them?

Yes. From the cross of plant A, the map distance is 10/256 = 3.9% or 3.9 m.u. The cross of plant B gives 6/170 = 3.5% or 3.5 m.u. If we pool the data from the two crosses, we get 16/426 = 3.8% or 3.8 m.u.

(c) Explain why different proportions of progeny are produced when plant A and plant B are crossed with the same dwarf pubescent plant.

The two plants have different coupling configurations. In plant A, the dominant alleles D and P are coupled; one chromosome is D P and the other is d p. In plant B, they are in repulsion; its chromosomes have D p and d P.
18. A cross between individuals with genotypes a+a b+b × aa bb produces the following progeny:

a+a b+b 83

a+a bb 21

aa b+b 19

aa bb 77

(a) Does the evidence indicate that the a and b loci are linked?

The ratio of a+ to a is 104/96, and the ratio of b+ to b is 102/98, both close to 1:1 ratios. The four phenotypic classes are not present in 1:1:1:1 ratios (no need for chi-square test), so they are linked.

(b) What is the map distance between a and b?

The recombinants are the two phenotypic classes with the fewest progeny: RF = (21 + 19)/200 = 40/200 = 0.2 = 20%; the two genes are 20 m.u. apart.

(c) Are the genes in the parent with genotype a+a b+b in coupling configuration or in repulsion? How do you know?

They are in coupling configuration because the nonrecombinants are a+b+ and ab.

  1. In tomatoes, dwarf (d) is recessive to tall (D) and opaque (light green) leaves (op) is recessive to green leaves (Op). The loci that determine the height and leaf color

are linked and separated by a distance of 7 m.u. For each of the following crosses, determine the phenotypes and proportions of progeny produced.
(a) ×

The recombinants in this cross would be D op and d Op, and each would be 3.5% of the progeny to total 7% recombinants. Each of the nonrecombinants would be 46.5%, to total the remaining 93%.

Tall green 46.5%

Dwarf opaque 46.5%

Tall opaque 3.5%

Dwarf green 3.5%
(b) ×

Here with the genes in repulsion, the recombinants are D Op and d op.

Tall green 3.5%

Dwarf opaque 3.5%

Tall opaque 46.5%

Dwarf green 46.5%
(c) ×

This is not a testcross, so we have to account for recombination in both parents. The most straightforward way is to do a Punnett square, including the types and proportions of gametes produced by meiosis in each parent. Because the genes are in coupling configuration in both parents, we can use the figures from part (a).

D Op 0.465

D op 0.035

d Op 0.035

d op 0.465

D Op 0.465

Tall, green


Tall, green


Tall, green


Tall, green


D op 0.035

Tall, green


Tall, opaque


Tall, green


Tall, opaque


d Op 0.035

Tall, green


Tall, green


Dwarf, green


Dwarf, green


d op 0.465

Tall, green


Tall, opaque


Dwarf, green


Dwarf, opaque


In summary, we get

Tall green 3(.216) + 4(.016) + 2(.001) = .714

Dwarf opaque .216

Tall opaque 2(.016) + .001 = .033

Dwarf green 2(.016) + .001 = .033
(d) ×

Again, this is not a testcross, and recombination in both parents must be taken into account. Both are in repulsion, so we use the proportions from part (b).

D Op 0.035

D op 0.465

d Op 0.465

d op 0.035

D Op 0.035

Tall, green


Tall, green


Tall, green


Tall, green


D op 0.465

Tall, green


Tall, opaque


Tall, green


Tall, opaque


d Op 0.465

Tall, green


Tall, green


Dwarf, green


Dwarf, green


d op 0.035

Tall, green


Tall, opaque


Dwarf, green


Dwarf, opaque


In summary, we get

Tall, green 3(.001) + 4(.016) + 2 (.216) = .499

Dwarf, opaque .001

Tall, opaque 2(.016) + .216 = .248

Dwarf, green 2(.016) + .216 = .248
*20. In Drosophila melanogaster, ebony body (e) and rough eyes (ro) are encoded by autosomal recessive genes found on chromosome 3; they are separated by 20 map units. The gene that encodes forked bristles (f) is X-linked recessive and assorts independently of e and ro. Give the phenotypes of progeny and their expected proportions when each of the following genotypes is test-crossed.

We can calculate the four phenotypic classes and their proportions for e and ro, and then each of those classes will be split 1:1 for f, since f sorts independently. The recombination frequency between e and ro is 20%, so each of the recombinants (e+ ro and e ro+) will be 10%, and each of the nonrecombinants (e+ ro+ and e ro) will be 40%. Each of these will then be split equally among f+ and f.

e+ ro+ f+ 20%

e+ ro+ f 20%

e ro f+ 20%

e ro f 20%

e+ ro f+ 5%

e+ ro f 5%

e ro+ f+ 5%

e ro+ f 5%

We can do the same calculations as in part (a), except the nonrecombinants are e+ ro and e ro+ and the recombinants are e+ ro+ and e ro.

e+ ro+ f+ 5%

e+ ro+ f 5%

e ro f+ 5%

e ro f 5%

e+ ro f+ 20%

e+ ro f 20%

e ro+ f+ 20%

e ro+ f 20%
*21. A series of two-point crosses were carried out among seven loci (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g), producing the following recombination frequencies. Map the seven loci, showing their linkage groups, the order of the loci in each linkage group, and distances between the loci of each linkage group.
Loci Recombination frequency Loci Recombination frequency

a and b 50 c and d 50

a and c 50 c and e 26

a and d 12 c and f 50

a and e 50 c and g 50

a and f 50 d and e 50

a and g 4 d and f 50

b and c 10 d and g 8

b and d 50 e and f 50

b and e 18 e and g 50

b and f 50 f and g 50

b and g 50
50% recombination indicates that the genes assort independently. Less than 50% recombination indicates linkage. Starting with the most tightly linked genes a and g, we look for other genes linked to these and find only gene d has less than 50% recombination with a and g. So one linkage group consists of a, g, and d. We know that gene g is between a and d because the a to d distance is 12.






Similarly, we find a second linkage group of b, c, and e, with b in the middle.





Gene f is unlinked to either of these groups, on a third linkage group.
*22. Waxy endosperm (wx), shrunken endosperm (sh), and yellow seedling (v) are encoded by three recessive genes in corn that are linked on chromosome 5. A corn plant homozygous for all three recessive alleles is crossed with a plant homozygous for all the dominant alleles. The resulting F1 are then crossed with a plant homozygous for the recessive genes in a three-point testcross. The progeny of the testcross are given below:

wx sh V 87

Wx Sh v 94

Wx Sh V 3479

wx sh v 3478

Wx sh V 1515

wx Sh v 1531

wx Sh V 292

Wx sh v 280

total 10,756

(a) Determine order of these genes on the chromosome.

The nonrecombinants are Wx Sh V and wx sh v.

The double crossovers are wx sh V and Wx Sh v.

Comparing the two, we see that they differ only at the v locus, so v must be the middle gene.

(b) Calculate the map distances between the genes.

Wx-V distance—recombinants are wx V and Wx v:

RF = (292+280+87+94)/10,756 = 753/10,756 = .07 = 7% or 7 m.u.

Sh-V distance—recombinants are sh V and Sh v:

RF = (1515+1531+87+94)/10,756 = 3227/10,756 = 30 = 30% or 30 m.u.

The Wx-Sh distance is the sum of these two distances: 7 + 30 = 37 m.u.l.

(c) Determine the coefficient of coincidence and the interference among these genes.

Expected dcos = RF1 × RF2 × #total progeny =.07(.30)(10,756) = 226

C.o.C. = observed dcos/expected dcos = (87+94)/226 = 0.80

Interference = 1 – C.o.C = 0.20
23. Fine spines (s), smooth fruit (tu), and uniform fruit color (u) are three recessive traits in cucumbers whose genes are linked on the same chromosome. A cucumber

plant heterozygous for all three traits is used in a testcross and the progeny at the top of the following page are produced from this testcross.

S U Tu 2

s u Tu 70

S u Tu 21

s u tu 4

S U tu 82

s U tu 21

s U Tu 13

S u tu 17

total 230

(a) Determine the order of these genes on the chromosome.

Nonrecombinants are s u Tu and S U tu.

Double crossovers are s u tu and S U Tu.

Because Tu differs between the nonrecombinants and the double crossovers, Tu is the middle gene.

(b) Calculate the map distances between the genes.

S-Tu distance: recombinants are S Tu and s tu.

RF = (2 + 4 + 21 + 21)/230 = 48/230 = 21% or 21 m.u.

U-Tu distance: recombinants are u tu and U Tu.

RF = (2 + 4 + 13 + 17)/230 = 36/230 = 16% or 16 m.u.

(c) Determine the coefficient of coincidence and the interference among these genes.

Expected dcos = (48/230)(36/230)(230) = 7.5

C.o.C. = observed dcos/expected dcos = 6/7.5 = 0.8

I = 1 – C.o.C. = 0.2

(d) List the genes found on each chromosome in the parents used in the testcross.

In the correct gene order for the heterozygous parent: s Tu u and S tu U

For the testcross parent: s tu u and s tu u
*24. In Drosophila melanogaster, black body (b) is recessive to gray body (b+), purple eyes (pr) are recessive to red eyes (pr+), and vestigial wings (vg) are recessive to normal wings (vg+). The loci coding for these traits are linked, with the map distances:

The interference among these genes is 0.5. A fly with black body, purple eyes, and vestigial wings is crossed with a fly homozygous for gray body, red eyes, and normal wings. The female progeny are then crossed with males that have black body, purple eyes, and vestigial wings. If 1000 progeny are produced from this testcross, what will be the phenotypes and proportions of the progeny?

Although we know what the recombination frequencies are between the pairs of genes, these recombination frequencies result from both single crossover (sco) and double crossover (dco) progenies. So we must first calculate how many double crossover progeny we should get.

Working backward, given that interference = 0.5, then the coefficient of coincidence = 1 – interference = 0.5.

We now use the C.o.C. to calculate the actual dco progeny:

C.o.C. = 0.5 = actual dcos/theoretical dcos = actual dcos/(.06)(.13)(1000)

The denominator calculates to 7.8, so actual dcos = 0.5(7.8) = 3.9

We round 3.9 to 4 double crossover progeny.

Because the parents were either homozygous recessive for all three loci or homozygous dominant (wild type) for all three loci, the F1 heterozygote fly has chromosomes with b pr vg and b+ pr+ vg+. These are therefore the nonrecombinant progeny phenotypes. The double crossover progeny will be b pr+ vg and b+ pr vg+. We calculated above that there will be four double crossover progeny, so we should expect two progeny flies of each double crossover phenotype.

Next, we know that the recombination frequency between b and pr is 6% or 0.06. This recombination frequency arises from the sum of the single crossovers between b and pr and the double crossover progeny:

scos(b-pr) + dcos = .06(1,000) = 60. But we already calculated that dcos = 4, so substituting in the above equation, we get: scos(b-pr) + 4 = 60; scos = 56. The single crossover phenotypes between b and pr are b pr+ vg+ and b+ pr vg. These total 56, or 28 each.

Similarly, scos(pr-vg) + dcos = .13(1000) = 130; scos(pr-vg) = 130 – dcos = 130 – 4 = 126. The single crossover phenotypes between pr and vg are b pr vg+ and b+ pr+ vg. These total 126, or 63 each.

The two remaining phenotypic classes are the nonrecombinants.

# nonrecombinants = 1000 – scos(b-pr) – cos(pr-vg) – dcos = 1000 – 56 – 126 – 4. So, # nonrecombinants = 1000 – 186 = 814. The nonrecombinant phenotypes are b+ pr+ vg+ and b pr vg; we expect 407 of each, to total 814.

In summary, the expected numbers of all eight phenotypic classes are:

b+ pr+ vg+ 407

b pr vg 407

b+ pr+ vg 63

b pr vg+ 63

b+ pr vg 28

b pr+ vg+ 28

b+ pr vg+ 2

b pr+ vg 2
*25. The locations of six deletions have been mapped to the Drosophila chromosome shown on the following page. Recessive mutations a, b, c, d, e, and f are known to be located in the same region as the deletions, but the order of the mutations on the chromosome is not known. When flies homozygous for the recessive mutations are crossed with flies homozygous for the deletions, the following results are obtained, where “m” represents a mutant phenotype and a plus sign (+) represents the wild type. On the basis of these data, determine the relative order of the seven mutant genes on the chromosome.

f? a f? c e d b


Deletion a b c d e f

1 m + m + + m

2 m + + + + +

3 + m m m m +

4 + + m m m +

5 + + + m m +

6 + m + m + +
The mutations are mapped to the intervals indicated on the figure above the table. The location of f is ambiguous; it could be in either location shown above.
26. A panel of cell lines was created from mouse-human somatic-cell fusions. Each line was examined for the presence of human chromosomes and for the production of an enzyme. The following results were obtained:

Human chromosomes

Cell line Enzyme 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 17 22

A - + - - - + - - - - - + -

B + + + - - - - - + - - + +

C - + - - - + - - - - - - +

D - - - - + - - - - - - - -

E + + - - - - - - + - + + -

On the basis of these results, which chromosome has the gene that codes for the enzyme?

The enzyme is produced only in cell lines B and E. Of all the chromosomes, only chromosome 8 is present in just these two cell lines and absent in all the other cell lines that do not produce the enzyme. Therefore, the gene for the enzyme is most likely on chromosome 8.
*27. A panel of cell lines was created from mouse-human somatic-cell fusions. Each line was examined for the presence of human chromosomes and for the production of three enzymes. The following results were obtained:

Enzyme Human chromosomes

Cell line 1 2 3 4 8 9 12 15 16 17 22 X

A + - + - - + - + + - - +

B + - - - - + - - + + - -

C - + + + - - - - - + - +

D - + + + + - - - + - - +
On the basis of these results, give the chromosome location of enzyme 1, enzyme 2, and enzyme 3.

Enzyme 1 is located on chromosome 9. Chromosome 9 is the only chromosome that is present in the cell lines that produce enzyme 1 and absent in the cell lines that do not produce enzyme 1.

Enzyme 2 is located on chromosome 4. Chromosome 4 is the only chromosome that is present in cell lines that produce enzyme 2 (C & D) and absent in cell lines that do not produce enzyme 2 (A & B).

Enzyme 3 is located on the X chromosome. The X chromosome is the only chromosome present in the three cell lines that produce enzyme 3 and absent in the cell line that does not produce enzyme 3.


28. In calculating map distances, we did not concern ourselves with whether double crossovers were two-stranded, three-stranded, or four-stranded; yet, these different types of double crossovers produce different types of gametes. Can you explain why we do not need to determine how many strands take part in double crossovers in diploid organisms? (Hint: Draw out the types of gametes produced by the different types of double crossovers and see how they contribute to the determination of map distances.)

The three-stranded double crossovers all generate two recombinant chromosomes and two nonrecombinant chromosomes.




A b

a B

a b



The four-stranded double crossovers always generate four recombinant chromosomes.

A b

A b

a B

a B





The two-stranded double crossovers always generate four nonrecombinant chromosomes.







a b

a b

Since the four-stranded and two-stranded double crossovers are equally probable, the net result of all types of double crossovers averaged together is 50% recombinant and 50% nonrecombinant chromosomes.

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