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Chapter 16 Cleaning and Shaping

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83. Rosenthal S, Spangberg L, Safavi K. Chlorhexidine substantivity in root canal dentin. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 98(4):488-92, 2004.

84. Jeansonne MJ, White RR. A comparison of 2.0% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as antimicrobial endodontic irrigants. J Endod 20(6):276-8, 1994.

85. Kuruvilla JR, Kamath MP. Antimicrobial activity of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate separately and combined, as endodontic irrigants. J Endod 24(7):472-6, 1998.

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88. Steinberg D, Abid-el-Raziq D, Heling I. In vitro antibacterial effect of RC-Prep components on Streptococcus sobrinus. Endod Dent Traumatol 15(4):171-4, 1999.

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92. McComb D, Smith DC. A preliminary scanning electron microscopic study of root canals after endodontic procedures. Journal of Endodontics 1(7):238-42, 1975.

93. Chailertvanitkul P, Saunders WP, MacKenzie D. The effect of smear layer on microbial coronal leakage of gutta-percha root fillings. Int Endod J 29(4):242-8, 1996.

94. Sen BH, Wesselink PR, Turkun M. The smear layer: a phenomenon in root canal therapy. International Endodontic Journal 28(3):141-8, 1995.

95. Clark-Holke D, Drake D, Walton R, Rivera E, Guthmiller JM. Bacterial penetration through canals of endodontically treated teeth in the presence or absence of the smear layer. Journal of Dentistry 31(4):275-81, 2003.

96. Delivanis PD, Mattison GD, Mendel RW. The survivability of F43 strain of Streptococcus sanguis in root canals filled with gutta-percha and Procosol cement. Journal of Endodontics 9(10):407-10, 1983.

97. Oksan T, Aktener BO, Sen BH, Tezel H. The penetration of root canal sealers into dentinal tubules. A scanning electron microscopic study. Int Endod J 26(5):301-5, 1993.

98. Wennberg A, Orstavik D. Adhesion of root canal sealers to bovine dentine and gutta-percha. Int Endod J 23(1):13-9, 1990.

99. Leonard JE, Gutmann JL, Guo IY. Apical and coronal seal of roots obturated with a dentine bonding agent and resin. Int Endod J 29(2):76-83, 1996.

100. Sen BH, Piskin B, Baran N. The effect of tubular penetration of root canal sealers on dye microleakage. Int Endod J 29(1):23-8, 1996.

101. Kokkas AB, Boutsioukis A, Vassiliadis LP, Stavrianos CK. The influence of the smear layer on dentinal tubule penetration depth by three different root canal sealers: an in vitro study. J Endod 30(2):100-2, 2004.

102. Cobankara FK, Adanr N, Belli S. Evaluation of the influence of smear layer on the apical and coronal sealing ability of two sealers. J Endod 30(6):406-9, 2004.

103. Clark-Holke D, Drake D, Walton R, Rivera E, Guthmiller JM. Bacterial penetration through canals of endodontically treated teeth in the presence or absence of the smear layer. J Dent 31(4):275-81, 2003.

104. Hulsmann M, Heckendorff M, Lennon A. Chelating agents in root canal treatment: mode of action and indications for their use. Int Endod J 36(12):810-30, 2003.

105. Baumgartner JC, Mader CL. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of four root canal irrigation regimens. Journal of Endodontics 13(4):147-57, 1987.

106. Baumgartner JC, Brown CM, Mader CL, Peters DD, Shulman JD. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal debridement using saline, sodium hypochlorite, and citric acid. J Endod 10(11):525-31, 1984.

107. Haznedaroglu F. Efficacy of various concentrations of citric acid at different pH values for smear layer removal. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 96(3):340-4, 2003.

108. Barkhordar RA, Watanabe LG, Marshall GW, Hussain MZ. Removal of intracanal smear by doxycycline in vitro. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology & Endodontics 84(4):420-3, 1997.

109. Haznedaroglu F, Ersev H. Tetracycline HCl solution as a root canal irrigant. J Endod 27(12):738-40, 2001.

110. Guignes P, Faure J, Maurette A. Relationship between endodontic preparations and human dentin permeability measured in situ. Journal of Endodontics 22(2):60-7, 1996.

111. Hottel TL, el-Refai NY, Jones JJ. A comparison of the effects of three chelating agents on the root canals of extracted human teeth. J Endod 25(11):716-7, 1999.

112. Lim TS, Wee TY, Choi MY, Koh WC, Sae-Lim V. Light and scanning electron microscopic evaluation of Glyde File Prep in smear layer removal. International Endodontic Journal 36(5):336-43, 2003.

113. Mjor IA, Smith MR, Ferrari M, Mannocci F. The structure of dentine in the apical region of human teeth. Int Endod J 34(5):346-53, 2001.

114. Çalt S, Serper A. Smear layer removal by EGTA. Journal of Endodontics 26:459-61, 2000.

115. Scelza MF, Teixeira AM, Scelza P. Decalcifying effect of EDTA-T, 10% citric acid, and 17% EDTA on root canal dentin. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology & Endodontics 95(2):234-6, 2003.

116. Calt S, Serper A. Smear layer removal by EGTA. Journal of Endodontics 26(8):459-61, 2000.

117. Torabinejad M, Khademi AA, Babagoli J, Cho Y, Johnson WB, Bozhilov K, et al. A new solution for the removal of the smear layer. J Endod 29(3):170-5, 2003.

118. Torabinejad M, Cho Y, Khademi AA, Bakland LK, Shabahang S. The effect of various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite on the ability of MTAD to remove the smear layer. J Endod 29(4):233-9, 2003.

119. Shabahang S, Pouresmail M, Torabinejad M. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of MTAD and sodium hypochlorite. J Endod 29(7):450-2, 2003.

120. Shabahang S, Torabinejad M. Effect of MTAD on Enterococcus faecalis-contaminated root canals of extracted human teeth. J Endod 29(9):576-9, 2003.

121. Zhang W, Torabinejad M, Li Y. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of MTAD using the MTT-tetrazolium method. J Endod 29(10):654-7, 2003.

122. Machnick TK, Torabinejad M, Munoz CA, Shabahang S. Effect of MTAD on the bond strength to enamel and dentin. J Endod 29(12):818-21, 2003.

123. Powell SE, Wong PD, Simon JH. A comparison of the effect of modified and nonmodified instrument tips on apical canal configuration. Part II. J Endod 14(5):224-8, 1988.

124. Ingle JI. A standardized endodontic technique utilizing newly designed instruments and filling materials. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 14:83-91, 1961.

125. Weine FS, Kelly RF, Lio PJ. The effect of preparation procedures on original canal shape and on apical foramen shape. Journal of Endodontics 1(8):255-62, 1975.

126. Morgan LF, Montgomery S. An evaluation of the crown-down pressureless technique. J Endod 10(10):491-8, 1984.

127. Torabinejad M. Passive step-back technique. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 77(4):398-401, 1994.

128. Wu MK, van der Sluis LW, Wesselink PR. The risk of furcal perforation in mandibular molars using Gates-Glidden drills with anticurvature pressure. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 99(3):378-82, 2005.

129. Roane JB, Sabala CL, Duncanson MG, Jr. The "balanced force" concept for instrumentation of curved canals. Journal of Endodontics 11(5):203-11, 1985.

130. Parris J, Wilcox L, Walton R. Effectiveness of apical clearing: histological and radiographical evaluation. Journal of Endodontics 20(5):219-24, 1994.

131. Ferreira Murgel CA, Walton RE, Rittman B, Pecora JD. A comparison of techniques for cleaning endodontic files after usage: a quantitative scanning electron microscopic study. J Endod 16(5):214-7, 1990.

132. Chang YC, Tai KW, Chou LS, Chou MY. Effects of camphorated parachlorophenol on human periodontal ligament cells in vitro. J Endod 25(12):779-81, 1999.

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134. Spangberg L, Rutberg M, Rydinge E. Biologic effects of endodontic antimicrobial agents. J Endod 5(6):166-75, 1979.

135. Harrison JW, Bellizzi R, Osetek EM. The clinical toxicity of endodontic medicaments. J Endod 5(2):42-7, 1979.

136. Thoden van Velzen SK, Feltkamp-Vroom TM. Immunologic consequences of formaldehyde fixation of autologous tissue implants. J Endod 3(5):179-85, 1977.

137. Myers DR, Shoaf HK, Dirksen TR, Pashley DH, Whitford GM, Reynolds KE. Distribution of 14C-formaldehyde after pulpotomy with formocresol. J Am Dent Assoc 96(5):805-13, 1978.

138. Walton RE, Langeland K. Migration of materials in the dental pulp of monkeys. J Endod 4(6):167-77, 1978.

139. Bystrom A, Claesson R, Sundqvist G. The antibacterial effect of camphorated paramonochlorophenol, camphorated phenol and calcium hydroxide in the treatment of infected root canals. Endod Dent Traumatol 1(5):170-5, 1985.

140. Doran MG, Radtke PK. A review of endodontic medicaments. Gen Dent 46(5):484-8; quiz 9-90, 1998.

141. Harrison JW, Baumgartner CJ, Zielke DR. Analysis of interappointment pain associated with the combined use of endodontic irrigants and medicaments. J Endod 7(6):272-6, 1981.

142. Harrison JW, Gaumgartner JC, Svec TA. Incidence of pain associated with clinical factors during and after root canal therapy. Part 1. Interappointment pain. J Endod 9(9):384-7, 1983.

143. Walton RE. Intracanal medicaments. Dent Clin North Am 28(4):783-96, 1984.

144. Kleier DJ, Mullaney TP. Effects of formocresol on posttreatment pain of endodontic origin in vital molars. J Endod 6(5):566-9, 1980.

145. Maddox D, Walton R, Davis C. Incidence of post-treatment endodontic pain related to medicaments and other factors. Journal of Endodontics 3:447, 1977.

146. Torabinejad M, Kettering JD, McGraw JC, Cummings RR, Dwyer TG, Tobias TS. Factors associated with endodontic interappointment emergencies of teeth with necrotic pulps. J Endod 14(5):261-6, 1988.

147. Trope M. Relationship of intracanal medicaments to endodontic flare-ups. Endod Dent Traumatol 6(5):226-9, 1990.

148. Law A, Messer H. An evidence-based analysis of the antibacterial effectiveness of intracanal medicaments. J Endod 30(10):689-94, 2004.

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158. Chance K, Lin L, Shovlin FE, Skribner J. Clinical trial of intracanal corticosteroid in root canal therapy. J Endod 13(9):466-8, 1987.

159. Chance KB, Lin L, Skribner JE. Corticosteroid use in acute apical periodontitis: a review with clinical implications. Clin Prev Dent 10(1):7-10, 1988.

160. Dametto FR, Ferraz CC, de Almeida Gomes BP, Zaia AA, Teixeira FB, de Souza-Filho FJ. In vitro assessment of the immediate and prolonged antimicrobial action of chlorhexidine gel as an endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 99(6):768-72, 2005.

161. Dammaschke T, Schneider U, Stratmann U, Yoo JM, Schafer E. Effect of root canal dressings on the regeneration of inflamed periapical tissue. Acta Odontol Scand 63(3):143-52, 2005.

162. Gomes BP, Vianna ME, Sena NT, Zaia AA, Ferraz CC, de Souza Filho FJ. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide combined with chlorhexidine gel used as intracanal medicament. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102(4):544-50, 2006.

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164. Naoum HJ, Chandler NP. Temporization for endodontics. International Endodontic Journal 35(12):964-78, 2002.

165. Barthel CR, Zimmer S, Wussogk R, Roulet JF. Long-Term bacterial leakage along obturated roots restored with temporary and adhesive fillings. J Endod 27(9):559-62, 2001.

166. Zmener O, Banegas G, Pameijer CH. Coronal microleakage of three temporary restorative materials: an in vitro study. J Endod 30(8):582-4, 2004.

167. Mayer T, Eickholz P. Microleakage of temporary restorations after thermocycling and mechanical loading. J Endod 23(5):320-2, 1997.

168. Beach CW, Calhoun JC, Bramwell JD, Hutter JW, Miller GA. Clinical evaluation of bacterial leakage of endodontic temporary filling materials. J Endod 22(9):459-62, 1996.

169. Vail MM, Steffel CL. Preference of temporary restorations and spacers: a survey of Diplomates of the American Board of Endodontists. J Endod 32(6):513-5, 2006.

170. Newcomb BE, Clark SJ, Eleazer PD. Degradation of the sealing properties of a zinc oxide-calcium sulfate-based temporary filling material by entrapped cotton fibers. Journal of Endodontics 27(12):789-90, 2001.

171. Pane ES, Palamara JE, Messer HH. Stainless steel bands in endodontics: effects on cuspal flexure and fracture resistance. Int Endod J 35(5):467-71, 2002.

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