Ana səhifə

Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region

Yüklə 0.85 Mb.
ölçüsü0.85 Mb.
1   2   3

Common name: Two-pip policeman.

Habitat: Savanna and the edges of forest and coastal bush. It is not quite so ecollogically tolerant as C. forestan, being absent from the wettest forests and driest savannas (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania in woodland and on forest margins, from about 500 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A widespread and common species (Larsen, 1991). Flight fast and irregular, usually a few metres above the ground. Regularly feeds from flowers and occasionally mud-puddles. Males hilltop but do not remain on the peaks for long. Males also establish territories on the flats, using the leaves of trees as perches (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year, but scarce in winter in cooler areas.

Early stages:
Paré, in Pringle et al., 1994: 309.
Henning, Henning, Joannou & Woodhall, 1997: 56. [Ex ova, Hornsnek, Magaliesberg Mountains, west of Pretoria].

Egg very pale creamy white with waxy appearance, changing to yellow, pink and finally grey; 0,8 mm diameter x 0,5 mm high; 18 prominent vertical ribs of which 12 reach top of egg; all ribs terminate short of the micropyle; very fine cross-ribbing, invisible to naked eye, with 15-20 cross-ribs punctuated with minute protuberances where the vertical and horizontal ribs intersect. First instar larva pale cream becoming whitish yellow with yellow head; body bluntly tapered at both ends; grows from 1,5 mm to 4 mm in four days. Second instar yellow-cream with dark brown transverse bands extending laterally to spiracles; head yellow with double transverse row of dark brown spots; grows to 11 mm in seven days. Third instar dark maroon-brown, fading to maroon ventrally; spiracles yellow; each segment with white transverse dorso-lateral band posteriorly above spiracles; in segments 4-10 the bands contain two thin black parallel transverse dorso-lateral lines; these segments also with a dorso-lateral spot above spiracle; white bands on segments 11-13 invaded by bright yellow; head yellow with spots as in 2nd instar; grows to 18 mm in five days. Fourth instar similar to third but ground colour black and transverse bands wider; grows to 45 mm in 15 days. Pupa 23-24 mm long; bluish white dorsally with pinkish white wing-cases and ventral appendages; a prominent blunt black protuberance projecting from head and wing bases; coated with waxy white, slightly iridescent powder.

Eggs are laid singly on the tips of young leaf shoots. Eclosion occurs in about 10 days. Newly emerged larvae construct a shelter by cutting a v-shaped notch in a leaf, such that “the tip of the ‘v’ sits astride the mid-rib and the leaf-tip is pulled down over the leaf and anchored to its base using strands of silk.” The leaf-tip is thus used as a ‘parasol’. Second to fourth instar larvae stitch the edges of two leaves together and rest inside. Final instar larvae construct an untidy shelter consisting of several leaves held together by random silk threads. The larval stage lasts about 40 days. Pupation takes place in the shelter, the pupa being anchored by the cremaster and a silk girdle. Pupal period about 30 days.
Larval food:

Acridocarpus longifolium (= alopcurus Sprague) (Malpighiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Acridocarpus natalitius (Malpighiaceae) [Kroon, 1999].

Acridocarpus zanzibaricum Juss. (Malpighiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Cassia species (Fabaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 1].

Combretum species (Combretaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 390].

Crotalaria species (Fabaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 1].

Dregea species (Asclepiadaceae) [Henning, Henning, Joannou, & Woodhall, 1997].

Gossypium species (Malvaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 1].

Indigofera species (Fabaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978: 182; Larsen, 1991: 390 (Ngong Forest, Kenya)].

Marsdenia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 228].

Millettia species (Fabaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 1].

Phaseolus species (Fabaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 1].

Quisqualis species (Combretaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 1].

Sphedamnocarpus pruriens (Juss.) Szyszyl. (Malpighiaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978: 182; as Acridocarpus pruriens].

Terminalia species (Combretaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 1].

Triaspis glaucophylla Engl. (Malpighiaceae) [Swanepoel, 1953: 285; as Triapis leendertziae; (Potgietersrus, Limpopo Province); oviposition only].

Triaspis macropteron (Malpighiaceae) [Paré, in Pringle et al., 1994: 309].

Triaspis odorata (Malpighiaceae) [Vuattoux, 1999 (Ivory Coast)].
valmaran Wallengren, 1857 (as sp. of Rhopalocampta). Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm annis 1838-1845. Collecta (n.s.) 2 (4): 48 (55 pp.). South Africa: “Caffraria”.

Coeliades rama Evans, 1937
Coeliades rama Evans, 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum: 13 (212 pp.).

Type locality: Madagascar: “N. Madagascar (Antakares)”.

Distribution: Madagascar (widespread).

Habitat: Forest, forest margins and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Coeliades ramanatek (Boisduval, 1833)
Thymele ramanatek Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 210 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Madagasar”. “Bourbon” and Maurice” [the latter two are false localities].

Distribution: Madagascar, Comoro Islands.

Habitat: Forest, forest margins and anthropogenic environments (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Coeliades ramanatek ramanatek (Boisduval, 1833)
Thymele ramanatek Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 210 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Madagasar”; also “Bourbon” and Maurice” [false localities].

Distribution: Madagascar.
Coeliades ramanatek comorana Evans, 1937
Coeliades ramanatek comorana Evans, 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum: 12 (212 pp.).

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Grand Comoro”.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Coeliades sejuncta (Mabille & Vuillot, 1891)
Ismene sejuncta Mabille & Vuillot, 1891 in Mabille & Vuillot, 1890-5. Novitates Lepidopterologicae, Paris: 19 (161pp.).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Ussagara (Afrique occidentale)”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (coast, inland to Amani; also Kigoma district in west), Malawi (south), Zambia, Zimbabwe (single record from Mount Darwin).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Watamu (Larsen, 1991); Robinson Forest near Diani (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Uncommon in the north-west (Sandstone Range, north to Mihumu in Mpanda and Kigoma); commoner in the east (from the Usambaras to the Kiboriani Mountains; Uzungwa Range; Pugu Hills; Dendene Forest). Also in the Mbulu Forests and on Mount Kwaraha at Babati (Kielland, 1990d).

Zambia: Known only from a sight record from the Chowa Forest, Nyika (C.W.S. Fisher) (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Mount Darwin (Cornes).

Common name: Coast policeman; ochreous-banded policeman.

Habitat: Forest, coastal forest, riverine forest and dense bush. In Tanzania in forest and riverine forest, from sea-level to 2 100 m (Kielland, 1990d). Also in dense dune forest near the sea (Larsen, 1991).

Habits: A relatively common butterfly in the coastal forests of Kenya (Larsen, 1991). Adults are fond of flowers and numbers are sometimes found feeding from the flowers of Maerua species (Larsen, 1991). When inactive they roost beneath broad leaves (Larsen, 1991). Specimens have been captured at moth light-traps at night (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Acridocarpus zanzibaricum Juss. (Malpighiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Genus Pyrrhiades Lindsey & Miller, 1965 in Fox et al., 1965.
Memoirs of the American Entomological Society No. 19: 53 (438 pp.).

Type-species: Papilio lucagus Cramer, by original designation.

A monobasic Afrotropical genus, with a single West African species.

Pyrrhiades lucagus (Cramer, 1777)
Papilio lucagus Cramer, 1777. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld-deelen Asia, Africa en America 2: 123 (151 pp.) Amsteldam & Utrecht.

Pyrrhiades lucagus. Left – male upperside, Ghana (x1.65). Right – male underside, Ghana (x1.65). Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: None given.

Distribution: Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana.

Recorded, in error, from Sierra Leone and Guinea (Evans) (Larsen, 2005a).

Specific localities:

Liberia – Las Palmas (Larsen, 2005a); Grand Cess (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – San Pedro (Larsen, 2005a); Lamto (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Aburi (Larsen, 2005a); Accra (Larsen, 2005a); Shai Hills (Larsen, 2005a); Cape Coast (Larsen, 2005a); Gambaga Escarpment (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Western blue policeman.

Habitat: Mainly coastal forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This butterfly may be common where it occurs (Larsen, 2005a). The flight pattern is slow and hovering. Individuals are active from dawn to dusk and may be seen on flowers, bird droppings and mud-patches. Flowering mango trees sometimes attract large numbers (Larsen, 2005a). Larsen (2005a) believes that it may mimic blue wasps with red heads and red abdominal markings.

Early stages:
Larsen, 2005a.

The larva was found in Accra by T. Helps. Larva structurally similar to that of Coeliades. Head red with a few minute black dots. Ground-colour black; segments separated by white bands. Each segment with two small, white, dorsal spots. Spiracles white. A red band between the last two segments. Pupa cream-coloured; small black spots on head, thorax and legs; spiracles black; large black discal patch on wing-cases.

Larval food:

Acridocarpus smeathmanni (Malpighiaceae) [Vuattoux, teste Larsen, 2005a (Ivory Coast)].
juno Plötz, 1879 (as sp. of Ismene). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 40: 364 (353-364). Ghana: “Aburi; Accra”.

Genus Pyrrhochalcia Mabille, 1904 in Mabille, 1903-4.
In: Wytsman, P.A.G. Genera Insectorum 17: 85, 89 (210pp.).

Type-species: Papilio iphis Drury, by subsequent designation (Lindsey, 1925. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 18: 99 (75-106).).

A monobasic Afrotropical genus, with a single large species.

Pyrrhochalcia iphis (Drury, 1773)
Papilio iphis Drury, 1773. Illustrations of Natural History 2: index et 26 (90pp.).

Type locality: Senegal [false locality]; Gambia [false locality]; Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”; Nigeria: “Bite of Benin”; Ghana: “Anamaboe”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola.

Records from Senegal and Gambia are erroneous (Larsen, 2005a).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Cape Coast (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Lagos (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: African giant skipper.

Habitat: Forest, especially dry coastal forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: May be common where it occurs. The flight is slow and buzzing. Specimens usually rest on leaves about a metre and a half above the ground. Both sexes are fond of flowers, such as coral creeper, and males are attracted to bird droppings. Males are also known to mud-puddle (Larsen, 2005a). Females seeking host-plants land briefly to test plants, apparently randomly (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Schroder, 1975 [larva].
Carcasson, 1981 [larva and pupa].
Sourakov & Emmel, 1997 [larva; (Ghana)].
Larval food:

Ancistrophyllum species (Arecaceae) [Bampton et al., 1991 (Congo); Larsen (2005a) is doubtful about this record].

Psychotria calva (Rubiaceae) [Sourakov & Emmel, 1997 (Ghana)].

Acridocarpus smeathmanni (Malpighiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Dissotis species (Melastomataceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Anacardia species (Anacardiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
phidias Cramer, 1779 in Cramer, [1779-80] (as sp. of Papilio). Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 3: 85 (176 pp.). [West Africa]: “Chine, Bengale [false localities], et sur la Côte d’Afrique, à la Sierra Leona”.
jupiter Fabricius, 1787 (as sp. of Papilio). Mantissa Insectorum 2: 87 (382pp.) Hafniae. Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon Africae”.
1   2   3

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur © 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət