Ana səhifə

Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region


Yüklə 0.85 Mb.
səhifə2/3
tarix26.06.2016
ölçüsü0.85 Mb.
1   2   3

Geranium species (Geraniaceae) [Kielland, 1990d].


Gossypium species (Malvaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 390].

Indigofera species (Fabaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Lonchocarpus sericeus (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Marsdenia schimperi (Dac.) Bull. (= Dregea schimperi) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Marsdenia senegalensis (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Millettia sp. (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 390].

Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 309].

Phaseolus species (Fabaceae) [Kielland, 1990d].

Philenoptera sutherlandii Harv. (Fabaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978: 182; as sp. of Millettia].

Philenoptera violacea (Fabaceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 309; as Lonchocarpus capassa Rolfe].

Pterocarpus santalinoides (Fababceae) [Vuattoux, 1999 (Ivory Coast)].

Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae) (exotic) [Williams, 1996: 135; (Pretoria, Gauteng)].

Quisqualis species (Combretaceae) [Kielland, 1990d].

Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) (exotic) [Mansel Weale, in Trimen & Bowker, 1889: 369; as Robinia pseud-acacia].

Sesamus species (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Sesbania species [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Solanum mauritianum Scop. (Solanaceae) (exotic) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978: 182].

Sphedamnocarpus galphimiifolius (Juss.) Szyszyl. var. rehmannii (Szyszyl.) Launert (Malpighiaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978: 182; as S. rhamni].

Sphedamnocarpus pruriens (Juss.) Szyszyl. galphimiifolius (Juss.) Szyszyl.) (Malpighiaceae) [Pringle et al., 1994: 309].

Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) [Davis & Barnes, 1991; Mauritius].

Terminalia species (Combretaceae) [Kielland, 1990d].

Theobroma cacao (Theobromaceae) [Smith, 1965].

Triaspis glaucophylla Engl. (Malpighiaceae) [Swanepoel, 1953: 285; as Triapis leendertziae; (Potgietersrus, Limpopo Province); oviposition only].

Triaspis odorata (Malpighiaceae) [Vuattoux, 1999 (Ivory Coast)].

References:

Williams & Woodhall, 2006.


Coeliades forestan forestan (Stoll, 1782)
Papilio forestan Stoll, 1782 in Stoll, [1780-2]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 4 [part]: x (29-252). Amsteldam & Utrecht.

Coeliades forestan forestan. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 46mm. Durban, Nat. E.L. Clark. (Transvaal Museum - TM2754).
Type locality: [Africa]: “Cote de Bengal”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Sub-Saharan Africa, including Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malalwi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia (north), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province, Northern Cape Province), Swaziland, Lesotho, Reunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, Comoro Islands, Cap Verde Islands (Larsen, 1991).

Specific localities:

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon et al., 2001).

Tanzania – Throughout (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia: Ikelenge, Mwunilunga; Chingola; Mufulira; Ndola; Chilanga; Victoria Falls; Luongo River (Heath et al., 2002).

Limpopo Province – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

Mpumalanga – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Buffelspoort Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province - Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953).

Gauteng – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Witwatersrand Botanical Gardens (J. Dobson, unpublished checklist, 2001); Buffelsdrif Conservancy (Williams).

Free State Province – Bloemfontein (Swanepoel, 1953); Ladybrand (Swanepoel, 1953); Kroonstad (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Kokstad (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Shepstone (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Estcourt (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Port Elizabeth (Swanepoel, 1953); King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); East London (Swanepoel, 1953); Grahamstown (Pringle et al., 1994); Bedford (E. Pringle).

Swaziland – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Lesotho – Maseru (Swanepoel, 1953).

Mauritius – Widespread but not common (Davis & Barnes, 1991).
Coeliades forestan arbogastes (Guenée, 1863)
Thymele arbogastes Guenée, 1863. In: Maillard, L., Notes sur l’Ile de la Reunion 2: 19 (1-72), Paris. [2nd edition].

Type locality: [Madagascar]: “Reunion” [False locality].Unnatural grasslands, forest margins and littoral zone (Lees et al., 2003).

Distribution: Madagascar, Seychelles (?) (Kielland, 1990d).
margarita Butler, 1879 (as sp. of Hesperia). Cistula Entomologica 2: 392 (389-394). Madagascar: “Antananarive”.

Coeliades hanno (Plötz, 1879)
Ismene hanno Plötz, 1879. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 40: 363 (353-364).

Coeliades hanno. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 48mm. Entebbe, Uganda. 2 Apr 73. Rev. H. Falke. (Henning collection - H1).
Type locality: Ghana: “Accra”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Sao Tome & Principe (Sao Tome), Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Kielland, 1990), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Accra (TL).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Kenya – Kakamega Forest (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Mpanda and Kigoma Districts: Kampisa; Luntampa; Mount Ipumba; Ntakatta Forest; Kasye Forest; Gombe Stream (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Known only from Nsakaluba in the Luapula Valley (Heath et al., 2002).

Common name: Three pip policeman. Western policeman.

Habitat: Forest and dense savanna (Heath et al., 2002). Also secondary forest with an intact canopy (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania in riverine forest from 800 to 1 700 m (Kielland, 1990d).

Habits: A generally uncommon species (Larsen, 2005a). Both sexes are attracted to flowers and males have been seen on bird droppings (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Acridocarpus species (Malpighiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Flabellaria paniculata (Malpighiaceae) [Vuattoux, 1999 (Ivory Coast)].
necho Plötz, 1884 (as sp. of Ismene). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 45: 63 (51-66). “Guinea”.
tripunctata Aurivillius, 1925 in Seitz, 1908-25 (as ab. of Rhopalocampta necho). Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 509 (614 pp.). No locality.

Coeliades keithloa (Wallengren, 1857)
Rhopalocampta keithloa Wallengren, 1857. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm annis 1838-1845. Collecta (n.s.) 2 (4): 48 (55 pp.).

Type locality: South Africa: “Caffraria”.

Distribution: Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, to South Africa.

Common name: Red-tab policeman.

Habitat: Coastal forest.

Habits: A relatively common species. Flies from early morning to late evening. The flight is rapid and irregular. Adults are often seen feeding from flowers, for example those of Maerua (Larsen, 1991), and occasionally mud-puddle. Males establish territories in clearings and on forest edges.

Flight period: All year but much scarcer in the colder months.

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1889: 373 [as Hesperia Keithloa; Durban, KwaZulu-Natal].

“I have the skins of two pupae sent to the Museum by Colonel Bowker from D’Urban in August 1881, from one of which the imago emerged in the following October. They are very like the pupa of Forestan, being covered with a dense white efflorescence, but their colouring beneath this is dark-red instead of pale-greenish.”


Murray, 1932: 584.
Clark, in Dickson and Kroon, 1978: plate 2 [as Coeliades keithloa; Umhlanga Rocks and Durban, KwaZulu-Natal].
Pringle, et al., 1994.
M.J.W. Cock, in Larsen, 1991: 391, noted that the larvae of subspecies kenya differ from those of the nominate subspecies.
Larval food:

Acridocarpus glaucescens Engler (Malpighiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Acridocarpus natalitius Juss. (Malpighiaceae) [Dickson and Kroon, 1978: 182].

Acridocarpus zanzibaricus Juss. (Malpighiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324; as Acridocarpus zanzibaricum].

Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Roxb. (Lecythidaceae) [Dickson and Kroon, 1978: 182].

Bryocarpus orientalis (Baill.) Bak. (Connaraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Combretum species (Combretaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 391].

Dregea species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 391; as Marsdenia].
Coeliades keithloa keithloa (Wallengren, 1857)
Rhopalocampta keithloa Wallengren, 1857. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm annis 1838-1845. Collecta (n.s.) 2 (4): 48 (55 pp.).

Type locality: South Africa: “Caffraria”.

Distribution: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province).

Specific localities:

KwaZulu-Natal – Port Shepstone (Swanepoel, 1953); Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – East London (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Elizabeth (Pringle, et al., 1994).
stella Trimen, 1862 (as sp. of Ismene). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (3) 1: 287 (279-291). South Africa: “Port Natal”.
tancred Plötz, 1884 (as sp. of Ismene). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 45: 62 (51-66). South Africa: “Natal”.
Coeliades keithloa kenya Evans, 1937
Coeliades kenya Evans, 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum: 14 (212 pp.).

Type locality: Kenya: “Mombasa”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (north coast, inland to Mt Kilimanjaro).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Watamu (Larsen, 1991); Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Kilimanjaro (Evans); Hasama Forest in Mbulu (Kielland, 1990d; sight record).

Note: Henning, Henning, Joannou & Woodhall (1997: 59) raised C. keithloa lorenzo to C. lorenzo and suggested that C. k. kenya, C. k. menelik and C. k. merua should likewise not be included under C. keithloa. They did not, however, formally change the status of these taxa..
Coeliades keithloa menelik (Ungemach, 1932)
Rhopalocampta menelik Ungemach, 1932. Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles (et Physiques) du Maroc 32: 99 (1-122).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Lilmo, dans la pays de Sayo”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south-west), Sudan (south), Uganda (Kielland, 1990d; Larsen, 1991: 391).

Note: Henning, Henning, Joannou & Woodhall (1997: 59) raised C. keithloa lorenzo to C. lorenzo and suggested that C. k. kenya, C. k. menelik and C. k. merua should likewise not be included under C. keithloa. They did not, however, formally change the status of these taxa..
Coeliades keithloa merua Evans, 1947
Coeliades keithloa merua Evans, 1947. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (11) 13: 643 (641-648).

Type locality: Kenya: “Meru”.

Distribution: Kenya (north-eastern slopes of Mt Kenya, below 1 700 m).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Meru (TL); Nyambeni (Larsen, 1991).

Note: Henning, Henning, Joannou & Woodhall (1997: 59) raised C. keithloa lorenzo to C. lorenzo and suggested that C. k. kenya, C. k. menelik and C. k. merua should likewise not be included under C. keithloa. They did not, however, formally change the status of these taxa..

Coeliades libeon (Druce, 1875)
Ismene libeon Druce, 1875. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1875: 416 (406-417).

Coeliades libeon. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 40mm. Buzi River, P. E. Africa. 24.IX.1957. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM2752).
Type locality: Angola: “Angola”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya (except north), Zambia (north), Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana (north – single record; probably a vagrant), Namibia (north), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999).

The species is marginal in South Africa. Most probably migrants from the north occasionally establishing temporary populations.



Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Lamto (Larsen, 2005a); Danane (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Agege near Lagos (Larsen et al., 1980); Butatong and Boggo in Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Kenya – coast (Larsen, 1991); Shimba Hills (Larsen, 1991); Nairobi (Larsen, 1991); Ngong (Larsen, 1991); Kakamega (Larsen, 1991); Kitale (Larsen, 1991); Cherangani Hills (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Locally common the west and north but much rarer in the east (Kielland, 1990d).

Zambia: Ikelenge; Mufulira; Kalungwishi area; near the Lisombu River (Heath et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Mount Selinda (Kroon); Bikita (Pringle et al., 1994); Murahwa’s Hill (Paré); Chirinda Forest (Paré).

Namibia – Skeleton Coast (Pringle et al., 1994).

Limpopo Province – Polokwane (Swanepoel, 1953); Mpaphuli N.R.

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Port St Johns (Quickelberge).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Spotless policeman; brown policeman.

Habitat: Appears to prefer drier forests (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania in woodland and forest from 250 to 1 900 m (Kielland, 1990d). Migrants have even been recorded from the edge of desert on the Skeleton Coast, Namibia (Henning, Henning, Joannou and Woodhall, 1997).

Habits: Mass migrations have been noted in East Africa, with smaller migrations also occurring in southern Africa. Such a migration was noted on the banks of the Buzi River (Mozambique) by Pennington, in September 1957. The flight is swift and elusive. Adults feed from flowers, bird droppings and are known to mud-puddle. Have been found feeding from flowers at the edge of forest at dusk (Pringle et al., 1994). Generally scarce in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: All year.

Early stages:
Paré, in Pringle et al., 1994: 309 [as Coeliades libeon (Murahwa's Hill and Chirinda Forest, both Zimbabwe)].
Larval food:

Drypetes gerrardii Hutch. (Euphorbiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324; Fontaine, teste Kielland, 1990].

Craibia brevicaudata (Vatke) Dunn (Fabaceae) [Paré, 1988: 4 (Meikel's Jungle, Mutare, Zimbabwe)].

Millettia species (Fabaceae) [Fontaine, teste Kielland, 1990].

Cassia species (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 389].

Erythroxylum emarginatum (Erythroxylaceae) [Vuattoux, 1999 (IvoryCoast)].

Salacia stuhlmanianna (Celastraceae) [Vuattoux, 1999 (Ivory Coast)].
unicolor Mabille, 1877 (as sp. of Ismene). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France (5) 7: 39 (39-40). “Congo”.
andonginis Plötz, 1884 (as sp. of Ismene). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 45: 60 (51-66). Angola: “Pungo Andongo”.
brussauxi Mabille, 1891 (as sp. of Ismene). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 10: 221 (221-222). Congo: “Congo française”.

Coeliades lorenzo Evans, 1947
Coeliades keithloa lorenzo Evans, 1947. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (11) 13: 641 (641-648).

Coeliades lorenzo Evans, 1947. Henning et al., 1997: 59; stat. n.

Type locality: Mozambique: “Rikatia, 25 miles north of Lorenzo Marques [Maputo]”.

Diagnosis: Close to C. keithloa but upperside ground colour paler and underside with more extended red tornal area (Henning et al., 1997). Shape of valves of male genitalia distinctive (Pringle et al., 1994: 310).

Distribution: Mozambique (south), Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal – north).

Specific localities:

Mozambique – Rikatia, 25 miles north of Maputo (TL).

Limpopo Province – Wolkberg (Henning et al., 1997).

Mpumalanga – Kruger National Park (Henning et al., 1997); Swadini in Blydepoort N.R. (Henning et al., 1997).

KwaZulu-Natal – Corridor between Ndumo and Tembe; Emanguzi Forest (Pringle et al., 1994).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Lorenzo red-tab policeman.

Habitat: Coastal forest and heavily wooded savanna.

Habits: Flies rapidly, from dawn until dusk (Pringle et al., 1994). Often observed feeding from flowers, and occasionally at mud puddles. Males establish and defend territories by patrolling to and fro (Henning et al., 1997).

Flight period: Flies all year but is much scarcer in winter. Commonest in late summer and autumn (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Woodhall, in Henning et al., (1997: 59) [Tembe Elephant Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa].

Final (putative fifth) instar larva ground colour velvety black, fading to maroon ventrally. First 11 segments each with two white transverse dorsal bands; anterior band unbroken and posterior band broken mid-dorsally and extending almost to spiracle laterally; only one white band present on segments 12 and 13 (the posterior band). Segments 4-13 with two orange-yellow transverse dorsal bands, behind white bands. Spiracles white. Larva attains a length of 40 mm. Pupa 20 mm long; pinkish white but covered with bluish white powder; adult appendages slightly darker pink.



Eggs are laid singly on a leaf of the foodplant. The final instar larva spends the daylight hours inside an untidy shelter constructed from the long thin leaves of the foodplant held together by silk threads. Pupation occurs inside the shelter, the pupa being attached by the cremaster and a silk girdle.
Larval food:

Acridocarpus natalensis (Malpighiaceae) [Anon, 1990: 2] (Metamorphosis 1 (25): 2).

Acridocarpus natalitius var. linearifolius (Malpighiaceae) [Henning et al., 1997: 60].

Coeliades pisistratus (Fabricius, 1793)
Hesperia pisistratus Fabricius, 1793. Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 345 (488pp.).

Coeliades pisistratus. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Rita, Pietersburg, Transvaal. 31:4:39. D.A. Swanepoel. (Transvaal Museum - TM2756).
Type locality: [Africa]: “America”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Sub-Saharan Africa, including Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana (east and north), Namibia (north), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province - single record, Northern Cape Province), Swaziland, Lesotho.

Specific localities:

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon et al., 2001).

Kenya – Ngong Forest (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – In most parts of the country but much less common than C. forestan (Kielland, 1990d).

Zambia: Ikelenge; Mwunilunga; Mufulira; Ndola; Luanshya; Chalimbana (Heath et al., 2002).

Limpopo Province – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

Mpumalanga – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Buffelspoort Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953); Buffelsdrif Conservancy (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Throughout (Swanepoel, 1953).

Free State Province – Bloemfontein (Swanepoel, 1953); Ladybrand (Swanepoel, 1953); Harrismith (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Queenstown (Brauer).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Lesotho – Maseru (Swanepoel, 1953).
1   2   3


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©atelim.com 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət