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Army 14. 1 Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) Proposal Submission Instructions

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PHASE II: In Phase II, the contractor shall build, test and deliver a prototype Fragmented Spectrum Efficiency Manager (FSEM) tool system in accordance with the design delivered in Phase I, to include all required hardware, software and user documentation. The prototype shall incorporate commercial and/or military standards on all interfaces. The contractor shall develop and deliver a test methodology that includes Government approved test plan, test procedures, verification cross reference matrix (VCRM) and script files as necessary for testing. The contractor shall support demonstration testing at the Joint Satellite Engineering Center (JSEC) laboratory at Aberdeen Providing Ground for one week. The prototype system shall, at a minimum, meet the threshold requirements identified in the Description paragraph, above. The prototype will be tested with multiple spectral transmissions for disassembly and reassembly. The prototype is required to be programmable and must be able to be pre-configured by an operator to disassemble/reassemble at programmable spectrum fragments and programmable bandwidth distribution sizes. The disassembly will be handled at one location and the reassembly will be handled at a different location therefore the prototype must consist of two physical elements each capable of being programmed and operated independently.
PHASE III: In Phase III, the Fragmented Spectrum Efficiency Manager (FSEM) prototype design will be refined, optimized and productized for transition to military Programs of Record and commercial applications. All circuitry, fabrication and interfaces must utilize industry recommended or military standards (i.e.; MIL-STD-530, RS-422, etc.) wherever possible and must meet safety standards prior to delivery and be labeled in accordance with best Commercial practices. The Fragmented Spectrum Efficiency Manager (FSEM) system has the potential for use in multiple emerging transmission technologies, where there is a need for coherent fragment disassembly and reassembly along multiple transmission lines. Immediately, the system will provide an inherent passive Anti-Jam (AJ)/Anti-Scintillation (AS) capability which will undergo testing upon delivery. The current focus is on emerging and existing military communications systems, but this technology may also be of use in commercial areas requiring high volume data communications, including video. Military efforts such as Future Advanced SATCOM Terminals (FAST) are launching efforts to expand the digital domain in today’s transponded SATCOM. Creating a means to programmatically traverse multiple polarizations offers a robust means of communications impervious to man-made scintillation and interference that if appropriately productized can be utilized throughout DoD.

1. "Precision Polarization Bandwidth Expansion" for MILCOM written 2011, by Rick Dunnegan, Deep Gupta, Deborah Van Vechton.

KEYWORDS: Fragmented spectrum, spectrum disassembly/reassembly

A14-031 TITLE: High-Performance, Low-Power, Acceleration-Compensated Oscillator Technology

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: Develop high-performance, low-power, acceleration-compensated oscillator technology with a combined active and passive compensation utilizing advanced Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging technology.
DESCRIPTION: C4ISR/EW systems mounted on high dynamic platforms such as tactical vehicles, fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, unmanned aerial vehicles, and missiles, rely on one or multiple oscillators generating precision frequency and time signals to function properly. Such systems include radar systems; sensor systems; signals intelligence systems; GPS-aided navigation, guidance, targeting systems; and broadband, high data rate communication systems.
High-performance oscillators ubiquitously utilize quartz crystal oscillators. Since those oscillators are the most acceleration-sensitive components in C4ISR/EW systems, the performance of the entire system is degraded when a platform having C4ISR/EW systems undergoes ever-occurring severe dynamics of accelerations, vibrations and shocks. To overcome such degradation, the oscillators are compensated with combined active and passive methods against severe dynamic environments.
Today’s state-of-the-art oscillators offer the performance acceptable for the current systems with relatively large Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP). As future weapon systems demand better performance at reduced Size, Weight, and Power - Cost (SWAP-C), new high-performance acceleration-compensated oscillators need to be developed. The performance goals of the new oscillators are equivalent to the performances that can be obtained by a 10 MHz oscillator with Short-term stability 1E-13 from 1 sec to 100 secs; Phase noise at rest -140, -150, -155, -160 dBc/Hz at 10, 100, 1000, 10000 Hz, respectively; Acceleration sensitivity 1E-12/g from 10 Hz to 2000 Hz; Temperature coefficient +/-1E-11 from -40 C to 85 C; Aging 1E-8 over 10 years. The SWAP goals are: Volume <1 cc; Power <100 mW.
In comparison to current oscillators, new oscillators to be developed need to deliver significantly improved performance with a combined active and passive acceleration-compensation while the SWAP is reduced by more than an order of magnitude. These challenging goals are difficult to be accomplished by an evolutionary engineering applied to the existing technology. Innovative oscillator technology utilizing the most advanced Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging technology is sought
PHASE I: Conduct a feasibility study that identifies and addresses the problems that must be overcome in order to successfully demonstrate high-performance low-power oscillator with a combined passive and active acceleration compensation. Develop acceleration-compensation methodology and packaging design to meet the performance specifications. Demonstrate the feasibility on tabletop at TRL 3. Deliver a final report that covers the outcome of this study, performance specifications, and oscillator design and fabrication plan details.
PHASE II: Fabricate prototype oscillators to test, demonstrate and validate the feasibility of a combined passive and active acceleration-compensation under simulated laboratory conditions. Field testing will be performed at a Government facility to assess operability and reliability of the oscillator using MIL-STD-810G as a guide for the testing. The final report, TRL 5 prototype oscillators (20 units), its description and operation guide, and test reports will be delivered.
PHASE III: Purpose of this research is to develop low phase noise capability for use with clock systems such as Chip Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC). A product resulting from this effort could demonstrate in the lab, improved performance with the CSAC for applications such as radars and certain communication systems. Other military applications could include surveillance UAVs, robotic platforms, as well as potential military satellite platforms. Commercial products could include telecommunication satellites and other small platforms that require high precision timing performance with low cost and low power consumption.

1. V. J. Rosati, “Suppression of vibration effects on piezoelectric crystal resonators,” US Patent 4453141, June 5, 1984.

2. M. Bloch, et al., “Acceleration “G” Compensated Quartz Crystal Oscillators,” Proc. of 2009 International IEEE Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 175-180, 2009.
3. C. T.-C. Nguyen, “The Harsh Environment Robust Micromechanical Technology (HERMiT) Program: Success and Some Unfinished Business,” Proc. of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, pp. 1-3, 2012.
4. S.-H. Lee, et al., “A Generic Environment-Resistant Packaging Technology for MEMS,” Proc. of Transducers 2007, the 14th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, pp. 335-338, 2007.
KEYWORDS: acceleration-compensated oscillators, high performance low power oscillators, frequency control

A14-032 TITLE: Anti-Jam Antennas for GPS Pseudolites and Blue Force Electronic Attack (BFEA)

Interference Sources
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO Intelligence, Electronic Warfare and Sensors
The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: Develop a GPS anti-jam antenna that interoperates with both GPS pseudolites and Blue Force Electronic Attack (BFEA) interference sources.
DESCRIPTION: The signals transmitted by GPS satellites reach the surface of the earth at extremely low power levels, and as a result, the signals are susceptible to intentional and unintentional interference. Sources of intentional interference, known as GPS jammers, are becoming increasingly easier to obtain and use, and consequently, their use has become more pervasive. [1, 2]
Military GPS receivers can be outfitted with special purpose antennas to help mitigate the effect of jamming. These antennas, or arrays of several antennas, create nulls in the direction of interference sources to cancel the incoming noise. One such antenna technology, known as the Controlled Radiation Pattern Antenna (CRPA), consists of an antenna array and a processing unit that performs a phase-destructive sum of the incoming interference signals. [3]
GPS pseudolites (pseudo satellites) are another technique utilized by the military to help mitigate intentional GPS interference. A GPS pseudolite is a terrestrial or airborne platform that transmits GPS signals at power levels strong enough to be received in a noisy environment. Pseudolites can be deployed in a wide Area of Operation (AoO), and compatible military GPS receivers can navigate using the signals transmitted by pseudolites. [4, 5]
Blue Force Electronic Attack (BFEA) interference sources have the ability to deny the use of GPS and other satellite based navigation systems (collectively known as GNSS) to hostile forces, while simultaneously maintaining service to Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE). To this end, the BFEA interference sources will broadcast waveforms that are designed to preserve specific military GPS signals while denying access to civilian GPS and GNSS signals.
Both of these technologies, GPS anti-jam antennas and GPS pseudolites, are effective at mitigating interference to GPS, or in the case of BFEA, denying its use to hostile forces, but they are largely incompatible. That is, a receiver with a GPS anti-jam antenna could null the strong signals produced by a GPS pseudolite, mistaking it as an interference source.
The goal of this SBIR effort is to develop a GPS anti-jam antenna that interoperates with both GPS pseudolites and Blue Force Electronic Attack (BFEA) interference sources. The antenna shall be capable of receiving military GPS signals, civilian GPS signals, and GPS pseudolite signals. The antenna shall also be capable of nulling several hostile interference sources, and ignoring any BFEA interference sources. The antenna shall accomplish these tasks simultaneously, that is, it shall receive GPS signals from satellites or pseudolites, while ignoring hostile and BFEA interference sources. The initial intent is to deploy these anti-jam antennas on ground and air platforms, specifically platforms that will emit the pseudolite or BFEA signals. Antennas co-mounted on these platforms shall be capable of ignoring the strong emissions mounted nearby.
PHASE I: Design a novel military GPS anti-jam antenna capable of simultaneously receiving military GPS signals, civilian GPS signals, GPS pseudolite signals, and nulling or ignoring interference sources. Develop the overall antenna design and antenna processing unit.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype GPS anti-jam antenna capable of simultaneously receiving military GPS signals, civilian GPS signals, GPS pseudolite signals, and nulling or ignoring interference sources. Demonstrate this capability in a controlled laboratory environment.
PHASE III: This anti-jam antenna system could potentially be used in a broad range of military applications where access to GPS would otherwise be denied or degraded due to hostile interference. For example, if the Army is conducting operations in an area where GPS signals are denied as a result of hostile interference sources, but GPS pseudolites are deployed to help mitigate this issue, the anti-jam antenna system would allow a military GPS receiver access to the pseudolite signals while at the same time, it will nullify any interference sources in the area. This will give the receiver a much greater advantage over using either one of those technologies alone. The anti-jam antenna system could also be installed on GPS pseudolites, since they will likely be used in environments where GPS is denied or degraded and where BFEA sources are deployed. Commercial applications include government agencies employing GPS devices in the pursuit of criminals using GPS jammers, or transportation systems that employ GPS augmentation signals for improved tracking.


5. Cobb, H. S. 1997. GPS Pseudolites: Theory, Design, and Applications. PhD Thesis. Stanford University.
KEYWORDS: anti-jam antenna, BFEA, blue force electronic attack, GPS, jammer, pseudolite

A14-033 TITLE: Ka- and L-band Imaging Radar

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: Development of a dual-frequency-band imaging radar operating at L-band and Ka-band with GMTI and “video SAR” capabilities for use on small manned and unmanned aircraft.
DESCRIPTION: With different frequency bands, a radar can get very different views of the world. A low frequency radar, operating at L-band for example, will image the larger features of terrain, vegetation, and man-made targets due to the use of a longer wavelength signal. A very high frequency radar operating at Ka-band will image the same area very differently due to fine scale backscattering of the short wavelength signal. In addition, a Ka-band SAR can rapidly form a series of images of a target area that can be viewed sequentially at a sufficient frame rate, providing a “video SAR” view. Each frequency band has advantages in detecting different types of targets, especially when used to support advanced exploitation algorithms (e.g. SAR change detection, GMTI tracking, SAR & GMTI target recognition). A lightweight dual-band system for a small platform introduces challenges in power and processor management, yet it provides a significant payoff by increasing the chance of detecting targets of interest.
The system must:

- Provide SAR and GMTI modes at L-band and Ka-band

- Operate from 3,000 to 10,000 feet AGL

- NES0 = -30 dB m2/m2

- MNR = -18 dB

- Cover a swath 5 km wide at L-band, and 0.5 km wide at Ka-band (at finest resolution)

- Have a maximum weight of 35 lbs

- Provide 1 meter range resolution at L-band

- Provide 10 cm range resolution at Ka-band

- GMTI minimum detectable velocity of 2.3 m/s at L-band (at 75 knots aircraft ground speed)

- GMTI minimum detectable velocity of 0.5 m/s at Ka-band (at 75 knots aircraft ground speed)

- Provide “video SAR” at Ka-band with a frame rate of 3 fps

PHASE I: Expected deliverables are a detailed radar system design, performance estimation, and a schedule and work-plan for completing Phase II. The radar system design includes details on data processing, including SAR image formation and GMTI Doppler processing. Performance estimation may include modeling and simulation. Included in the Phase II work plan is a proposal of the expected utility of the system and compatibility/effectiveness with exploitation algorithms.
PHASE II: Phase II includes the development and demonstration of a prototype radar system. Performance measurements are to be made to validate that (A) the system meets the system requirements over the range of operational altitudes and (B) the imagery can be exploited to detect targets of interest. Image products are to be compliant with current standards (NITF 2.1 for SAR, STANAG 4607 for GMTI). The test data and results are to be provided to the Army as part of a final report detailing the work done in Phase II.
PHASE III: The completion of this phase would result in a mature technology which would undergo an appropriate operational demonstration following integration onto manned and/or unmanned military aircraft. The technology developed under this SBIR would also have commercial applicability, as small form factor Ka-band sensors may have utility as collision avoidance sensors in commercial aircraft.

[1] Doerry, A., “Performance Limits for Exo-Clutter Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) Radar,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Sep. 2010.

[2] Meta, A.; Lorga, J. F M; De Wit, J. J M; Hoogeboom, P., "Motion compensation for a high resolution Ka-band airborne FM-CW SAR," Radar Conference, 2005. EURAD 2005. European , vol., no., pp.391,394, 6-7 Oct. 2005.
[3] W.G. Carrara, R.S. Goodman, and R.M. Majewski, Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar

Signal Processing Algorithms, Artech House, Boston, MA, 1995.

KEYWORDS: Sensors, airborne radar, GMTI, SAR, dual-band

A14-034 TITLE: Current Source for Magnetic Sensor

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: To design, develop and build a prototype RF current source or RF power amplifier that drives the type of low impedance magnetic current loop for the magnetic sensor described below.
DESCRIPTION: Operation of the sensor is dependent on the magnetic field that is projected and that in turn is directly related to the current in the magnetic current loop. Conventional 50 ohm amplifiers require considerable matching resulting in a narrow bandwidth and excessive operational sensitivity. Current bandwidths are less than 0.5 % and it is expected that an RF current source will provide a bandwidth of greater than 10%. This will allow for much greater flexibility of mounting configurations. The only option today is to use a 50 ohm power amplifier. Using a conventional 50 ohm power amplifier requires a matching network to transform from 50 ohms to approx. 1.005-j3.09 ohms. Thus, the conventional approach would be to start with a voltage controlled current source to a 50 ohm power amplifier which is then impedance matched to 1.005-j3.09 ohms. This process provides for a maximum bandwidth of only 1% and results in poor efficiency. Developing a RF current source or RF power amplifier that drives a low impedance magnetic sensor will result in a minimum of a 10x increase in bandwidth and approximately a 5-10x reduction in required power with the sensor operating at approx. 1.005-j3.09 ohms. This type of magnetic sensor can easily penetrate the ground to detect deeply buried threats, such as landmines, etc., while its design will reduce unwanted electromagnetic (EM) interference. The commercial and military applications include the development of greatly improved metal/anomaly sensors.
The concept behind transmitting a large magnetic field while minimizing the generation of a propagating EM wave, is to use a current loop in which the current around the loop has a constant magnitude and a constant phase [1]. Usually in a current loop sensor the current changes phase around the loop and this phase change generates a propagating EM signal. By keeping both the magnitude and phase constant, little EM signal is projected but a strong magnetic signal is produced that extends normal to the plane of the loop creating a large magnetic field in the near field. This field will penetrate conducting dielectrics such as ground which have little effect on the magnetic field but substantially terminate the electric field and thus, a propagating EM wave. In [1] the in-phase current loop is created using multiple small loops. In [2] an in-phase current loop design is presented in which reactive compensation is used. Periodic series capacitors placed around the loop compensate for the "time-of-flight" phase change along a segment of the loop. Thus a magnetic current loop was developed for use in a magnetic-current-loop-based communication system. This design divided the loop into small segments and reactive compensation is added to each segment. Adding reactive compensation to each segment of the loop cancels the series reactance of each segment of the loop and provides for current magnitude and phase uniformity along the loop at any given instant in time [2]. We have built and modeled such a magnetic sensor and the impedance at 13.56 MHz is around 1.005-j3.09 ohms [3].
PHASE I: The contractor shall conduct a feasibility study to develop a current source which can greatly improve the bandwidth and reduce the required power needed to drive a low impedance magnetic sensor. The contractor shall submit a report which shall detail the results of the feasibility study of the sensor to be used to perform this mission. The report should contain a description of the sensor, as well as technical details of how the sensor will perform the required task(s) and expected performance. A brief high level plan for phase II work should be included in this report in the event of a phase II selection.
PHASE II: The contractor shall develop a robust prototype sensor based on the results of the Phase I effort. The prototype sensor will be able to be drive a low impedance magnetic sensor and demonstrate an ability to penetrate the ground to detect deeply buried threats. A demonstration of the sensor will be done at a location determined by the government.
PHASE III: Based upon Phase II results the sensor will be improved upon and optimized for commercialization. Multiple military programs and commercial applications can benefit from this sensor including: R&D laboratories and both military and commercial metal/anomaly sensor developers/manufactures. The most likely path for transition to operational capability is development of a superior metal/anomaly sensor than the sensors presently available.

[1] W. D. Dettloff, W. E. Batchelor, R. A. Heaton, and M. B. Steer, "Systems and methods for wirelessly projecting power using in-phase current loops," US Patent 6388628, May 14, 2002.

[2] L. Vicci and W. D. Dettloff, "Methods and systems for reactively compensating magnetic current loops," US Patent 6960984, Nov. 1, 2005.
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