|7. S. Zaske et al., “Visible-to-Telecom Quantum Frequency Conversion of Light from a Single Quantum Emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 109, 147404 (2012)
8. H. Takesue, “Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment,” Phys. Rev. A., 82, 013833 (2010)
M S Shahriar, et al., “Connecting processing-capable quantum memories over telecommunication links via quantum frequency conversion,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 45 (2012)
KEYWORDS: quantum frequency conversion, periodically poled lithium niobate, quantum repeaters, quantum communication
A14-022 TITLE: Field Effects for Processing of Ultralightweight Materials with Superior Properties
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate the application of electromagnetic fields to develop, manipulate, process, and produce ultralightweight metals with superior properties.
DESCRIPTION: The Army is highly interested in the application of electromagnetic fields for development of ultralightweight metals with tailored microstructures and properties. The current methods used to manipulate metal properties involve varying scale, composition, temperature, and pressure to improve strength, hardness, facture toughness, elastic modulus, density, etc., but the use of these traditional techniques for tailoring a wide range of chemical and physical properties is reaching a plateau. It is worth noting that significant ongoing research is being dedicated to re-engineering and exploring the creation of materials at the nanoscale, which holds potential for future applications that inherently hinge on surmounting scalability, assembly, and producibility challenges. However, there is an emerging technology that goes beyond factors of scale, composition, temperature, and pressure, and holds great promise in facilitating the realization of transformal materials with the aid of externally applied fields. The application of fields may alter phase transformation pathways, create new microstructures, shift equilibrium favoring new metastable alloys, align phases, manipulate and shape nanoscale architectures, and produce materials with revolutionary structural and multifunctional properties otherwise unattainable by conventional processing and production methods. The application of electromagnetic fields offers the unique opportunity to direct the architecture of materials features across atomic, molecular, micro, meso, and continuum levels. These fields may either be used to induce a permanent material property improvement or to selectively activate enhanced time-dependent properties via dynamic stimulation.
Relatively low energy field-assisted processing methods such as spark plasma sintering (SPS), microwave sintering, and flash sintering have been developed to introduce electric and microwave fields for reduction of sintering temperatures and times [1-3]. Ultrahigh electric and magnetic fields have been applied during material consolidation to enhance material properties and alter conventional phase diagrams, pushing the limits of traditional materials science . However, the fundamental thermodynamics and reaction kinetics that result in improved processing and revolutionary changes in properties are not well understood. Research on materials subjected to ultrahigh magnetic fields has been conducted at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) [5-6]. As an example, work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Ludtka et al) at the NHMFL has led to prediction of modified phase diagrams for a number of metals, including bainitic steel under a 30T applied magnetic field .
While several field-assisted methods have recently emerged, the goal of this effort is the development of new technologies that combine, augment, or control metal properties with electromagnetic fields and concurrently drive dynamical processes within assembly and production. The overarching technical challenges are to (1) develop a fundamental understanding of the chemical, physical, structural, and engineering aspects of field augmentation of metals, (2) identify phenomena that enable control of applied field manipulation of metals (3) develop concepts and approaches demonstrating enhancement to strength, hardness, facture toughness, elastic modulus, etc., (4) perform numerical modeling to describe and predict electromagnetic field influence on properties, (5) elucidate approaches that enable field control for scale-up of metals production, and (6) develop an agile manufacturing design for in-house fabrication and commercial licensing.
PHASE I: Perform research and analysis that will allow for the demonstration of new concepts to apply electromagnetic fields (electric, magnetic, microwave, etc.) for the development of high specific strength metals with tailored microstructures and properties. Concepts should demonstrate a significant enhancement in strength, hardness, fracture toughness, elastic properties, etc., for metals and metal alloys (e.g. magnesium, aluminum, etc.). Concept evaluation will include fabrication of coupons that demonstrate significant property improvements when compared to current state-of-the-art metals via comprehensive characterization techniques (microscopy, property testing, nondestructive evaluation, etc.). Explore the incorporation of derived principles and theories into modeling and simulation tools with design predictive capabilities.
PHASE II: Demonstrate an approach that enables field control for scale-up of metals production through the development of a novel process and a functional system for applying electromagnetic fields. Design and construct the necessary equipment and devices for accurately and reproducibly applying electromagnetic fields to fabricate metals with improved properties. Continued investigation and insight into the physics of the interactions between the applied fields and metals is also required as it relates to scale-up. Development of appropriate process models is necessary and required. In-situ characterization capabilities including process control and feedback are desired but not required.
PHASE III: Develop an agile manufacturing system for in-house fabrication and commercial licensing by assembling commercial equipment suitable for applying electromagnetic fields of interest to a range of metals during processing under necessary temperature and pressure conditions. This system will include in-situ characterization capabilities and process control for quantitatively analyzing the effects of electromagnetic fields in real-time (microscopy, x-ray diffraction, nondestructive evaluation, etc.). Demonstration of this innovative system for fabricating metals with tailored and enhanced properties will assist the proposer in commercialization of the process or metals developed under this effort. Anticipated commercial applications may include novel advanced metals, electromagnetic equipment and devices, and modeling tools that accurately simulate the effects of applied electromagnetic fields on materials processing. The potential advantages of developing these applications include energy savings, property control and tailoring, and small volume production, which are equally valuable to both commercial and defense manufacture. Virtually all metals and some other materials industries, even commodity industries, as well as commercial and defense aerospace, automotive, and ship industries could benefit.
 Z.A. Munir, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, M. Ohyanagi; “The Effect of Electric Field and Pressure on the Synthesis and Consolidation of Materials: A Review of the Spark Plasma Sintering Method”; Journal of Materials Science; 41; pp.763-777 (2006).
 R. Roy, D. Agrawal, J. Cheng, S. Gedevanishvili; “Full Sintering of Powdered-Metal Bodies in a Microwave Field”; Nature; 399; pp. 668-670 (1999).
 M. Cologna, A.L.G. Prette, R. Raj; “Flash-Sintering of Cubic Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia at 750oC for Possible Use in SOFC Manufacturing”; Journal of the American Ceramic Society; 94; 2; pp.316-319 (2011).
 G.M. Ludtka; “Exploring Ultrahigh Magnetic Field Processing of Materials for Developing Customized Microstructures and Enhanced Performance”; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Final Technical Report; ORNL/TM-2005/79; pp. 1-84 (2005).
 Website (www.magnet.fsu.edu)
 G. Boebinger, K. Hedick, B. Fairhurst, L. Vernon; “The Magnet Lab: 2011 Annual Report”; The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory; Tallahassee, Florida; pp. 1-240 (2011).
KEYWORDS: Field Effects, Material Properties, Tailored Microstructures, Electromagnetic, Magnetic, Electric, Microwave, In-Situ Characterization
A14-023 TITLE: Abuse Tolerant High Energy LiCoPO4-Based 5V Li-ion Cells
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this topic is to produce abuse tolerant, full LiCoPO4 based Li-ion cells of size greater than or equal to 1 Ah.
DESCRIPTION: Li-ion batteries provide the most energy storage capability on a weight and volume basis and high energy dense batteries are needed to reduce the weight borne by the soldier. However, Li-ion batteries have been shown to be susceptible to abuse which may lead to fires and explosions as recently shown by highly publicized airplane groundings. There is thus a need for high energy batteries which are tolerant to abuse conditions. LiFePO4 is a well-known battery material which is known to be safe owing to the nature of the bonding of the oxygen atoms - the covalent nature binds the oxygen whereas higher energy oxide cathode materials such as LiCoO2 may tend to lose oxygen and accelerate fires and explosions . The tradeoff is the lower energy content of LiFePO4 which is a 3.4 V system where the energy of the cell is a product of voltage times the capacity. LiCoPO4 is a cathode material which has the same chemical structure as that of LiFePO4 but a much higher voltage of 4.8 V thereby offering the possibility to have a high energy battery (40% more than LiFePO4) which is tolerant to abuse conditions . It has not yet been commercialized owing to restrictions on the voltage limits of the electrolytes and owing to capacity fade issues with the electrolyte. However, recent developments of high voltage electrolytes  and the invention of a substituted form of LiCoPO4  have led to the possibility to commercialize this cathode material. This solicitation aims to build upon these new developments to build abuse tolerant Li-ion cells and demonstrate this tolerance through standard testing. A successful program will smooth the path towards commercialization.
PHASE I: Full Li-ion cells of size greater than 1 Ah will be produced using LiCoPO4 (or substituted LiCoPO4) as cathode and standard commercial graphite as the anode. Abuse tolerance results will be obtained, where abuse tolerance minimally includes overcharging and short circuit. Desirable additional testing includes crush, nail penetration and high temperature exposure. The overcharging test uses an excessive current rate and charging time to determine whether a sample cell can withstand an overcharge condition without an explosion or fire. The short circuit test directly connects the positive and negative terminals of the cell to find the cell’s tolerance to a maximum current without explosion or fire. The heating test measures a cell’s ability to withstand an elevated temperature for a period of time. The tests shall follow standard lithium battery testing protocols such as UL (Underwriter’s Laboratory) 1642, (dated 25 November 2009). Since this testing is highly dependent on cell format and the nature of the counter electrode it is imperative that control cells with the same counter electrode and cell format are used. The preferred control cell chemistry is a LiCoO2 cathode with a graphite anode. Ideally, the same electrolyte for test and control cells would be used though a small amount of high voltage stabilizing additives (< 1 weight % of the electrolyte) may be required for the higher voltage cell. During phase I, safety trends shall be determined in comparison to other high energy density Li-ion battery cathodes such as LiCoO2. A minimum of 3 cells and preferably 5 cells will be used to monitor temperature during overcharge and short-circuit testing. The results shall be documented in monthly reports and in a final report. The reports will include details of materials utilized, procedures and process parameters used; test setup descriptions, results and conclusions; and performance assessment. Additionally, the reports shall include a description of test results, discussion, analysis and conclusions.
PHASE II: Phase II will investigate non - electrochemically active components that may further enhance safety and abuse tolerance of LiCoPO4 based Li-ion cells and complete a full spectrum of testing as described by UL or other testing protocols. The work may also desirably include the study of electrolyte safety additives or strategies such as non-flammability, low volatility, and/or thermal barriers. During phase II, the testing will determine if the Li-ion cells (minimum of 3 preferably 5 per test) pass or fail each abuse test. The findings will be reported in monthly progress reports and in a final report. The report shall include details of materials utilized, procedures and process parameters used; test setup descriptions, results and conclusions; and performance assessment. Additionally, the reports shall include a description of test results, discussion, analysis, and conclusions. Additionally, a minimum of 3 preferably 5 of the most abuse tolerant Li-ion cells will be delivered to ARL where the cells meet the metrics of an initial discharge capacity of 120 mAh/g based on the active cathode material and maintenance of the discharge capacity after charge – discharge cycling of no less than 80% of initial capacity after 500 cycles.
PHASE III: The end state of this research is a high energy, high voltage LiCoPO4 based Li-ion battery with demonstrated abuse tolerance. Military applications include soldier power, auxiliary power such as in a silent watch application and energy storage for a microgrid. Commercial applications include personal electronics such as cellular phones, laptop computers, power tools and transportation in an electric, hybrid electric vehicle or in aviation.
1. "A comparison of the electrode/electrolyte reaction at elevated temperatures for various Li-ion battery cathodes," D.D. MacNeil, Z. Lu, Z. Chen, J.R. Dahn, J. Power Sources 108(2002) 8.
2. "Improved Cycle life of Fe-substituted LiCoPO4," J.L. Allen, T.R. Jow and J. Wolfenstine, J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 8656.
3. “Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li Ion Chemistry”, A. v. Cresce, and K. Xu, J. Electrochem. Soc. 158 (2011) A337.
KEYWORDS: Li-ion, battery, abuse tolerance, energy storage, LiCoPO4, 5V
A14-024 TITLE: Color Matching High Durability Coating for Combat Vehicle Tires and Treads
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: Combat vehicle tire/tracks represent a significant percentage of the vehicle’s signature. The objective is to develop a high durability coating to provide long term color matching for combat ground vehicle tires and track treads that matches the body color of the combat vehicle. The developed technology will improve the signature of combat vehicle by increasing the percentage of the vehicle addressed by camouflage coatings.
DESCRIPTION: Currently, combat vehicles benefit from highly specialized paint coatings which provide significant reductions in detection by matching the vehicle’s color with the spectrum of their surroundings. This ability is the basis of camouflage. A significant amount of ground combat vehicles front and side image profile consists of tires and tracks. Currently, these tires and tracks are black in color due to the materials in which they are constructed (MIL-DTL-3100H). This means that a significant portion of a vehicle is left unaided by camouflage and is often in high contrast to the vehicle and environment. As a result, vehicles can be identified and targeted more easily and at greater distances. The goal is to develop a durable coating method to reduce the contrast between the vehicle body and their tires and tracks. Ideally this will improve the overall visible signature reduction of the vehicle. This includes all surface areas of tires and treads track pads (side walls, tread grooves and tread surface).
A coating method is being sought to provide this color matching capability. Current mil specification colors include those defined in MIL-DTL-53039D. The Army’s primary camouflage colors are Aircraft Gray, 36300, Aircraft Green, 34031, Black, 37030, Brown 383, 30051, Green 383, 34094, Green 808, IRR Foliage Green 504, 34160,Tan 686A, 33446 and Woodland Desert Sage, 34201. Of these colors, the color of immediate interest for tire coloration is Tan 686A. The coating should have a flat or lusterless finish as described in MIL-DTL-53072 as tested by ASTM D523 - Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss. (Department of Defense adopted).
Of particular importance is the durability of the coating material. It should be able to remain true in color and finish for the duration of the application lifetime. The material should be suitable for driving conditions on both paved and off road terrain. The coating should be designed to survive the high pressures and shear characteristics of rapid acceleration and stopping encountered with military combat vehicles. The coating needs to retain its conformity to the tire and track elastomeric material. The thickness of the coating should not interfere with the performance of the vehicle. It should also not attract more contamination than the baseline tire, tread material.
The coating must tolerate environmental durability issues such as vehicle heat, UV and weather. Coating materials should not contain heavy metals or other known hazardous materials (MIL-DTL-53072D).
The color coating method should not damage or reduce the lifetime of the tires, treads, tracks, underbody coatings or vehicle paint. The color match coating method should require the same level of cleaning effort as with the original tire, track tread. Minimal masking off of tires from the rest of the vehicle during the coating process is preferred. Application with the tires and tracks on the vehicle is desirable.
PHASE I: Demonstrate a durable coating which will allow color matching of tires and track vehicle treads. This coating will be in mil spec colors with gloss levels to match current Army MIL-DTL-53072 requirements. For phase I, the durable tire coating will match color and gloss of Tan 686A.
Materials developed during Phase I shall be evaluated on appropriate substrates to demonstrate their wear and adhesion performance to simulate application on a vehicle tire/ track tread. This data along with samples of the material applied to an appropriate substrate will be provided for comparison to Tan 686A.
A cure schedule will also be provided that describes the time for each step required to apply the coating. This will include the time required to reach sufficient cure to handle a tire as well as the time needed to reach a full cure sufficient to drive a vehicle without damaging the coating.
PHASE II: Demonstrate the ability to produce the coating system in primary camouflage colors brown 383, green 383, green 808, IRR foliage green 504, tan 686A, and woodland desert sage 34201. Phase II will include best efforts to match mil spec colors in the visible (400-700 nanometers) and near infrared (700-900 nanometers).
Phase II will include the demonstration of a prototype application station. The station will be portable and designed to be placed inside of a military vehicle style paint spray booth or portable painting structure if necessary. It should not require any additional safety or waste management requirements beyond those for applying CARC paint MIL-DTL-53072D.
A field repair kit will be developed that uses hand held equipment that can be shipped by air to combat locations. Kits will be available in all primary camouflage colors with similar performance to the original coating. Each kit will be sufficient to completely color treat a surface area of 4 feet x 4 feet.
Successful deliverable will be judged upon evaluation of the prototype application station’s ability to apply the coating to tires and track treads to combat vehicles. The coatings will be evaluated by the government for color accuracy, and coating permanence after being driven on the vehicles for a period of 6 months under various conditions.
PHASE III: Phase III will provide the military a commercialized version of the color coating system. The technology will be incorporated into the CARC coating acquisition. Phase III coatings would seek to improve overall durability and lifetime of the tire by protecting it from environmental damage (dry-rot, ultra violet light damage). The coating would be applied to all combat vehicle tires and track treads when they receive their initial camouflage coating in paint spray booths. Commercial touch up kits will also be manufactured to allow in field touch-up and in field modifications typically needed under special force missions.
This technology would be applicable to produce a durable commercial coating to improve the lifetime of off road sport utility, emergency response, recreational and construction vehicle tires and track treads which are susceptible to UV and ground level ozone (dry-rot).
For general public safety this technology can provide cars and trucks with a means allow coloring of black-wall tires to improve visibility of vehicle against asphalt roadways. .
The coating technology could also be applied to elastomeric inflated structures to provide a long lasting color and environmental protection. Such structures are used by both Department of Defense and the civilian market. Additionally, this technology could also be used to color rubberized inflatable boats for military and commercial purposes.
1. MIL-DTL-53072D w/AMENDMENT 1, “DETAIL SPECIFICATION CHEMICAL AGENT RESISTANT COATING (CARC) SYSTEM APPLICATION PROCEDURES AND QUALITY CONTROL INSPECTION”, 17 May 2011.
2. MIL-DTL-3100H, “DETAIL SPECIFICATION WHEEL ASSEMBLIES, SOLID ELASTOMER TIRED; FOR TRACK LAYING VEHICLES”, 1 December 1998
3. MIL-DTL-53039D, “DETAIL SPECIFICATION COATING, ALIPHATIC POLYURETHANE, SINGLE COMPONENT, CHEMICAL AGENT RESISTANT”, 24 January 2011.
4. US Department of Energy EPA -“Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide”, March 26, 2013.
5. ASTM D523 - Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss. (DoD adopted)
KEYWORDS: Signature reduction, color matching, armored vehicles, elastomeric compounds, tires, treads, undercoating, polymer
A14-025 TITLE: Experimental Application of Non-Relational Database Technology for Scaled Simulation
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to research and develop a non-relational database (NRB) approach for use with existing simulation based training applications. NRB strategies allow for horizontal scaling of computational resources (ie taking advantage of more nodes in a computational cluster of computers) that traditional structured query language databases do not. The resulting approach is expected to increase efficiencies in the way the SBT application operates.
DESCRIPTION: The background rationale for scaling the simulation based trainers is to address the issue of properly representing the operational environment for Army training needs. The majority of current simulation based virtual environment training applications are only used to train at the small unit level, 40 soldiers or less. The reason for this is the inability for current systems to handle larger numbers of concurrent users in the same place at the same time. This also means there are limited system resources left over for opposing forces and neutral entities. It is believed that virtual world technology may be used to achieve the goal of full spectrum operations during virtual mission rehearsal exercises.