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Army 14. 1 Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) Proposal Submission Instructions

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2. C. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design 3rd edition. Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
3. R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1991.
4. IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas, IEEE Std 145-1993, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1993.
KEYWORDS: Low-profile Antenna, magneto-dielectric, conformal, RF, SATCOM, UAV

A14-019 TITLE: Development of Micro JP-8 Fuel Injection System for Small Unmanned Aerial and

Ground Engines
OBJECTIVE: To develop and demonstrate a ‘novel’ direct fuel injection system for small unmanned compression-ignition heavy-fuel (primarily Jet Propellant-8) engines (3-70 horsepower)
DESCRIPTION: The Army is in need of efficient heavy-fuel small engines (3 to 70 horsepower) for unmanned aerial and ground systems. The success of these engines requires efficient and reliable micro direct fuel injection systems. Currently, there is no reliable direct fuel injection system for small engines due to various reasons. One of them is manufacturing capability of micro nozzles.
Use of direct fuel injection into a combustion chamber can achieve much higher engine efficiency than that of carburetor or port fuel injection. Direct fuel injection also provides flexibility to control combustion processes to improve engine performance and efficiency by using injection strategies such as multiple injections and rate shaping which shall be compared with the current Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) engine (i.e. a 38-horsepower rotary engine with aviation gasoline). Since much higher fuel injection pressure can be applied for direct fuel injection, engine power can be increased significantly higher than the old fuel injection systems. Direct fuel injection system has been predominantly developed for low- to heavy-duty engines. Therefore, while the demand for the small engines is increasing, there has been no reliable direct fuel injection system for small engines. Furthermore, in contrast to low- to heavy-duty engine classes for which significant amounts of research have been done by large companies, no noticeable research on small engines have been done until now. One of the main challenges in developing a direct fuel injection system for small engines is preparing combustible fuel-air mixture within the confined space of the small engine combustion chamber. The current off-the-shelf fuel injectors provide excessive liquid fuel penetration and high cycle-to-cycle variations in small fuel quantities. Smaller injector nozzle (< 75 micrometers) can achieve shorter penetration length; however, the current manufacturing capabilities such as electrical discharge machining (EDM) are limited for nozzle sizes smaller than 75 micrometers. The lower side of the nozzle sizes shall be as low as 40 micrometers, while the upper side being up to 150 micrometers. Therefore, the drilling method should be able to machine from 40 to 150 micrometers with the tolerances of less than +/-2.5 micrometers. The material shall have good thermal shock resistance, high hardenability, excellent wear resistance, and hot toughness such as AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) Type H13. The material shall be heat treated with a method such as Rockwell Hardness Scale “C” with the hardness scale between 51 and 53 (air or oil quenched above 1000?C), which is the most common heat treatment for nozzle manufacturing. The wear rate of the nozzle internal surface shall be minimized and be equivalent to the current production common-rail diesel injector nozzle wear rates.
The nozzle shall be a stand-alone component with the following requirements:

• Houses the needle and provides the needle seat

• Accommodates the hydraulic circuitry for needle motion and fuel delivery below the seat

• Interfaces with the control valve

• Provides a small sack volume below the seat for orifice intersection

• Operates up to 15,000 psi (or 1035 bar)

• Accommodates 1 to 8 orifices at the nozzle tip

• Ability to custom configure the number of orifices, size, spray angles and directions from an undrilled “Blank” needle/nozzle set

• Injection quantity: 0.5 to 45 mm3/cycle

• Cycle to cycle variability: less than 2%

PHASE I: Develop ‘novel’ micro direct fuel injection system concepts which can provide appropriate fuel-air mixture for efficient combustion in small internal combustion engines. The technology shall be evaluated through fluid flow analysis for injection characteristics conducive to small engine environments. Assess the manufacturability of the proposed technology identifying the methods and equipment capable of production. Phase I shall be assessed based on the micro injector design concepts, manufacturing processes and machining capability, and nozzle internal flow and spray analytical analysis in small engine environment (i.e. Shadow UAV engine). The parameters for the analysis shall include nozzle inlet diameter, nozzle outlet diameter, nozzle shaping, sac volume, nozzle orifice orientation, and discharge coefficient among others.
PHASE II: Develop and demonstrate the technology and manufacturing methods. Assess injector fuel charge preparation through experimental spray testing and analysis as well as 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) analysis. Characteristics should include minimum injection quantity, cycle-to-cycle variability, rate of injection, and spray patterns among others at various fuel injection pressures, injection quantities, and multiple injections. Manufacturing assessment shall evaluate the method, repeatability, and tolerance holding capability by measuring nozzle geometries with scanning electron microscope (SEM) or scanning acoustic microscopy. The assessment shall be made according to the requirements in the description section. Deliverables should include the reports, test and analysis results, manufactured prototype injector(s).
PHASE III: Develop and demonstrate a fuel injection system that can be integrated with small engines (3-70 horsepower) for unmanned aerial and ground systems. This system should be available for future Army and commercial unmanned aerial and ground systems. This heavy-fuel (i.e. Jet Propellant-8 (JP-8)) injection system should lead to the development of higher engine performance, higher fuel economy, lower noise, and reliable engines for unmanned systems. The developed fuel system could be implemented as a JP-8 fuel injection system for the Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) engine (currently it uses a 38-horsepower rotary engine with aviation gasoline). The demand for small UAVs is projected to grow not only in the military but also in the commercial applications. The developed fuel injection systems could facilitate the development of small UAV engines fueled with heavy fuels such as JP-8, Jet A, diesel, and alternative heavy fuels. Increased demand in the commercial sector would enhance the research and development in small engines. This would lead to more advanced propulsion systems for future DoD UAV systems.

1. Tanya J., Gibson, “ARL opens unique combustion research lab, studies in JP-8 fuel could lead to "super engine" development.” U.S. Army Research Laboratory (, October 9, 2012.

2. C-B. M. Kweon, “A Review of Heavy-Fueled Rotary Engine Combustion Technologies,” ARL-TR-5546, 2011.
3. Mashayek, F., “STTR Phase I: Electrostatic Atomizing Fuel Injector for Small Scale Engines,” Report No. EES-DD0010, U.S. Army Research Office: Research Triangle Park, NC, 2008.
4. Hoogterp-Decker, L. and Schihl, P., “The Use of Synthetic JP-8 Fuels in Military Engines,” 27th Army Science Conference, Dec. 2, 2010.
5. Schihl, P. and Hoogterp-Decker, L., “On the Ignition and Combustion Variances of Jet Propellant-8 and Diesel Fuel in Military Diesel Engines,” TACOM/TARDEC-19172RC, 2008.
6. Pisano, A., Fernandez-Pello, C., McCoy, C., Reville, J., and Limtiaco, J., “Final Report: Fuel Flexible Rotary Engine for Portable Power Applications,” Report No. 53049-EG.2, U.S. Army Research Office: Research Triangle Park, NC, 2010.
7. Staley C.S., Morris, C.J., and Currano, L.J., “Development of Nanoenergetic Micro-fluidic Jet Injectors,” ARL-TR-5872, 2012.
8. Brandt, A.C. and Yost, D.M., “Evaluation of Military Fuels Using a Ford 6.7L Powerstroke Diesel Engine,” Interim Report TFLRF No. 415, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), 2011.
9. Chang, C.I., “Fundamentals and Innovations of Army Energy Conversion Systems,” Symposium on Energy Conversion Fundamentals, Istanbul, Turkey, June 21-25, 2004.
KEYWORDS: compression ignition, heavy fuel, fuel injection system, direct injection, small engines, unmanned aerial system, unmanned ground system, Jet Propellant-8, efficiency, performance, injector, spray

A14-020 TITLE: Universal Software-Defined Receiver for Assured and Seamless Position, Navigation, and

Timing (PNT)
The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop a software-defined navigation receiver with an improved assurance level for position, navigation, and timing (PNT). To mitigate the jamming, interference, and spoofing vulnerability of the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, the receiver gathers signals from GPS as well as other emerging global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs). Furthermore, the receiver can use opportunistic non-GNSS signals to extract useful information to assist the GNSS signals in order to improve PNT assurance.
DESCRIPTION: Current Army operations rely heavily on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals to provide position, navigation, and timing (PNT) information. Most current navigation receivers rely on GPS signals only and are vulnerable to jamming, interference, and spoofing. GPS signal gaps often exist in urban and indoor environments, where the signals are susceptible to line-of-sight blockage and multi-path reflection.
With the modernization of GPS satellites and the emergence of other global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs), including Galileo, GLONASS, and COMPASS, many more new GNSS signals other than the widely used GPS L1 signal is available. PNT information can also be extracted from signals of opportunity. These signals of opportunity include both satellite and terrestrial signals, such as Long Range Navigation (LORAN), cellular code division multiple access (CDMA), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE), broadcast TV/Radio, Iridium, and much more. Dedicated pseudolites can also be set up to broadcast PNT information. These signals of opportunity can be combined with GNSS signals to increase the availability and assurance of PNT information, and create seamless situational awareness for Soldiers in combat. For example, it has been demonstrated that precision timing can be extracted from cellular CDMA signals and used to improve the coherent integration time of a GPS receiver to recover weak GPS signals in an indoor environment.
Although GNSS receiver technology has matured significantly over the past 20 year, most receivers can only acquire signals at one or two GPS frequencies. Multi-GNSS, multi-frequency receivers are at the early stage of development as new GNSS signals are being broadcasted. Ways to develop techniques and algorithms to recover PNT or PNT-related information from the signals of opportunity mentioned above to assist and complement GNSS receivers in GNSS-denied and weak signal environments are being actively pursued by many researchers. However, computationally efficient implementations of these signal fusion techniques to improve PNT assurance and create devices that are suitable for portable use and have a low power form factor still require significant development.
The goal of this program is to develop a reprogrammable, software-defined, multi-GNSS, multi-frequency receiver with signals of opportunity fusion. The receiver will leverage recent developments in high-speed analog-to-digital converters and field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for signal capturing, digitizing, and processing. An efficient digital signal processing algorithm will be developed to integrate multi-GNSS signals and signals of opportunity. A broadband radio frequency (RF) front end that can cover the ~500-MHz band occupied by GNSS signals at L-band as well as other frequencies used by signals of opportunity will also be developed as part of the receiver.
PHASE I: In Phase I, the proposer will analyze and select a suitable receiver architecture for receiving, capturing, and analyzing multiple GNSS signals at multiple frequencies as well as a select number of signals of opportunity. The receiver must cover GPS, Galileo, GLONASS, and COMPASS signals. The analysis must show integration of at least three signals of opportunity and demonstrate a path to incorporate more signals if necessary. The receiver can be implemented using a wideband direct digital RF front end or a channelized RF front end. In order to integrate signals of opportunity, an alternative architecture using a wideband RF channel for GNSS signals and a number of narrowband RF channels for signals of opportunity is permissible. The proposer will analyze the trade-off between the speed and vertical resolution requirements of the analog-to-digital converters and the digitized signal distortion. The proposer will investigate digital signal processing algorithms to process and track multiple GNSS signals. The tracking can be performed using Kalman filters as well as other innovative approaches. The tracking must be able to incorporate signals of opportunity. Performance metrics, such as receiver sensitivity, interference rejection, etc., will be defined in the study to quantify the improvement in PNT assurance level. The proposer will analyze the implementation of the signal processing algorithms in FPGAs and determine the computational resource requirements. The overall power consumption and performance of the receiver will be analyzed and compared to current state-of-the-art GPS receivers.
PHASE II: In Phase II, the proposer will demonstrate a prototype of a multi-GNSS receiver with signals of opportunity fusion by implementing the receiver architecture and signal processing algorithm developed in Phase I. The receiver must be a complete receiver including a broadband antenna, an RF front end, digitizers, and a signal processing unit. A single broadband antenna must be used to cover all signals of interest. The signal processing unit must be implemented in an FPGA for programmability. Either evaluation boards or a dedicated developmental system can be used for the implementation. The proposer will perform a field demonstration of the prototype against state-of-the-art GPS receivers under adverse environments such as weak signal (indoor), intentional jamming, etc., using metrics developed in Phase I. The proposer will demonstrate the programmability of the receiver by using different numbers of GNSS signals and signals of opportunity. Programmability should also be demonstrated using the new and updated signal processing algorithm.
PHASE III: In Phase III, the proposer will develop a portable version of the multi-GNSS receiver with signals of opportunity fusion. The receiver should be implemented in an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) form factor to lower the size, weight, power, and cost (SWAP-C). Initially, the SWAP-C of the multi-signal receiver could be worse than that of a state-of-the-art, single-signal GPS receiver because of the increase in functionality. At the commercialization stage of the program, the SWAP-C of the multi-signal receiver should be comparable to that of a state-of-the-art, single-signal GPS. Also, a military version of the multi-signal receiver capable of receiving, processing, and integrating military GNSS signals (for example, GPS L2 M code) will be developed for transition to PD PNT.

1. E.D. Kaplan and C.J. Hegarty, “Understanding GPS,” Artech House, Boston, 2006.

2. D. Dardari, E. Falletti and M. Luise, “Satellite and Terrestrial Radio Positioning Techniques: A Signal Processing Perspective,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2012.
3. M.S. Grewal, L.R. Weill and A.P. Andrews, “Global Positioning Systems, Inertial Navigation, and Integration,” Wiley-Interscience, New Jersey, 2007.
4. K.D. Wesson, K.M. Pesyna, J.A. Bhatti, T.E. Humphreys, "Opportunistic Frequency Stability Transfer for Extending the Coherence Time of GNSS Receiver Clocks," Proceedings of the 2010 ION GNSS Conference, Portland, OR, September, 2010.
KEYWORDS: PNT (position, navigation, and timing), SDR (software-defined radio), GPS (Global Position System), GNSS (global navigation satellite system), FPGA (field-programmable gate array), Tracking

A14-021 TITLE: Quantum frequency conversion for quantum communication

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
OBJECTIVE: To develop a plug-and-play nonlinear device based on periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide (or similar) having high difference, and sum, conversion efficiency with at least 10 dB signal-to-noise.
DESCRIPTION: The Department of Defense and the Army has a vested interest in secure communications. Quantum communication has been shown to be secure against eavesdropping due to the nature of entanglement. Potential next generation quantum communication systems include transmission of quantum information entangled with quantum memories. Quantum memories allow for extended distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and for storage and later retrieval of quantum information in a network composed of many nodes. In these cases, frequency conversion of single photons is needed. Such quantum frequency conversion has been demonstrated for certain wavelengths with periodically poled lithium niobate (and similar periodically poled ferroelectric waveguides). The objective here is to develop a complete package that supports quantum frequency conversion between the specified wavelengths. This quantum frequency conversion package would allow for long-haul quantum communication because the output/input is a photon in the telecommunications band. Successful demonstration of the packaged outlined below will directly and significantly impact quantum communication, long-haul quantum communication, and hybrid quantum technologies.
Periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), a ferroelectric crystal, is a versatile nonlinear medium. It is well established as a material of choice for optical amplifiers, second harmonic generation and nonlinear waveguides. For efficient use of PPLN in frequency conversion, a waveguide is often fabricated into the PPLN. Obtaining efficient input coupling of two nondegenerate optical frequencies into a PPLN waveguide is challenging. Moreover, obtaining an efficient waveguide for both the nondegenerate frequencies in order to achieve high efficiency frequency conversion is another difficulty.
This call is for two devices, one capable of difference frequency generation (DFG) and a second capable of sum frequency generation (SFG). The aim of this program is to design, fabricate and successfully demonstrate a complete packaged PPLN (or other nonlinear compact medium packaged < 30 cm3) having high efficiency, fiber or other waveguide coupling at the input and have an output signal-to-noise of at least 10 dB. There is appreciable overlap in the design so simultaneous work on DFG and SFG is very reasonable. Any needed power supplies or oven controllers can be separate to the packaged PPLN and their size is not critical.
PHASE I: The design of the periodically poled lithium niobate (or other nonlinear medium) waveguide must be demonstrated. The design and simulations must show (i) high efficiency DFG (of inputs 795 nm and 1989 nm) and high efficiency SFG (of inputs 1324 nm and 1989 nm), where both DFG and SFG are at the level >30%/W/cm2 (where W/cm2 is the product of the input powers divided by the squared length with <300 mW total input power) (ii) a signal-to-noise of the output of at least 10 dB and (iii) the input coupling efficiency should be >40% for all DFG and SFG inputs, (iv) provide a design of the coupling method of the inputs to the PPLN waveguide for both DFG and SFG. The designed holder for the PPLN should be <30 cm3.
PHASE II: Difference Frequency Generation: The fabrication of the periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide (or other nonlinear medium) must be completed and the following demonstrated: (i) high efficiency DFG (of 795 nm and 1989 nm) and SFG (of 1324 nm and 1989 nm), both >30%/W/cm2 and total input power of <300 mW (ii) the signal-to-noise of the output of at least 10 dB, (iii) the input coupling efficiency should be >40% for all SFG and DFG inputs. The efficiency and signal-to-noise can be experimentally demonstrated with ample input powers that is well above the single photon level. The package (<30cm3) should be designed for optimal coupling of the inputs into the waveguide, where for DFG the inputs are either fiber or waveguide coupling into the PPLN and the inputs are fiber coupled for SFG.
PHASE III: The complete packaged device (<30cm3) must be delivered, one for sum frequency generation and one for difference frequency generation. That is, a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide (or other nonlinear medium) and (i) be a complete plug-and-play package, specifically, it should include the waveguide, its housing (ii) the inputs should be either fiber coupled or waveguide coupled into the PPLN waveguide for DFG and be fiber coupled into the PPLN waveguide for SFG (iii) the output should be fiber coupled for both DFG and SFG and (iv) the signal-to-noise of the output should be at least 10 dB (measured for DFG at 795 nm vs 1324 nm and for SFG 1324 nm and 795 nm) (v) the product should be tunable in the input of at least 5 nm with the output having at least 10 dB signal-to-noise. The output does not need to be measured at the single photon level. Note that any needed power supplies or oven controllers can be separate to the packaged PPLN and their size is not critical.
The compact, portable and robust nature of the device is an important feature. The product’s commercialization would serve as a device to bridge two neutral atom-based quantum systems that are remotely situated but connected by telecommunications fibers. This device could be integrated into a more secure quantum communication network for the DoD. Beyond a research tool, this device would operate as bridge hybrid quantum systems which require frequency conversion for spectral overlap. Furthermore, commercialization of the methodology for optimal coupling and conversion would allow for consumer access to these specialized devices for specific use in extending the technique into other wavelength regimes where the inputs are highly nondegenerate.

1. K De Greve, et al., “Quantum-dot spin–photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491, 421 (2012)

2. Lijun Ma, et. al., "Single photon frequency up-conversion and its applications,” Physics Reports, (2012), doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2012.07.006.
3. Lijun Ma, et. al., "Temporal correlation of photons following frequency up-conversion,” Opt. Exp. 19, 10501 (2011).
4. Ates, S., et al., “Two-Photon Interference Using Background-Free Quantum Frequency Conversion of Single Photons Emitted by an InAs Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 109, 147405 (2012).
5. Ramyer et al, “Stimulated Raman scattering: Unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation,” Phys. Rev. A., 24 (1981)
6. I Agha et al, “Low-noise chip-based frequency conversion by four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides,” Opt. Lett., 37, 2997 (2012)
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