|DESCRIPTION: During underbody blast, crash and rollover events, the vehicle occupant, even when properly restrained experiences high velocity motion in infinite directions. Blast events in particular are, by nature of the infinite possible locations of the blast initiator (e.g. Improvised Explosive Device), conducive to setting the vehicle in a variety of motions. During a blast event the vehicle is pushed in an upward motion, and is also susceptible to rollover side to side or end to end depending on the location of the blast initiator relative to the vehicle location. The intent of the use of interior trim energy absorption materials is to select materials designed to absorb kinetic energy in a controllable and predictable manner, in such a way as to reduce the level of energy experienced by the vehicle occupant and thus reduce occupant injury due to impact. Currently there is little to no interior trim energy absorption materials used in the interior of military vehicles. Additionally, any materials which are used for military applications are typically validated to FMVSS 302, which is considered by the TARDEC Flame, smoke and toxicity Interior Team to be an inferior specification for military vehicle applications. There is a variety of commercially available energy absorbing material with both recoverable and non-recoverable characteristics; however the commercially available materials are not designed with a high level of resistance to flame, smoke and toxicity. The challenge to the military vehicle designer is to provide interior trim energy absorbing material solutions which achieve high energy absorption capabilities, are recoverable and durable, as well as resistant to flame, smoke and toxicity. Resistance to flame, excessive smoke and toxicity are characteristics unique to military vehicle interior applications due to the vehicle’s exposure to blast events typically from IED’s (Improvised Explosive Devices). Unlike a commercial automobile, military vehicles are designed with heavy armor, heavy transparent armor and are significantly more enclosed. Upon the and underbody blast event, for which the armor is penetrated and the vehicle interior is exposed to high heat and/or flame, the materials inside the vehicle shall resist FST, to the extent the occupant has sufficient time to evacuate the vehicle.
PHASE I: Phase I of this effort shall consist of a feasibility study and concept development of one or more flame, smoke and toxicity resistant energy absorption material(s) which are capable of retaining their intended form upon multiple high and low impacts (high impact using Head Impact Test equipment at 15mph). The feasibility study shall describe through an analytical approach the means for which the proposed material will be developed to achieve a pass performance to MIL-STD-2031 and UL-94 for flame, smoke and toxicity resistance. The study shall also describe what affects the flame smoke and toxicity resistant formulation may have on the energy absorption, durability, and recoverability characteristics of the material. The energy absorption head impact criterion of < 1000 HICd is the level of protection required. The concept development shall provide the expected performance of the proposed material’s head impact protection capability, and how this performance shall be achieved. The Interior Trim energy absorbing concept may include multiple layers of materials all of which shall be capable of flame, smoke and toxicity resistance with the outer later being capable of withstanding normal wear and tear typical of a military vehicle interior compartment. Design constraints shall be clearly defined. The material concept(s) shall provide confidence in support of performance to the following specifications, supported by sound engineering principles.
MIL-STD-2031 Fire and Toxicity Test
ASTM E162 Surface Flammability of Materials
ASTM E1354 Heat and Smoke
ASTM E662 Smoke Obscurrence
ASTM D6264M-12 Damage Resistance for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite (if applicable for surface material)
ASTM D1242 Resistance to Abrasion (for surface material)
MIL-STD-810 Environmental; Temperature Basic Hot A2 Method 501.5;
Basic Cold C1 Method 502.5 Table 502.5-I and Table 502.5-II;
Fungus Method 508.6, Part II; Vibration Procedure I Category 20, Table 514.6-I Annex D, Rain Method 506.5
Analytical tools such as Finite Element Analysis and modeling and simulation where appropriate, shall be used for this purpose.
The outcome of Phase I shall include the scientific and technical feasibility as well as the commercial merit for the material concept solution provided. The concept(s) developed shall be supported by engineering principles. Supporting data along with material safety data sheets and material specifications shall also be included if available. The projected development and material cost and timing shall be included in the study. Phase I shall cover no more than a 6-month effort.
PHASE II: Phase II of this effort shall demonstrate the material concept(s) successfully perform to the criteria developed in Phase I. Thirty (30) Material samples / Component Level assemblies sized at 12”x12” squares, including a durable outer surface (cover trim) which is securely attached to the energy absorption material (if separate), shall be shipped to the SANG (Selfridge Air force Base) HIL (Head Impact Laboratory) for pre-verification of energy absorption performance of greater than 1000 HICd 15ms at 15mph. Note; the cover trim shall also be durable and resist FST with minimal impact on the energy absorption performance of the EA (energy absorption) material it is covering. The material shall demonstrate the ability to absorb energy and recover. The recover feature shall return the material to a state which it will have the ability to be tested repeatedly and perform the same as it did when it was tested initially. The system shall also provide visual indication that it is damaged and not intended for additional impacts, example being crazing, evident deformation, color change or color with a distinct odor. The designed system (after being validated to the above criteria), shall be presented to TARDEC and approved before it is integrated onto a vehicle. Once approved six samples of the system shall be provided for integration onto a vehicle for the purposes of Blast, Crash, Roll Over System and Toxicity testing. The Contractor shall assist TARDEC in the installation of the parts to ensure proper fit and finish is achieved. The size of the sample shall be defined by the vehicle roof structure which will be made available by TARDEC to the contractor at the beginning of Phase II. In addition Phase II shall focus upon the validation and correlation of the modeling and simulation effort mentioned in Phase I, along with the fabrication and validation of the proposed material(s). Additionally the study in Phase II shall provide test data, reports and all modeling and simulation models used to develop the system for concept validation according to the attached DVP & R (Development Validation Plan and Report). Any required modifications and retesting shall be conducted during Phase II.
PHASE III: In the final Phase of the project the contractor shall prove out the effectiveness of the system on an Army Vehicle (or vehicle that is representative of a vehicle in the Army fleet) in both blast and crash scenarios. The contractor shall provide an interior trim energy absorption material prototype headliner for the roof of the military vehicle (e.g. Bradley, MATV, Stryker) as well as a prototype component for the hatch ring frame. If the material solution is also capable of being utilized for small component protection such as grab handles, then the contractor shall also provide a prototype component as such. The prototype material shall be validated by the contractor, according to the attached DVP & R. Head impact protection performance shall be validated in vehicle, utilizing the SANG HIL. This system has the potential to be utilized in any Military and Civilian truck and automotive applications, as well as potential naval applications, further study for naval applications may be required however. Additionally, the material will be applicable to commercial automotive industry.
1. Specifications: FMVSS 201/201U, MIL-STD-2031 Fire and Toxicity Test, MIL-STD-1623 Fire Performance, ISO 12219-3 Interior Air of Road Vehicles, MIL-STD-810 Environment, MIL-STD-1472 Human Factors, MIL-HDBK-310 Global Climatic Data, ASTM G-21, ASTM E162 Surface Flammability of Materials, ASTM E1354 Heat and Smoke, ASTM E662 Smoke Occurrence, ASTM D6264/D6264M-12 Damage Resistance for Fiber reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite, ASTM D1242 Resistance to Abrasion, UL-94 Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials
2. Pizhong Qiao,1 Mijia Yang,2 and Florin Bobaru, Impact Mechanics and High-Energy Absorbing Materials: Review, Journal of Aerospace Engineering, 21:4 (October 1, 2008), pp. 235-248; doi 10.1061.
3. Mertz, Harold, J, Irwin, Annette L., Prasad, Priya, Biomechanical and Scaling Bases for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values, Stapp Car Crash Journal, vol 43, (October 2003), pp. 155-188.
4. Qiao, Pizhong, Yan, Mijia, Bobaru, Florin, Impact Mechanics and High-Energy Absorbing Materials: Review, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Digital Commons@University of Nebraska-Lincoln, (1October2008).
5. LaRue, Laura, Basily B., Elsayed, E.A., Cushioning Systems for Impact Energy Absorption, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Rutgers University, email@example.com.
KEYWORDS: HICd (Head Injury Criterion), Occupant Protection, Energy Absorption,material, Flame, smoke and toxicity resistant, Head injury, Occupant Centric, interior trim
A14-079 TITLE: Polymer Based Material to Improve Low-Speed Impact and Abrasion Resistance of
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: TARDEC
The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: The Phase II effort shall result in a novel polymer based transparent composite material that will be integrateable to the top, outer layer of the glass windshield or transparent armor in both commercial and military applications. This layer shall be designed to defeat rock strike threats and enhance transparent armor performance by reducing susceptibility to repetitive damage and latent cracks caused by rock and debris.
DESCRIPTION: One of the common problems for military convoys in remote and desert areas is windshield and transparent armor damage caused by stones flying off the wheels of other vehicles. Cracked or broken windshields need to be repaired or replaced with new ones, which causes logistical problems. The minor, but repetitive, damage and latent cracks caused by the stones significantly reduces the ability of the transparent armor panel to defeat other rock strikes and ballistic projectiles. To address these problems, this solicitation requests the development of an innovative transparent and tough nanocomposite laminate that can be added on top of the outer glass to prevent windshield crack or breakage from road hazards, and reduce latent damage to the transparent armor. This development should ideally exploit innovative materials, designs, and/or manufacturing processes to create a light but tough transparent outer layer.
Synthetic materials that take advantage of manufacturing techniques to develop fiber-based materials with three dimensional axial control including weaving techniques are of interest for this project. Recent advances in this area have resulted in development of materials with superior properties in strength, stiffness, toughness, and ballistic shock mitigation properties. With improvement in nanotechnology, discovery and exploitation of various nanostructures (such as, but not limited to, nanofibers, clay nanoplateletes, nanotubes, nanowires, etc.), and advances in composites fabrication processes, it is possible to develop new structures and materials that can be integrated into a transparent armor system that can lead to tougher, lighter, and thinner transparent ballistic panels. A lighter transparent armor is needed to improve mobility, maneuverability, and survivability of crew personnel. The goal of this solicitation is to develop a new material that can offer enhanced ballistic protection with at least 30% reduction in weight and significant reduction in thickness at comparable or reduced cost to currently fielded transparent armor windows.
PHASE I: Phase I will consist of a feasibility study of an innovative design concept for the development of a polymer based transparent armor protection shield through the utilization of advanced materials and/or innovative fabrication techniques. The contractor must demonstrate the concept design by manufacturing at least four (4) 400mm x 400mm prototype transparent armor shields of the proposed technology. The panels shall be tested for ballistic protection according to ATPD 2352T, section 4. Verification. The transparent ballistic panels shall defeat, at a minimum, .30 caliber 7.62 mm Armor Piercing bullet threat at 2800 feet per second. Transparency requirements include at least 70% transmission of the maximum solar emission at 550 nm. Refraction coefficient and coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials should be similar to that of glass, that is, 1.45 in the 400-800 nm wavelength range. Stability of the index of refraction should be investigated in the range of -20 C to +40 C. The transparent armor panels must maintain the improved ballistic performance at low temperatures (ATPD 2352T section 188.8.131.52) and withstand the thermal cycling testing profile (ATPD 2352T section 184.108.40.206). The transparent armor panels shall meet the requirements for abrasion resistance on the exterior surface per section 3.3.6 of ATPD 2352T. The novel material shall exhibit haze of less than 3%, and shall meet the Night Vision Goggles (NVG)-Weighted Transmittance requirements as per section 220.127.116.11 of ATPD 2352T. The phase I panels shall not be heavier than currently fielded transparent armor systems at comparable or reduced cost. Additionally, ballistic performance of the complete transparent armor system shall be equal to, or better, than currently fielded systems, as measured by the V50 value of the system. All testing for the stated requirements shall be conducted in accordance with ATPD 2352T, section 4, Verification.
PHASE II: Phase II work shall expand on Phase I results through the optimization of manufacturing processes and material properties based on the Phase I proof-of-concept studies, and demonstrate capabilities for large-scale manufacturing. Fabricate a minimum of 12 (400mm x400mm) coupons for rock strike testing to be conducted by TARDEC IAW ATPD 2352T. The contractor must verify the rock strike performance of their solution via testing prior to submitting the coupons to TARDEC. Additionally, the transparency requirements include at Phase II work shall expand on Phase I results through the optimization of manufacturing processes and material properties based on the Phase I proof-of-concept studies, and demonstrate capabilities for large-scale manufacturing. Fabricate a minimum of 12 (400mm x400mm) coupons for ballistic testing to be conducted by TARDEC. The contractor must verify the ballistic performance of their solution via testing prior to submitting the coupons to TARDEC. The transparent ballistic panels shall defeat, at a minimum,.30 caliber 7.62 mm Armor Piercing bullet threat at 2800 feet per second. The phase II panels shall not be heavier than currently fielded transparent armor systems at comparable or reduced cost. Additionally, ballistic performance of the complete transparent armor system shall be equal to, or better, than currently fielded systems, as measured by the V50 value of the system. All testing for the stated requirements shall be conducted in accordance with ATPD 2352T, section 4, Verification.
PHASE III: Development of polymer based lightweight transparent armor materials will directly impact military vehicle ballistic resistance capabilities, which can also be adapted to address civilian defense and automotive safety issues. Additionally, such technology will have a broad range of commercial applications in the airline industry. The new transparent armor materials will benefit light weight tactical vehicles by decreasing the amount of transparent armor replaced due to rock strikes.
The developed concept will be tested on light- to medium-weight army tactical vehicles with the potential for the translational implementations. The commercial market for the developed composite includes aircrafts, helicopters, the automotive industry, law enforcement, security vehicles, and security construction (bank windows, check points, etc.).
1. Huang, J.; Durden, H.; Chowdhury, M. Bio-inspired Armor Protective Material Systems for Ballistic Shock Mitigation. Materials and Design 2011, 32, 3702–3710.
2. Klement, R.; Rolc, S.; Mikulikova, J. K., Transparent Armor Materials, J. Eur. Chem. Soc. 2008, 28, 1091-1095.
3. Ortiz, C.; Boyce, M.C. Bioinspired Structural Materials. Science 2008, 319, 1053.
4. MIL-PRF 46108C, Performance Specification: Armor Transparent. Rai, K.N.; Singh, D. Impact Resistance Behavior of Polymer Nanocomposite Transparent Panels. Journal of Composite Materials 2009, 43, 139-151. Waas, A.; Arruda, E. M.; Kieffer, J.; Thouless, M. D.; Kotov, N. A., Dispersions of Aramid Nanofibers: A New Nanoscale Building Block. Acs Nano 2011, 5
5. MIL-STD-662, V50 Ballistic Test for Armor.
6. Rai, K.N.; Singh, D. Impact Resistance Behavior of Polymer Nanocomposite Transparent Panels. Journal of Composite Materials 2009, 43, 139-151.
7. Yang, M.; Cao, K.; Sui, L.; Qi, Y.; Zhu, J.; Waas, A.; Arruda, E. M.; Kieffer, J.; Thouless, M. D.; Kotov, N. A., Dispersions of Aramid Nanofibers: A New Nanoscale Building Block. ACS Nano 2011, 51.
8. Liu, Dahsin, “Impact-induced Delamination - A View of Material Property Mismatching,” J. Composite Materials, 22 (7), 674-691, 1988
9. ATPD 2352 Rev. T
KEYWORDS: Transparent armor, ballistic protection, lightweight, composite polymer based, manufacturing process, manufacturing efficiency
A14-080 TITLE: Improved Lateral Stability for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Convoys
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: TARDEC
OBJECTIVE: Develop an improved system for maintaining lateral stability of extended manned and unmanned convoys.
DESCRIPTION: Current robotic leader follower autonomy methods, when applied to multi vehicle convoy, often produce trailing vehicle trajectories unacceptably different from the lead vehicle trajectory. In military applications, this path deviation error can seriously endanger convoy mission success and the participating vehicles themselves, particularly in combat zones. Following vehicles which stray from the path are more likely to encounter roadside hazards or Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) which they would have avoided had they followed the lead vehicle more precisely. For such missions, consistent following performance with lateral tracking errors of centimeters (Threshold: 20 cm; Objective: 15 cm) is needed.
Some automated convoy approaches employ a set of sensor packages which include Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial sensing installed on each vehicle. However, simple following of the GPS waypoints laid down by the lead vehicle does not provide sufficient accuracy and fails in the absence of good GPS signal. Other methods, in which each vehicle tracks and follows its predecessor, work well for a few vehicles but do not scale well to longer convoys (10 or more vehicles), as small tracking and control errors accumulate with each successive follower. To date, fusion of these two approaches has also failed to consistently achieve the desired accuracy for long convoys.
Tracking of environmental features (landmarks) has been explored to help address this problem. In the case that the convoy is driving on roads in good condition with clearly painted lines, it is possible to exploit computer vision lane-tracking technology to enable the following vehicles to stay on-path by exploiting the markings on the road. Other environmental reference features can help when a sufficient number of such features are present. A more general solution is needed, though, if the convoy system is to operate on secondary roads (gravel, dirt, etc.), two track trails, off road (fields, desert, etc.) or on poorly-marked roads in cases where the presence of reliable landmarks cannot be guaranteed.
The ideal solution shall improve on the state of the art for both convoy relative vehicle localization and control algorithms. It shall exploit both inter vehicle sensing (e.g., sensors mounted on one vehicle which detect angle and/or range to other vehicles) and navigation sensors (e.g., GPS and inertial systems), but it shall not be tied to specific sensor hardware. Solutions which minimize requirements for environmental features are preferred.
PHASE I: Design a system that is capable of using sensors from different manufacturers and software algorithms for accurate leader-follower behavior in convoys of 10 or more vehicles. Convoy operations range in speed from 0 to 55 miles per hour (mph) with gap distance (the distance between vehicles) from 5 to 125 meters (m). Use open architecture principles in the system design. Feasibility of the approach shall be demonstrated in a simulation environment across a variety of lead vehicle paths and convoy speeds. The Phase I deliverable shall include a description of the system sensing hardware requirements, an analysis of expected system accuracy across a range of mission conditions, and an analysis of computation requirements.
PHASE II: Phase II shall implement the Phase I design for a multi vehicle convoy using Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), fully robotic tactical wheeled vehicles, to perform a technical demonstration. The system shall take advantage of the native onboard GFE sensors (GPS, Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), radars, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), wheel encoders, gyro, Ultra-wideband (UWB) radios, color and Infrared (IR) cameras, Vehicle To Vehicle (V2V) radio) to determine its solution. Adding additional sensors as part of the solution is discouraged. The technical demonstration site shall be provided by the Government in the Contiguous United States (CONUS). The site shall be selected to represent an operationally relevant environment. The technical demonstration shall cover full spectrum operations and shall include long/short haul duration missions; varying from low/high speeds in different operational conditions. These conditions shall include combinations of but not be limited to the following examples: day and night; raining/snowing; dust/fog; structured and unstructured roads, two track trails and cross country routes. The Phase II deliverable shall include a technical report, software, source code and documentation.
Phase III: Development of a modular package suitable for both commercial and military use. Last year alone there were over 130 billion miles driving in the US by Class 8 commercial trucks. This type system shall help reduce the number of accidents where trucks depart from the road. This could also be integrated into the military robotics library supporting existing programs such as the Autonomous Mobility Appliqué System (AMAS) and Route Clearance Inspection System (RCIS) Program of Record (PoR). All code and documentation shall be developed using Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level III.
1. W. Travis. “Path Duplication Using GPS Carrier Based Relative Position for Automated Ground Vehicle Convoys.” PhD dissertation, Auburn University, May 2010.
2. S. Martin, J. Dawkins, W. Travis, and D. Bevly. “Terrain characterization and Feature Detection for Automated Convoys.” Proceedings of Institute of Navigation GNSS 2010.
3. J. Anderson, D. Lee, R. Schoenberger, and B. Tippetts. “Using Real-Time Vision to Control a Convoy of Semi-autonomous Unmanned Vehicles.” AUVSI Unmanned Systems North America, online proceedings, 2006.
KEYWORDS: Autonomy, Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Convoy, Sensor Fusion, Vehicle Control