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Army 14. 1 Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) Proposal Submission Instructions

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6. Module is teleoperated and/or semi-autonomous for some tasks (end goal is for an semi-autonomous system with human-in-the-loop for safety). Patient will be attended during CASEVAC operation.

A key goal of this research topic is to leverage and demonstrate the novel capabilities of 3-D printing to speed design and development, reduce prototyping costs, reduce production costs, and reduce maintenance and repair costs, as well reducing required spare parts inventories. Use of 3-D printing capability should be used when it makes sense (e.g., to accelerate an iterative design, development and test approach; and to reduce part fabrication costs).
PHASE I: The Principle Investigator (PI) will research S-MET documentation (when available for public release) applicable to this research topic. The team will also research and analyze the bio-mechanics of lifting and carrying, or dragging a casualty (see "Research Involving Animal or Human Subjects," section, below, - No Human Use during Phase I, therefore the use of modeling and simulation (M&S) is strongly encouraged). However, Human Use Protocol planning and documentation should be initiated, as required. The PI will develop and deliver a prototype medical mission payload module design (see Description section, above). The PI will develop and demonstrate as much of the prototype design functionality as possible using M&S and 'brass board' components. Finally, a draft Commercialization Plan will be developed.
Phase I Deliverables:

1. Report cataloging and summarizing all S-MET and other documentation researched and used to develop the medical mission module payload.

2. Report describing the bio-mechanics of lifting, dragging and carrying a 300 lb casualty and the impact thereof, on medical MMP functionality and design.

3. Modeling and Simulation Plan, if any, for Phase I, with links to any envisioned Phase II M&S Plan.

4. Initial medical MMP prototype design.

5. Demonstration of any M&S tools developed or in development, as well as any 'brass board' components.

6. Report detailing Human Use Protocol planning and documentation.

7. Draft Commercialization Plan.

8. Report describing the planned use of 3-D printing technology.
PHASE II: The PI will leverage the Phase I work and refine the medical MMP design. A working prototype shall be built and demonstrated in the laboratory (minimum), and in a more relevant outside environment (desired), using a robotic system or UGV (S-MET vehicle desired, but if not available a surrogate UGV may be used). Technology Readiness Level desired at the end of Phase II is TRL-5. The Phase I Commercialization Plan will be completed.
Phase II Deliverables:

1. Prototype medical MMP demonstration in both a laboratory and field environment.

2. Technical reports containing each demonstration's results.

3. Updated medical MMP design.

4. Develop, implement and document any Human Use Protocols plans and schedule, as required.

5. Demonstration and documentation (report and software) of any M&S tools employed in this Phase II effort.

6. Updated Commercialization Plan, including targeted (or ideally, acquired) commercial or academic partners for Phase III.

7. Report describing the use of 3-D printing and lessons learned.


1. Technical and programmatic reports and plans, and technical and operational demonstrations supporting further medical MMP development and commercialization.

2. Updated and optimized medical MMP design.

3. Updated or new Human Use Protocols developed, approved and executed.

4. Operational demonstration of the medical MMP integrated with a S-MET vehicle or UGV surrogate, if no S-MET platform is available.

5. Report describing the use of 3-D printing and lessons learned.

The dual use applications for a robotic/UGV system medical mission payload module for expeditious and safe extraction and short range casualty movement are obvious - Military: Tactical combat casualty extraction and evacuation, casualty extraction and evacuation from a contaminated environment (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN)), Humanitarian Assistance missions; and Disaster Relief Missions; Civilian: Mass casualty situations (e.g., collapsed buildings, victim rescue in a CBRN contaminated environment (e.g., industrial chemical spill).


5. U.S. Department of Defense Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY2011-2036.
6. U.S. Army Center for Lessons Learned Tactical Combat Casualty Care Handbook.
7. U.S. Army FM 8-10-6, Medical Evacuation in a Theater of Operations: Tactics, Techniques and Procedures.
8. USMC MCRP 4-11.IG, Patient Movement, May 2007
KEYWORDS: Extraction, Rescue, Evacuation, Robot, Robotic System, Unmanned Ground Vehicle, Unmanned Ground System, UGV, UGS, Squad-Multipurpose Equipment Transport, S-MET

A14-054 TITLE: Mobile Military CO2 Refrigeration

OBJECTIVE: Develop technology to enable mobile, military, containerized cold-storage assets that use carbon-dioxide as the refrigerant, for purposes of eliminating reliance on the more heavily regulated and expensive refrigerants currently used.

DESCRIPTION: The result of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) regulation in the 1990's was that road and rail transport refrigeration systems today use hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) instead as their refrigerants. This includes all our military's existing and near-term mobile cold-storage assets. The issue is that HFCs are now under threat. In 2006, through the Kyoto Protocol, the international community, including the United States, came to an agreement that HFCs must eventually be phased out to help slow global climate change, because HFCs have a global warming potential (GWP) more than a thousand times greater than carbon-dioxide (CO2) . The first milestone -- phase-out of HFCs from automobiles in Europe beginning January 1, 2013 -- has passed. The next targets are supermarket and industrial refrigeration, then building air-conditioning, followed by road and rail container transport refrigerator/freezers, and domestic appliances. This trend has inspired Product Manager - Force Sustainment Systems (PM-FSS) and the Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) to ensure the Army is not disadvantaged by such regulation. The Army is therefore seeking advanced development of technologies that enable mobile military containerized cold-storage assets that use alternative refrigerants, namely CO2.

Several major corporations initiated development ahead of the upcoming ban. Having concerns that ammonia, hydrocarbons, and the current hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) are not suitable replacement candidates due to flammability and toxicity issues, researchers are investing in CO2 solutions. CO2 refrigeration is not new, but the need to eliminate refrigerants with high GWP, the necessity for greater efficiency to decrease energy consumption, and a desire for far lower refrigerant costs, is driving innovation. It is supported by recent advances in materials, processor-based electronic controls, and the advancement of computer-aided analysis tools and techniques, which in turn impact the designs of heat exchangers, compressors and other components, and enhance control over the process. The issues with CO2 refrigeration -- high pressures and/or increased component counts -- now appear to be surmountable with the emergence of these new technologies. Furthermore, the inherently high process pressures result in higher fluid densities, meaning reductions in weight and size are also possible -- given the same power requirements -- for various components including the compressor.
The majority of work thus far has focused on vending machines (Danfoss and the Coca-Cola Co.), supermarkets (Hillphoenix, Hannaford Bros. and Sobey's), and recently Carrier has been developing for containerized transport refrigeration. While Carrier's containerized system is the closest to what we need, it is designed only for ordinary road, rail and ship transport conditions, not military application. And it is still in development, so commercial acquisition is not possible. As such, military investment is necessary. While small businesses may be able to leverage some of Carrier's technology, additional innovative development will address the fact that military assets require ruggedization for off-road transport, efficiency gains to minimize logistical burden, modification to power consumption levels to accommodate use with camp grids and gensets, the need for dual evaporators, compactness to create space for the inclusion of onboard gensets and fuel tanks, and adaptation to extremely hot environments - areas of deficiency in the Carrier unit.
Concepts should target modular refrigeration units (RU) suitable to large containerized cold-storage. The weight objective for a system capable of cooling a 20' ISO container is <1200 lbs, with a threshold target of <1600 lbs -- including frame, onboard auxiliary power unit, and all ancillary components. The space available for the refrigeration mechanicals in such a frame is roughly 45" wide x 23" deep x 23" tall. At 135°F ambient, the capacity required for simultaneously cooling 2/3rds of a 20' container to 38°F and 1/3rd of the container to -5°F is ~15,000 BTU/hr. The RU driving these temperatures should have a reserve capacity of 30% at this condition, and a target coefficient of performance of greater than 1 -- a reasonable goal for CO2 even in the most challenging climates. The annualized average power consumption target would be 2 kW in the Middle East. The design should lead eventually to a production cost of <$40k, the objective being <$25k.
Respondents shall consider the two most common CO2 cycles, as well as alternative vapor compression cycles, and explain and justify their choice and safety considerations, especially with regard to cycles with extreme pressures. While it is expected that to limit scope the concepts will utilize the CO2 refrigeration compressors currently available (e.g., Carrier, Danfoss, Tecumseh, Daikin, etc.), development of new compressor technology will be considered if it does not jeopardize development of other technologies. Other technologies examined will be effective heat exchanger materials and geometries; efficient motors; variable-speed drives; algorithmic controllers employing process monitoring, logging and anticipatory software; and electrically or mechanically-pulsing evaporative control valves.
PHASE I: During Phase I and the Phase I Option, offerors shall develop the initial concept design; demonstrate the practical and technical feasibility of their approach materially via scaled-down bench-top/breadboard fabrications of the most critical component technologies; then validate empirical results with modeling and simulation. Phase I deliverables will include progress and final reports detailing activities, description and rationalization of the design process and resulting concept, successes and failures, results of performance modeling and benchtop evaluation, safety, risk mitigation measures, MANPRINT, and estimated production costs. The final report shall specify how requirements will be met with a full-scale prototype in Phase II. Concepts will be judged on adherence to the quantitative and qualitative factors in the Description section above, and more generally on metrics such as cost, complexity, reliability, maintainability, size and weight.
PHASE II: During Phase II, the researcher is expected to refine and scale-up the technology developed during Phase I, and further validate the concept and demonstrate how goals are being met by fabricating for delivery one or more fully-functional, full-size CO2 refrigeration units that have been subjected to various performance and environmental evaluation exercises representative of actual field conditions. The data deliverable shall be progress reports and a final report documenting the theory, design, safety, MANPRINT, component specifications, performance characteristics, and any recommendations for future enhancement of the equipment.
PHASE III: During Phase III, the researcher is expected to perform final tasks necessary to polish the technology and through advanced testing prove it is capable of fulfilling the requirements necessary for technology transition and commercialization. Likely military applications will be containerized cold-storage assets such as the Tricon Refrigerated Container System (TRCS), the Multi-Temperature Refrigerated Container System (MTRCS), and the single-temperature Refrigerated Container System (RCS). The technologies developed will be applicable to the millions of refrigerated transport containers that travel road and rail across the our nation and the world.

1. Miles, J. (2013), Rapporteur Calls on European Parliament to Impose Widespread HFC Ban,
2. Thompson, M. (2009), The Future of Refrigerants, Trane presentation:

3. DuPont Chemicals (2013), Letter from the Vice President of the European Commission, Antonio Tajani, to German Minister R Osler,
4. (2012), Draft EU Law Slaps F-gas Ban on Domestic Fridges,
5. Brown, C. (2012), Making the Switch: Exploring CO2 Refrigeration System Designs,
6. ATMOsphere Europe (2012), Summary Report of International Workshop,
7. (2012), CO2 as a Refrigerant Gains UL Approval,
8. Garry, M. (2012), CO2: Refrigerant of the Future?,
9. Carrier press release (2011), Carrier Transicold Reveals World’s First CO2-Based Container Refrigeration Design,
10. Powell, P. (2006), CO2 Refrigerant Dominates Conference Talk,

A14-055 TITLE: Development of Tool to Assess the Impact of “Off-shade/Specification” Samples on

Visual and Signature Performance Requirements
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: Develop a technique or system to rapidly determine the impact of deviations from established shade performance specifications on the camouflage effectiveness of Soldier uniforms in a photorealistic and radiometrically correct manner.
DESCRIPTION: This SBIR seeks innovative approaches to visualize and quantify the impact on camouflage effectiveness of materials determined to be “off spec” by various amounts for shade and near-infrared (NIR) both upon initial submission and after completion of various performance tests, such as colorfastness to light and laundering or durability (wear). As an example, current specifications for printed camouflage fabric for combat uniforms (e.g., MIL-DTL-44436A, Cloth, Camouflage Pattern, Wind Resistant Poplin, Nylon/Cotton Blend) require visual evaluation by a trained color specialist of the submitted specimen against the established standard under standard lighting conditions, D75, in a shade booth. The visual appearance of the specimen is compared to a set of physical standard and tolerance samples pulled from production runs by a team of subject matter experts. The near-infrared performance is evaluated based on spectrophotometer measurements of each color in wavelengths between 600-860nm and how they compare to the established tolerances in the current specification for that pattern.
When specimens are judged to be outside of the acceptable range, a waiver may be granted if it is determined to be in the best interest of the US Government by subject matter experts and contracting personnel. However, there is currently no method to visualize, in a photorealistic and radiometrically correct process, what the appearance of these deviations is or to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the waived specimens on the overall performance of the camouflage in a combat environment without actually fabricating prototypes from the material in question and conducting a field test. For instance, due to both the complexity of the camouflage patterns and the sensitivity of the human visual system, a small deviation in one color may have a minimal impact on a pattern’s visual and/or NIR performance while a change of a similar magnitude in another color of the same pattern could have a profound impact.
The goal for this task is to design, develop and demonstrate an innovative technique or techniques for rapidly visualizing and quantitatively determining the impact of the off-spec performance of Soldier Camouflage materials in relevant, real-world background scenes in the visual and near-infrared regions of the spectrum.
PHASE I: Design, develop and demonstrate a system process for creating photorealistic and radiometrically correct visualizations of off spec material for comparison to standard material performance at a minimum of 3 ranges (background dependent close, far and mid-ranges) of military relevance. Metrics to quantify time to generate visualizations, end product accuracy and fidelity will be chosen or developed by the contractor. An actual world location will be selected to encompass typical background elements relevant to evaluating material conformance to specification requirements.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype demonstration system for generating photorealistic and radiometrically correct visualizations of Soldier camouflage materials for comparison to standard materials in the visual and NIR that is extendable to other spectral regions, as well as a means to quantify the performance impact of the deviation. The software architecture and system operational requirements will be clearly stated and compatible with existing Army tool suites. Comparisons of the generated visualizations will be conducted against actual physical samples of standard and off spec material(s) and evaluated for scene generation speed, complexity and accuracy. Specimen and scene preparation and evaluation time shall be determined and documented.
PHASE III: Scene simulations are used in many current DoD applications, such as missile development, algorithm development and intelligence gathering, as well as in the motion picture and computer gaming industries. Our goal is to have a simpler version of a background and target scene generator than the hyperspectral variants required for sensor or missile development, suitable for use during full scale procurement. However, a more robust, radiometrically correct version than the photorealistic renderers used in the entertainment industry is required. Additional applications of this work could include extending the visualization software to other spectral regions beyond the NIR for other military products.
PHASE III DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: This visualization process could also aid customers in the commercial market by demonstrating the impact of varying shade tolerances to find the best combination of appearance, durability and cost. This could be useful in many different markets including textiles, paints and plastics, food and brand marketing. An additional application could be in the evaluation of transportation safety regulations.

1. EOView: A 100 Million Polygon Physics-based Multi- and Hyperspectral LWIR Background Model, W. Reynolds, M. Weathersby, D. Talcott, K. Rokos, Signature Research, Inc.; F. Carlen, G. Rogers, MSS 2008 Parallel Conference (CD01), February 2008. (Unclassified, distribution authorized to the Department of Defense and DoD Contractors only)

2. EOView Model Validation Results, C. Lai, J. Sebastiani, MSS 2008 Parallel Conference (CA08), February 2008. (Unclassified, distribution authorized to US Gov’t agencies and their contractors)
3. Human Infrared Signature Prediction Based on a Model of Human Thermoregulation, A. Curren, M. Hepokoski, ThermoAnalytics, Inc., MSS 2008 Parallel Conference (CD04), February 2008. (Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited)
4. Hepfinger, L.; Stewardson, C.; Rock, R.; Lesher, L.L.; Kramer, F.M.; McIntosh, S.; Patterson, J. and Isherwood, K.; Soldier Camouflage for Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF): Pattern-in-Picture (PIP) Technique for Expedient Human-in-the-Loop Camouflage Assessment, Poster JP-03, 2010 Army Science Conference, November 2010. (Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited)
5. Jason E. Meyer and Ronald B. Gibbons, Luminance Metrics for Roadway Lighting, The National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence, 11-UL-009, March 2011 (
6. A. Wegner, T. Hawkins and P. Debevec, Optimizing Color Matching in a Lighting Reproduction System for Complex Subject and Illuminant Spectra, Eurographics Symposium on Rendering, The Eurographics Association, 2003. (
KEYWORDS: Electro-optical, synthetic scenes, physics-based backgrounds, modeling and simulation, signature management, near-infrared, scene modeling, performance requirements

A14-056 TITLE: Technology to Support Non-destructive Inspection of Helicopter Sling Load (HSL) Slings

and Textiles
OBJECTIVE: Develop a technology to non-destructively inspect and test helicopter sling load slings to standards in TM 4-48.09 and FM 3-55.93
DESCRIPTION: Helicopter slings are textiles used to attach a payload (e.g. a truck, howitzer, or container) to the underbody of a military helicopter. This “external underslung payload” is then transported from one location to another. Helicopter slings come in two strengths and sizes. The 2,500 lb capacity sling (NSN for full sling set: 1670-01-027-2902) has a 7/8” outside diameter and is twelve feet long. The 6,250 lb capacity sling (NSN for full sling set: 1670-01-027-2900) has a 1 ¼” outside diameter and is twelve feet long. Each sling leg consists of a nylon rope made from double-braided nylon rope with an eye splice at each end. The outer braid is covered with a vinyl coating. Helicopter slings are exposed to harsh environmental conditions. They are dragged over sand, dirt and cement. They’re exposed to blowing sand and debris under a helicopter during payload hookup and forward flight. The slings can also be sprayed with or submerged in salt water. The salt crystals, upon drying, act as sand as any other foreign particle would and weaken the sling from the inside out. Slings can also be subject to vibrations during flight. There is also UV degradation and decay over time.
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