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Army 14. 1 Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) Proposal Submission Instructions

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[3] D.C. Heinz, A.W. Melber and M.L. Brennan, "Constant Phase Uniform Current Loop for Detection of Metallic Objects using Longitudinal Magnetic Field Projection," Proc. SPIE (accepted).
KEYWORDS: Current, Magnetic, Constant Phase, Sensor

A14-035 TITLE: Middle Ultraviolet Semiconductor Laser Diode

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a semiconductor laser giving an output power greater than 10 mW in the middle ultraviolet (UV) region with center wave tolerance of plus or minus of 10 nm and with good reliability.
DESCRIPTION: A compact room temperature semiconductor laser diode emitting in the mid-UV region is needed for testing sensors within a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment; and for other applications such as remote sensing, and for short-range non-line of sight communication. The existing UV lasers use nonlinear optical effects. This makes UV sources bulky, fragile, with significant power supply requirements, and provides limited UV wavelength options. A fieldable semiconductor laser in the mid-UV regime will provide the critical path for testing future sensors in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment.
PHASE I: A detailed analysis of the proposed approach followed by complete design is required. The design shall be made at one mid-UV wavelength, and will discuss applicability in other mid-UV wavelengths. The contractor shall deliver a detailed report on the analysis, results, conclusion, and a feasibility plan to address this effort.
PHASE II: A compact prototype mid-UV laser will be produced and delivered to the Army. The delivered laser would produce a continues output power of 10 mW at the middle ultraviolet wavelength with center wave tolerance of plus or minus of 10 nm, beam divergence full angle in far field less than 2 mrad, beam diameter less than 2 mm within operating temperature range of 0 to 40 degree centigrade. Required Phase II deliverables will include a prototype, testing in laboratory, and a final report.
PHASE III: The follow-on work would significantly improve the performance, size, weight and power to enable development in commercial marketing. The technology developed under this effort will be transitioned to military and commercial application.

1. M. Kneissl, D.W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N.M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes”, Appl. Phys. Letters, 82, 2386, 2003.

2. S. Nagahama, T. Yanamoto, and M. Sano, “Study of GaN-based laser diodes in near ultraviolet region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1: Reg. Papers Short Notes Rev. Papers, 41, 5, 2002.
3. M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Letters, 82, 4441, 2003.
4. H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” J. Phys., 11, 125013, 2009.
5. Zhengyuan Xu, Brian M. Sadler, " Ultraviolet Communications: Potential and State-of-the-Art", IEEE Communications Magazine, 67, 2008.
6. Md. Mahbub Satter, Hee-Jin Kim, Zachary Lochner, Jae-Hyun Ryou, Shyh-Chiang Shen, Russell D. Dupuis and Paul Douglas, “Design and Analysis of 250-nm AlInN Laser Diodes on AlN Substrates Using Tapered Electron Blocking Layers, ” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 48, 703, 2012.
7. Harumasa Yoshida, Yoji Yamashita, Masakazu Kuwabara, and Hirofumi Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Letters, 93, 241106, 2008.

8. Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminum nitride light emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature, 441, 325, 2006.

9. T. Takano, Y. Narita, A. Horiuchi, and H. Kawanishi, “Room temperature deep-ultraviolet lasing at 241.5 nm of AlGaN multiple quantum-well laser,” Appl. Phys. Letters, 84, 3567, 2004.
10. M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2-Lett. Exp. Letter, 45, 1286, 2006.
11. V. Adivarahan, A. Heidari, B. Zhang, Q. Fareed, S. Hwang, M. Islam, and A. Khan, Appl. Phys. Express, 2, 102101, 2009.
KEYWORDS: Laser, Laser Diode, Ultraviolet, Aircraft Survivability Equipment, Countermeasure, Simulation, Test, Missile, Hardware-in-the-Loop, Optical Communication, Biological Agents, Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition, III-V Semiconductors, AlGaN, Semiconductor

A14-036 TITLE: High Frequency (HF) Radio Direction Finding

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: Develop a High Frequency (HF) Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) radio geolocation remote sensor system that uses a physically small antenna. The High Frequency remote sensor system will be capable and effective at providing accurate geolocation coordinates on High Frequency radios using NVIS (Near Vertical Incidence Skywave) communication mode.
DESCRIPTION: Geolocation of High Frequency (HF) Radios using Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) mode propagation with a remote sensor system using TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) technique is needed for providing force protection for an area of operations. Innovation is required in developing TDOA processing of HF NVIS signals. There are many challenges to be met and problems to be solved to select and verify the same wave point on the received signal and then accurately time stamp the same point on the wave and then an algorithm to process the time stamped signal to provide a line-of-bearing. Multiple lines-of-bearings must be processed to determine accurately the geolocation of the radio. The processing of the time stamped data must be processed with the uniqueness of the HF ground-wave taken into account. The system must isolate the ground-wave from the direct-wave and sky-wave. Primary requirement of this research task is to provide solutions to these challenges in the form of a low cost remote sensor system that provides persistent surveillance of an area to be monitor for extended periods of time.
Research and development efforts have been completed in the past using aircraft as TDOA platforms to provide LOB (lines-of-bearing) on ground based HF emitters on direct-wave propagation. Much work on ground base systems have be completed in the past using very large antenna arrays to do single station location of HF skywave mode communications but these are ineffective and not accurate against NVIS mode communications. Large DF antenna arrays have been used in single station location system but these are too large to be used as a deployable force protection ground based system. None of these approaches satisfy the requirements for deployable force protection and persistent surveillance for imminent threat warnings or detection and geolocation of HF interferers for spectrum management purposes.
Capability to get LOB and geolocation of HF radios using NVIS communications links is desired for remote sensors providing force protection over the area of operations. Ground remote sensors are the best solution for area of operation deployable force protection. These remote sensors must be easy to deploy and low cost given the installation in remote locations that makes the sensor vulnerable to be lost.
This research effort would use innovative control and data processing of a remote wideband spectrum surveillance receiver system with organic precision time stamping of RF events. The research would involve developing a processing system by means of TDOA technique applicable to HF NVIS communications to process the data collected by the wideband receive system to locate HF transmitters. Ground based remote sensor geolocation of NVIS emitters using a TDOA algorithm is the primary research area.
Man power and support is a major factor in the research and design approach of the sensor system. Minimum personnel time to deploy, operate and maintain the system is a key goal for this sensor system. The sensor system must not be dependent on availability of commercial or generator power. It must use renewable power and be compatible with multiple power sources.
PHASE I: Will consist of researching past approaches to using TDOA for geolocation of HF transmitters and provide a detailed design of a low cost ground based HF deployable remote sensor system. The sensor system must be easily deployed, use renewable power, data processor system, and software system that can be easily integrated into current geolocation systems. Data format must be compatible with deployable force protection situational awareness database system and other national database systems. The cost to build a demonstration system shall be provided and estimated cost to build six field evaluation systems.
PHASE II: Develop a HF TDOA remote sensor demonstration system based on the detailed design presented during Phase I. Identify a test range and setup the demonstration sensor system collecting data needed to determine the accuracy, effectiveness, and viability of the sensor system. An operational field test report is to be provided with data, analysis, and evaluation of the sensor system. The report shall provide lifetime cost analysis of the sensor system and manpower required to deploy and operate the sensor system.
PHASE III: Fully develop the low cost, ground based, easily deployable, HF TDOA technique, remote sensor system.
U.S. Army, DOD, FAA and FCC Uses: Deployable Force Protection, Persistent Surveillance, Imminent Threat Warnings, Remote Sensor System, Spectrum Management
Commercial Uses: Detection and location of HF communications interferers

1) The Emergency Communications Antenna, By Stephen C. Finch, AIØW

2) Hawker, Pat (1999). Technical Topics Scrapbook 1990-1994. Potters bar, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain. pp. 33–34, 64–65. ISBN 1-872309-51-8
3) Hawker, Pat (2005). Technical Topics Scrapbook 2000-2004. Potters bar, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain. pp. 61, 89–90,109–110, 126, 143, 154. ISBN 1-905086-05-9
4) Walden, M. (March 2008). "Extraordinary Wave NVIS Propagation at 5 MHz". RadCom (RSGB) 84 (03): 57–62.
5) NVIS Army Field Manual 24-18,
6) United States Army Field Manual 7-93 Long-Range Surveillance Unit Operations (1995), United States Department of Defense, Appendix D – Communications,
7) Using an HF Time Difference of Arrival Geolocation Network To Perform Direction Finding, 16-R9563, Principal Investigators Brent Fessler, , Southwest Research Institute
KEYWORDS: High Frequency Communications, HF NVIS, Near Vertical Incidence Skywave, Time Difference of Arrival, TDOA, DF, Direction Finding, HFDF, HF SSL, Single Station Locator

A14-037 TITLE: Digital Readout Integrated Circuit For Infrared Focal Plane Array

The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals, their country of origin, and what tasks each would accomplish in the statement of work in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation.
OBJECTIVE: Research, develop and design a Digital Readout Integrated Circuit (DROIC) optimized for high performance cooled IRFPA technology. Elegant, innovative 2D readout solutions/designs that utilize standard silicon foundry processes are preferred; however a 3D approach that shows high yield potential, reasonable cost to fabricate will be considered.
DESCRIPTION: The IR industry’s continual desire for larger format, smaller pixel size FPAs to achieve higher resolution and wider field of views (FOVs), without sacrificing existing performance, has presented a tremendous challenge for today’s ROIC technology. Today, the vast majority of ROIC designs are still analog in the sense that a large integration capacitor in the unit pixel is utilized to integrate the detector photo current and dark current. The capacitor must be large enough to allow for sufficiently long integration time to achieve the desired Noise Equivalent Delta Temperature (NEDT) and also not saturate at the higher background temperatures. However, by moving to smaller pixels, it becomes increasingly harder to achieve the capacitor sizes or the well capacity in the pixel to maintain the sensitivity and dynamic range requirement. This topic seeks to advance the performance of cooled IRFPA technology through innovative investigation and development of DROICs that could meet the following objectives: The readout will be large format (~1Kx1K), small pixel pitch (<12um) and shall be designed to exhibit high injection efficiency, low noise, low power dissipation (<150mW @ 60Hz), A/D conversion on-chip with >20 bits of dynamic range, an effective well capacity greater than 500 million electrons and non-linearity <.1%. The readout shall also be capable of operating >1KHz frame rate.
PHASE I: Investigate research and design digital readout architecture optimized for large format, small pixel pitch, high performance IRFPAs through the use of modeling, analysis, empirical testing or construction. Innovative 2D readout solutions/designs that utilize standard silicon foundry processes are preferred. Establish working relationship with IR detector vendor to acquire IR detector arrays (such as SLS, QWIP, MCT, InSb) for possible phase II effort.
PHASE II: Using results of Phase I, design, develop and fabricate the DROIC with objective of <12um, 1Kx1K format. To demonstrate performance of DROIC, hybridize (mate) DROIC to detector array and evaluate performance of IRFPA through lab characterization. Develop and fabricate camera electronics to image the Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA). Deliver the imaging system/camera to the government.
PHASE III: Transition the DROIC technology to the IRFPA industry. Military applications include high performance FLIR imagers, compressive sensing, and hyperspectral imaging. The commercialization of this technology includes night driving aid, search and rescue, security, border patrol, and firefighting.

1. Brown M., et. al., “Digital-pixel Focal Plane Array Development”, Proc. Of SPIE Vol. 7608, 2010.

2. Tyrrell, B., et. al., “Time Delay Integration and In-Pixel Spatiotemporal Filtering Using a Nanoscale Digital CMOS Focal Plane Readout”, IEEE Transactions On Electron Devices, Vol. 56, No. 11, Nov 2009.
3. Guellec, F., et. al. , "A 25µm pitch LWIR staring focal plane array with pixel-level 15-bit ADC ROIC achieving 2mK NETD", Proc. SPIE Vol. 7834, 2010.
KEYWORDS: infrared, digital readout, 3D, IRFPA

A14-038 TITLE: Dismounted Soldier See-through HD Display with Wireless Interface

OBJECTIVE: Design, integrate and build prototype see-through head borne Dismounted Soldier Display capable of wirelessly receiving and displaying high definition video and situational awareness information, utilizing state of the art display technologies.
DESCRIPTION: Commercial and military products are available and emerging that include some of the capabilities, but none that address all three key areas of this proposal simultaneously– wireless receipt of a video source, high definition video display, and a see-through display.
Advances in commercial smart phones combined with results from research into two areas - micro-displays and wireless video transmission - are rapidly enabling a low cost, common input wireless wearable display. Current military fielded systems require a Soldier to either interrupt their current actions by looking at a handheld device, or by raising their weapon to look through a device – taking up valuable time, and potentially causing an escalation of force. Both are undesirable actions, increasing workload and creating hostile situations. A common input wireless display for dismounted Soldier applications would be a capability enabler. It would allow the presentation of Mission Command information such as situational awareness queuing, tactical maps, or sensor imagery. Additionally, video from other Soldier mounted sensors such as weapon sights, handheld targeting systems and sensor data from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) could be displayed. Wireless transmission of this video is important, for remote video sources, and for human factors considerations - as tethered solutions limit mobility, and create snag hazards. As more capability gaps are addressed, more equipment will be available for the Soldier to utilize, so much so that information overload can occur. A display with common input can allow the Soldier to switch inputs quickly, without having to switch between systems in their hands.
There has been considerable research into Heads-Up Display (HUD) technology – spanning decades – which has been primarily in the aviation community. Within the aviation community, HUD devices are either fixed-frame or helmet mounted.
Relevant fielded systems to the Soldier include NAVAID, AN/AVS-7(V), Land Warrior, Nett Warrior, and accessory devices, such as the HTWS Head mounted display (HMD). These systems provide different capabilities, such as navigational assistance, piloting information, map display, and sensor data in various look up, see-through, and occluded configurations. Accessory displays, such as the Tac-Eye or Red-I are available for military equipment.
Relevant commercial systems include a multitude of portable multimedia players integrated into eyewear allowing for discreet, occluded, wired viewing of video with various display resolutions. These however are wired solutions, and require physically unplugging and changing inputs to the system.
Recently products have come onto the commercial market such as low resolution GPS enabled ski goggles, capable of displaying performance statistics, but not video, in a look down configuration. Combining these capabilities and Point of View (POV) sports cameras, exist products such as the Recon Jet – a glasses mounted, look down occluded display, capable of displaying video. Other products include Google Glass - marketed as a smart phone accessory, in a look-up, transparent, configuration, able to display video from a nearby smart phone.
A wireless, high-definition, see-through display would be a capability enabler – providing a platform for weapon mounted sensors to stream video, UAS data, mapping, and navigation, situational awareness queuing, such as targeting, gunshot detection, and Rapid Target Acquisition (RTA). In the far future, a common display platform could de-couple the requirement for every system used by the Soldier to include a display – potentially reducing costs across systems. Similar to how modern televisions functions, a Soldier would need to simply change the input to their common display.
PHASE I: Develop a detailed design of proposed Dismount Soldier Display with Wireless input (DSDW). Perform a tradeoff study of candidate configurations (including the specific see-through display technology) and components, and identify the best solution in terms of SWaP and performance. The final report shall also provide an estimate of the display’s cost, size, weight, and power consumption. Innovative mounting techniques to eyewear or the helmet is encouraged.
Requirements include the following:

1. DSDW shall be compatible with modern military communications helmets, such as the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) or Enhanced Combat Helmet (ECH).

2. DSDW shall be compatible with protective masks, such as the Joint Service General Purpose Mask (JSGPM) or similar.

3. DSDW shall be compatible with the Ballistic Laser Protective Spectacles (BLPS) [MIL-PRF-44366B], Spectacles Special Protective Eyewear Cylindrical System (SPECS) [MIL-PRF-31013] and items from the Authorized Protective Eyewear List (APEL) [PEO Soldier APEL].

4. DSDW shall not impede the use of PVS7 Night Vision Goggles (NVG), PVS14 NVG or PSQ20 Enhanced Night Vision Goggle (ENVG), and be able to be worn simultaneously with a pair of NVGs.

5. The wireless video protocol and interface will be determined as part of this effort.

6. Source video will be digital only.

7. The DSDW shall not exceed 0.5lb (threshold), 0.1 lb (objective) including batteries.

8. DSDW should be able to support an 8 hour mission without a battery change.

9. Batteries shall be easily replaced, and commercial batteries are preferred.

10. DSDW shall have the capability to be used by both, or either eye.

11. Latency between source video and displayed video shall be 1 frame maximum.

12. DSDW shall be functional in both day and night missions.

13. DSDW shall have variable display brightness to allow viewing in ambient illumination conditions from bright sunshine to total darkness without degrading system performance.

14. Display resolution shall be 1920H x 1080V pixels minimum.

15. Display frame rate shall be 30Hz (capable of 60Hz and greater desired)

16. DSDW shall be capable of displaying full color video.

17. Bandwidth required to support HD video is in excess of 186MB per/sec.

18. Exit Pupil shall be greater than 18mm.

19. Eye Relief shall be compatible with protective eyewear from Requirement 3.

20. DSDW must not emit noise that is detectable in any direction within five meters. (Audio security)

21. DSDW must not emit light in low light conditions that is detectable by another user within five meters, or there must be an acceptable approach for light security.

22. Distance from transmitter to DSDW shall not exceed 3 meters.
PHASE II: Finalize design configurations and interfaces with Critical Design Review, and integrate wireless display prototypes (2 minimum) for Soldier demonstration and evaluation. Information and design approaches from the SBIR effort(s) will support Army Research and Development of a Common Wireless Display for Dismounted Soldier applications.
PHASE III: Wireless interface for display of high resolution video and sensor information has multiple military, law enforcement, and civilian applications – for example, as accessories to mobile smart phones as augmented reality displays, for sporting related activities to display performance information, and as replacements or accessories for laptop, tablet and computer displays, video gaming, and for wireless home video transmission.

1. Tactical Display for Soldiers: Human Factors Considerations By Panel on Human Factors in the Design of Tactical Display Systems for the Individual Soldier, National Research Council, 1997

2. SBIR, A05-119 (Army), Geographically-Enabled Augmented Reality System for Dismounted Soldiers, Research & Technical Areas: Information Systems, Battlespace, Human Systems
3. Helmet-Mounted Displays: Sensation, Perception and Cognition Issues, 2009 USAARL

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