|AP European History
Exam, Unit 5
1. Which is the best characterization of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713 14)?
a. it solidified the revival of Spain by enhancing its territories
b. it marked the success of Louis XIV's policy of expansion
c. it led to the decline of the Hohenzollerns
d. it destroyed the balance of power on the continent
e. it signified the rise of Great Britain as a commercial power
2. Which of the following was an economic policy of Louis XIV's finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert?
a. Raising money through internal tariffs
b. Encouraging international competition through lower tariffs and free-trade policies
c. Establishing detailed manufacturing codes to improve of the quality of French export goods
d. Opening France's colonies to foreign merchants and trade
e. Reducing military spending
3. The shaded areas of the map of early eighteenth-century France shown above represent:
a. lands controlled by peasants revolting against feudal obligations
b. territorial acquisitions during the reign of Louis XIV
c. land controlled by foreign rulers within the kingdom of France
d. Huguenot strongholds that still existed after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes
e. former Spanish territories on the border of France
4. Which of the following is true of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)?
a. He led the French church in opposition to the monarchy.
b. He expelled the Huguenots from France.
c. He strengthened the intendant method of local government.
d. He effectively abolished the sale of offices and tax farming in France.
e. He supported the French nobility against the monarchy.
5. In the first half of the seventeenth century, which of the following countries led Europe in shipbuilding, navigation, and commerce and banking?
6. All of the following were new consumer goods becoming popular in European markets in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries EXCEPT:
7. In the second half of the seventeenth century, which of the following countries dominated European culture, politics, and diplomacy?
8. Which of the following was a primary result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?
a. the establishment of universal male suffrage
b. the restoration of Roman Catholicism to both England and Scotland
c. the limitation of the monarchy's power
d. the execution of James II
e. the triumph of Puritanism
9. John Locke based his Two Treatises on Government primarily on which of the following views of human nature?
a. People are basically rational and learn from practical experience.
b. People are weak and sinful and need the guidance of organized religion.
c. People are fallible and need guidance from the cumulative wisdom of tradition.
d. People are quarrelsome and should be encouraged to revolt against state authority.
e. People are born with all knowledge, and learning is the process of remembering innate ideas.
10. The principal reason why Louis XIV (1643 1715) built his palace at Versailles was to
a. tighten his control over the nobility
b. strengthen his ties with the Huguenots
c. move the king's residence nearer to the center of the country
d. provide thousands of jobs
e. absorb the excess revenue produced by mercantilist tax policies
11. After the defeat of King Charles I in the English Civil War and his execution in 1649, England was governed for a decade by
a. a democratic republic with universal suffrage
b. a commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell
c. a constitutional monarchy under King James II
d. the king of Scotland
e. a parliamentary council dominated by Levellers
12. Which of the following characterized European warfare between the Peace of Utrecht (1713) and the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789)?
a. standing armies pursuing limited strategic goals
b. citizen armies fighting for their native lands
c. feudal armies fighting for their lords
d. mass armies pursuing global strategies
e. highly mobile armies unhampered by traditional defenses
13. In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Prussia, the Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in return for:
a. the right to sell their lands
b. control of an independent national parliament
c. toleration of their religious diversity
d. exemption from all taxes
e. virtually absolute power over their serfs
14. The Russian woodcut above (about 1698) symbolizes Peter the Great's:
a. victory over the Swedes in the Great Northern War
b. elimination of the Cossacks as a political force within Russia
c. imposition of Western values on the Russian nobility
d. initiation of the partition of Poland
e. struggle with his son, Alexis, for control of Russia
15. The Fronde revolt in France from 1648 52:
a. deposed Louis XIII from power
b. resulted in a short lived aristocratic oligarchy
c. was aimed against high taxes and foreign influence in government
d. led to a devastating civil war that ravaged the French economy for decades
e. led to French involvement in the Thirty Years War
16. According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies should be
a. granted independence as soon as possible
b. acquired as markets and sources of raw materials
c. considered an economic burden for the colonial power
d. used as settlement areas for surplus populations
e. encouraged to develop their own industries
17. The acquisition of which of the following territories during the mid-eighteenth century helped to establish Prussia as a great power?
18. The concept of the balance of power, as it emerged by the end of the seventeenth and beginning of eighteenth centuries, had which of the following as its fundamental aim?
a. the elimination of war as an instrument of international relations
b. preventing the dominance of a single power
c. an approximate balance between land and sea powers
d. isolation of conflict to certain contested land areas
e. a checks and balances system of government
19. The map above of eighteenth century Russia suggests which of the following about Russian territory between 1689 and 1796?
a. The Ottoman Empire annexed the Crimea.
b. Peter the Great added more territory to Russia than did Catherine the Great.
c. Most Russian expansion took place in the east.
d. Russia ceded territory to Poland in the late eighteenth century.
e. Russia acquired navigable seaports in both the north and south.
20. In the eighteenth century, all of the following were significant motives for wars EXCEPT
a. dynastic claims
b. balance of power considerations
c. commercial rivalries
d. religious differences
e. policies of territorial expansion
21. Which of the following was the most significant challenge faced by the Austrian Habsburgs after 1648?
a. loss of major territories to the Spanish Habsburgs
b. the difficulty of centralizing a multi-ethnic empire
c. continual raids by Muslim pirates in the Mediterranean
d. Russian efforts to expand in the Baltic
e. French aggression in the Seven Years War (1756-63)
22. The Commercial Revolution would best be defined as
a. a revolution in commerce
b. the application of scientific ideas to navigation
c. the exploitation and subjugation of colonies
d. the development of new banking institutions
e. a rapid expansion in trade involving new goods and techniques
23. In the mid seventeenth century, the area shaded in black shown on the map above belonged to
e. Brandenburg Prussia
24. In eighteenth century Europe, the most important imperial rivalries existed among which three of the following?
a. Russia, France, and Great Britain
b. The German states, the Italian states, and Great Britain
c. The German states, the Italian states, and France
d. France, Russia, and Spain
e. Spain, France, and Great Britain
25. Which of the following best characterizes the British political system in the eighteenth century?
a. the use of royal patronage to overcome noble factionalism in the Parliament
b. popular elections and rising lower class participation in government
c. the aggressive foreign policy of Prime Minister Robert Walpole
d. fundamental reform of parliament and the elimination of "rotten boroughs"
e. the growing political dominance of urban centers
26. The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 refers to:
a. the introduction of permanent ambassadors at each of the great powers
b. the first use of siege tactics in warfare
c. the rise of the Eastern powers of Prussia, Russia, and Austria
d. a shift in alliances that united France and Habsburg Austria against Prussia
e. the Treaty of Paris, which referred to colonial possessions for the first time
27. Poland's decline as a major political entity during the seventeenth century can be attributed largely to:
a. the failure of the papacy to recognize the legitimacy of the Polish kings
b. a population decline resulting from the Thirty Years' War
c. the conquest of the kingdom by the Ottoman Turks
d. failure of universities to create a literate aristocracy
e. the absence of a powerful central authority
28. Which set of states was in serious decline during the eighteenth century?
a. Sweden, Austria, Prussia
b. Poland, Britain, and Ottoman Empire
c. Sweden, Poland, and Ottoman Empire
d. Poland, Ottoman Empire, and Prussia
e. Russia, France, and Netherlands
29. Louis XIV of France used all of the following methods to assert absolute power EXCEPT:
a. appointed intendants as provincial officials
b. made nobles hold his nightshirt as he awoke
c. built the great palace at Versailles
d. subdued the parlements
e. extended religious toleration to Huguenots
30. As a proportion of its population and national wealth, which of the following had the largest military establishment in the eighteenth century?
31 Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment carried out by Peter the Great of Russia?
a. assertion of control over boyars
b. secular control of Orthodox Church
c. acquisition of Poland
d. building of St. Petersburg
e. defeat of Swedes and Ottomans
32. Mercantilist economic policies can best be described as:
a. state intervention to achieve positive trade balances
c. avoidance of imperial responsibilities
d. hostility to innovation
e. focus on agricultural development
33. Reasons for the decline of the Netherlands in the late seventeenth century included all of the following EXCEPT:
a. religious toleration of minorities
b. excessive military spending
c. impact of war on shipping and commerce
d. naval defeat by England
e. relative lack of resources and population
34. The War of Spanish Succession ended with:
a. the Habsburgs reigning in Spain
b. Louis XIV’s grandson as king of Spain
c. Silesia granted to Frederick II
d. Italy united under French rule
e. Britain withdrawing from its colonies
35. Emperor Joseph II of Austria failed in his attempts to reform his country because he:
a. lacked ruthlessness
b. failed to win the support of the peasantry
c. was unwilling to dissolve monasteries
d. failed to abolish the robot
e. agreed with his mother’s opinions
36. This illustration appeared in:
a. Shakespeare’s Hamlet
b. Cervantes’s Don Quixote
c. Thomas More’s Utopia
d. Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan
e. Isaac Newton’s Principia
37. The painting shown above, “Judith Slaying Holofernes” by Artemsia Gentilischi, is distinguished by its dramatic treatment of the subject, an oversized canvas, and intense use of light and shadow. The art movement it represents is which of the following?
d. Dutch realism
38. In the period from Columbus’ discovery of the Americas to the American Revolution all of the following goods were imported from the New World to Europe in large quantities EXCEPT:
c. iron ore
39. The Dutch Republic rose to prominence in seventeenth-century Europe because of which of the following factors?
a. Its agricultural innovations
b. Its military strength
c. Its literary creativity
d. Its religious unity
e. Its shipping and commerce
40. The revolt against France’s increasingly centralized monarchy in 1648-52 is generally known as:
a. the Mazarinade
c. the Fronde
d. the siege of La Rochelle
e. October Days
41. Which of the following is true about the rulers of both Austria and Prussia during the seventeenth century?
a. They patterned their society after that of the Ottoman Empire.
b. They successfully avoided war for most of the century.
c. They created centralized, unified nation-states.
d. They abolished serfdom.
e. They maintained permanent standing armies.
42. Which of the following is true of Frederick William I, king of Prussia from 1713-40?
a. He lived lavishly off the taxes that his bureaucracy collected.
b. He built a first-rate army and infused Prussia society with military values.
c. He refused to employ commoners in his bureaucracy.
d. He recruited tall soldiers from all of Europe to fight in his frequent wars.
e. He encouraged the development of local self-government.
43. The Peace of Utrecht (1713-14) altered the balance of power in Europe by:
a. checking French expansion
b. decreasing Austrian territorial holdings
c. decreasing England’s colonial empire
d. granting sovereignty over Belgium to the Netherlands
e. granting independence to Spain’s New World colonies
44. One policy Peter the Great used to make Russia a great power was to:
a. decrease the tax burden on his poorer subjects
b. build a new capital where his nobles and merchants were obliged to settle
c. abolish serfdom
d. encourage national pride by urging his subjects to retain traditional dress and customs
e. introduce military conscription for all adult males
45. The principal reason England reverted to a monarchical form of government following the Interregnum of Oliver Cromwell lay in Cromwell’s:
a. ineffective mercantilist policy
b. inability to establish broad popular support for his government
c. inability to impose religious uniformity
d. ineffective foreign policy
e. inability to control dissidents in the army
46. Which of the following contributed to the economic decline of Spain in the seventeenth century?
I. The overexpansion of Spanish manufactures
II. The loss of a colonial empire
III. High taxes resulting from warfare
IV. The expulsion of the Moriscos
a. I and II only
b. II and III only
c. III and IV only
d. I, II, and III only
e. I, II, III, and IV
47. Mercantilism was principally characterized by:
a. government efforts to build a strong, self-sufficient economy
b. the efforts of the merchant class to influence policy by subsidizing government
c. efforts by bankers and exporters to establish free trade
d. the theory that gold and silver were not real wealth
e. the view that labor ought to be able to seek its own market
48. In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Austrian Habsburgs subdued revolt and centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following?
a. Emancipating the peasantry and encouraged agricultural development
b. Allying with urban middle classes and encouraging commercial development
c. Establishing a national church headed by the Habsburg emperor and redistributing church properties
d. Creating a customs union to promote trade and acquiring colonies for raw materials
e. Waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the Counter Reformation
49. The French monarchy in the seventeenth century sought to expand France’s borders to its “natural frontiers” by gaining control of:
50. The shaded areas on the map above represent which of the following?
a. Dynastic lands of the Habsburgs in the sixteenth century
b. Participants in the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century
c. Protestant regions in the eighteenth century
d. Areas opposed to the papacy in the sixteenth century
e. Regions experiencing fastest commercial growth in the seventeenth century
51. Which of the following was generally supported by the mercantilists?
a. Formation of new guilds
b. Destruction of factories
c. Creation of a universal monetary standard
d. Development of colonies
e. Decentralization of government
52. The system of intendants was established in seventeenth-century France primarily to:
a. empower the French nobility
b. implement royal policies locally
c. make the peasantry return to the land
d. collect taxes from the towns
e. improve France’s ability to fight foreign wars
53. In the eighteenth century, the effectiveness of the Russian monarchy was limited by:
a. the enormous land area of the country
b. the independent position of the Orthodox Church
c. a united, rebellious nobility
d. a prosperous middle class located in fortified towns
e. a newly free class of former serfs
54. Which of the following is an accurate characterization of England in the period 1688-1715?
a. A Puritan theocracy
b. An absolute monarchy
c. A democracy practicing religious toleration
d. A merchant republic increasingly under Dutch dominance
e. A constitutional monarchy controlled by an aristocratic oligarchy
55. The establishment and growth of St. Petersburg during the early eighteenth century was part of Peter the Great’s attempt to do which of the following?
a. Strengthen his alliances with the Baltic states
b. Improve relations with the Orthodox Church
c. Remake Russian institutions to be as effective as those in western Europe
d. Reduce the high cost of government in the old capital of Moscow
e. Discourage further Russian expansion eastward into Asia
56. Which of the following was a major characteristic of the English monarchy in the eighteenth century?
a. A return to its “divine right” position of the seventeenth century
b. A steadily widening discrepancy between its theoretical and its real powers
c. Its growth in power because of its many victories over the French
d. Its refusal to support the emerging cabinet system
e. Its growing wealth due to effective taxation policies
57. According to the map above, during the eighteenth century, Russia expanded in Europe primarily by gaining territory from:
b. the Ottoman Empire
58. A major result of the War of Spanish Succession (1701-13) and Treaty of Utrecht (1713-14) was to:
a. unite the Spanish and French thrones under the Bourbons
b. signify the decline of the British navy after a short-lived domination
c. cause a long-term decline in international commerce and trade
d. introduce significant new developments in warfare and weapons
e. end the last threat to the balance of power by Louis XIV of France
CROWN INCOME AND DEBT IN CASTILE (in millions of ducats)
Year Revenue Debt Interest on Debt
1515 1.5 12 0.8
1560 5.3 35 2.0
1575 6.0 50 3.8
1598 9.7 85 4.6
1623 15.0 112 5.6
1667 36.0 130 9.1
59. The above chart on the finances of the Spanish province of Castile can best be explained by:
a. inflation caused by the importation of precious metals from Spain's New World colonies
b. an increase in government expenditures to address the problem of urban poverty
c. the cost of military expenditures and warfare
d. wasteful spending by the Habsburg monarchy on luxuries for the crown
e. loans to support Spain's French allies in their battle against the Turks
60. Which of the following is most closely associated with Baroque art?
a. Calvinist ideas regarding predestination
b. the development of republican government
c. voyages of exploration and global trade
d. the mechanistic concepts of the Scientific Revolution
e. Roman Catholic efforts to reinvigorate spirituality
61. All of the following were reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a major trading power in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries EXCEPT:
a. the capture of important Portuguese colonies in the East Indies
b. a relatively tolerant culture that attracted skilled workers
c. a strategic location near key shipping lanes
d. an elite class that was interested in commercial opportunities
e. a strong monarchy that promoted economic development
62. Which of the following best explains the decline of Sweden as a major European power in the early eighteenth century?
a. a series of weak leaders who led the nation into bankruptcy
b. significant population decline due to famine and disease
c. internal religious conflict between Lutherans and Calvinists
d. Prussian invasion and occupation of the country
e. rivalry with the larger and more resource-rich Russia
63. The above painting by Jan Vermeer illustrates which of the following about Dutch society in the seventeenth century:
a. the Dutch monarchy's taste for elegance and power in art
b. the prosperity of the Dutch and their celebration of domesticity
c. the involvement of Dutch women in scientific research
d. the sacrifices made by families during the war against Spain for independence
e. the relative poverty of the Dutch upper class
64. Which of the following most accurately describes the political system of the Dutch republic of the seventeenth century?
a. Popular democracy
b. Rule by an absolute monarch
c. Rule by wealthy merchants
d. Control by feudal lords
e. Rule by yeoman farmers
65. What were the three principal political entities in central and eastern Europe in the mid-seventeenth century?
a. The Holy Roman Empire, the French kingdom, and Muscovy
b. The Holy Roman Empire, the Baltic states, and the Dutch Republic
c. Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and Poland
d. The Baltic states, the Italian city-states, and the Ottoman Empire
e. The French kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Poland
66. Of the following, which was the most important result of the Peace of Utrecht (1713)?
a. It allowed the unification of the thrones of France and Spain.
b. It weakened Great Britain’s effort to replace France as leading colonial power.
c. It divided the Spanish colonial empire between the French and the British.
d. It dealt a blow to the Austrian Habsburgs, who had expected to acquire Gibraltar.
e. It ended the efforts of Louis XIV to dominate continental European politics.
67. The leading economic center of early seventeenth-century Europe was:
68. Which of the following was the most important assumption underlying the economic philosophy of mercantilism?
a. Expansion of trade would lead to greater production and lower prices.
b. Merchants were subversive elements who should be controlled.
c. The wealth of nations was limited and needed to be carefully preserved.
d. Population growth would allow nations to emerge from the cycle of poverty.
e. Production of good for consumption should be encouraged.
69. The Habsburg Emperor Charles VI (1711-1740) issued his Pragmatic Sanction in order to:
a. provide for the division of his territories after his death
b. allow him to partition Poland
c. allow him to trade Protestant lands that he ruled in Germany for Catholic lands elsewhere
d. guarantee the succession of his eldest daughter to the throne
e. eliminate serfdom in his territories
70. Which of the following best helps to explain the economic and political decline of Spain during the seventeenth century?
a. The collective security measures implemented by Cardinal Richelieu in order to prevent the spread of Catholicism.
b. The extensive battles waged in the Iberian Peninsula between the imperial forces and various coalitions of Protestants.
c. The extension of the empire’s commitments beyond its resources.
d. The advocacy of religious toleration by the Spanish rulers to promote the immigration of non- Catholic groups into Spain.
e. The secret treaty between England and France to embargo the ports of the Iberian Peninsula.
71. Between 1650 and 1750, which of the following was the most valuable export from the British and French colonies of the New World to Europe?
e. Naval supplies
“He desired glory and excellence beyond that of anyone else. He showed favor to vernacular poetry and all the fine arts. Under him the city was not free, but it would have been impossible for it to have had a better or more pleasing tyrant.”
72. The passage above most accurately describes:
a. Lorenzo de’ Medici
b. John Calvin
c. William of Orange
d. Frederick William I
e. Philip II
73. Italian women artists of the Renaissance and Baroque era were able to achieve recognition as artists primarily as a result of their
a. commissions from governments
b. work painting religious scenes in churches
c. role as important teachers in art schools
d. commissions from wealthy patrons
e. marriage to other famous artists
“That the pretended power of suspending laws of laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal.
That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative without grant of Parliament for longer time or in other manner than the same is illegal.”
74. The provisions above from the English Bill of Rights were enacted in response to
a. Henry VIII’s divorce of Catherine of Aragon despite Parliament’s disapproval
b. Elizabeth I’s refusal to sign the death warrant against Mary, Queen of Scots
c. James II’s attempts to dominate Parliament
d. opposition aroused by the joint rule of William and Mary
e. the ineffectual rule of George I
75. One of the main aims of the reforms in Russia under Peter the Great (1689-1725) was to make high social status more dependent on
a. aristocratic lineage
b. service to the state
d. ethnic origin
e. membership in the Orthodox Church
76. The emblem above was used a symbol for which of the following?
a. Napoleon I
c. Louis XIV
e. Cardinal Mazarin
77. Which of the following was the major language spoken in most courts and diplomatic circles of Europe by the late seventeenth century?
78. In seventeenth-century Poland, the most significant political influence was exercised by the
b. town councils
c. Polish monarch
d. Russian monarch
e. Habsburg Empire
79. The French Fronde is best described as the
a. first government formed after the French Revolution
b. civil war fought between Roman Catholics and Protestants
c. revolt over increasing centralization of royal power
d. wars between France and the Holy Roman Empire
e. style of architecture developed under Louis XIV
80. Which of the following cities dominated European trade and finance in the early seventeenth century?
81. The cartoon above from seventeenth-century England is an attempt to ridicule
a. support of William and Mary by the Dutch
b. fighting between royalist and parliamentary armies during the English Civil War
c. the movement of Puritans to the New World
d. the widespread practice of wagering on dog fights
e. the refusal of Quakers to bear arms and fight
82. Which of the following represents the final defeat of efforts by the Ottoman Empire to acquire large areas of central Europe?
a. The battle of Poltava (1709)
b. The battle of Lepanto (1571)
c. The battle of Nördlingen (1634)
d. The siege of Vienna (1683)
e. The fall of Constantinople (1453)
83. Religious change in the seventeenth-century Netherlands led to
a. a great vitality in intellectual and artistic life
b. an emphasis on decorative rather than fine arts
c. a rebirth of fresco painting in the churches
d. the exclusion of women artists from portrait painting
e. the establishment of official censorship to purge Catholic influences from the arts
“Since my accession to the throne, I have very been anxious to conquer prejudices and to gain the confidence of my people. I granted toleration, and removed the yoke which had oppressed Protestants for centuries. Tolerance is a convincing proof of the improvement of the human mind.”
84. The author of the quotation above was most likely a
a. German ruler who had declared for Lutheranism
b. monarch devoted to the concept of absolutism
c. ruler influenced by Enlightenment precepts
d. sixteenth-century Russian tsar
e. Catholic ruler in the time of the Catholic Reformation
85. A major result of the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713) and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713-1714) was to
a. unite the Spanish and French thrones under a Bourbon ruler
b. finalize the decline of the British navy after a short-lived domination
c. cause a long-term decline in international commerce and trade
d. introduce significant new developments in weapons and warfare
e. prevent France from upsetting the balance of power