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May 23, 2002
Please do not delete this message. It is the only copy of Agriculture and Natural Resources, FCS and 4-H Youth Development Exclusives county agents in your office will receive. This packet is for the week ending May 24, 2002.
Eliminate Breeding Sites

To Control Mosquitoes

Calcium Important Ingredient

In Your Lifelong Health

District Market Lamb Shows

Investment in 4-Hers= Education



Sources: Lee Townsend and Tom Priddy
Excessive rainfall in most of Kentucky has created abundant breeding sites for mosquitoes.

Let=s compare Kentucky rainfall from early April through mid-May this year to 2001. This year, we had nearly 11 inches of rainfall during that period, or 153 percent of normal. Whereas, Kentucky had just over four and one-third inches, or 60 percent of normal, during this time frame in 2001.

The most effective way to control mosquitoes is to find and eliminate their breeding sites. And standing water is the prime breeding ground and location for immature mosquitoes, or larvae, also called Awigglers.@

On farms, tremendous numbers of mosquitoes can breed in shallow, marshy areas; pooled water in drainage ditches or low areas; standing water in hoof prints around watering troughs; seepage areas, and similar locations. Filling or draining these areas is an effective long-term solution. If eliminating standing water isn=t possible, consider using a mosquito-specific larvicide, an insecticide used to control immature mosquitoes.

Following are some ways to control immature mosquitoes on the farm:

Products that are essentially harmless to fish, wildlife and other non-target organisms contain the active ingredient methoprene, an insect growth regulator, or the bacterial toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis. These water-soluble granules, pellets or briquets are easy to apply and sometimes can be bought at farm supply stores and pesticide dealers.

Mononuclear films are chemicals that spread a thin layer over the water surface, interfering with mosquito larvae and pupae breathing. These products can impede adult emergence. They are applied only to standing water and don=t last very long.

A variety of small fish will feed on mosquito larvae. To enable these fish to get to immature mosquitoes, control emerging vegetation and keep banks steep, rather than a gradual drop off.

When other fish aren=t available or effective, stocking with mosquito fish species such as Gambusia affinis or Lebistes reticulatus and be a viable farm control program. These fish are well-suited to stagnant waters. The number of fish needed for ponds is based on the water surface area. One supplier recommends 12 fish per approximately 50 square feet of water surface.

Here are some more mosquito control measures you can take around the farm and your home.

Destroy and dispose of containers that collect and hold water such as tin cans, old tires, buckets and plastic sheeting. Don=t allow water to accumulate at the base of flower pots or pet dishes more than two days.

Check around faucets and air conditioner units for puddles that remain for several days. Be sure to eliminate these puddles and repair any leaks to avoid future water accumulations. Clean debris from rain gutters and remove standing water under or around structures and on flat roofs.

Change the water in bird baths and wading pools at least once a week. Stock ornamental pools with mosquito fish. You can buy these top-feeding, predacious minnows, or sein them from creeks or streams.

Fill or drain puddles, ditches and swampy areas. If you have tree holes or stumps, either remove, drain or fill them with mortar to prevent water accumulation.

Eliminate seepage from cisterns, cesspools and septic tanks.

Water lawns and gardens sufficiently to maintain them, but not to the point that water stands for several days.

For more information on mosquito control, contact your (County Name) Cooperative Extension Service.

Educational programs of the Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability or national origin.




Source: Sandra Bastin

Did you know calcium is the most abundant mineral in your body? It is a necessary ingredient to build and maintain the 206 bones in your body and as an aid to prevent diseases, notably osteoporosis.

To receive enough of this essential nutrient, you need from three to five servings of calcium-rich foods daily, depending on your age group.

Children ages one through three years need 500 milligrams daily; children four through eight, 800 milligrams; youth nine through 18, 1,300 milligrams; adults 19 through 50, 1,000 milligrams, and adults over 50, 1,200 milligrams.

We all need adequate calcium intake to help prevent osteoporosis, a disease that causes brittle, fragile bones. The disease usually occurs later in life and cannot be reversed. Thus, it=s important for children and adolescents to consume sufficient amounts of calcium and other needed vitamins and minerals to prevent osteoporosis.

Dairy food sources of dietary calcium include milk, cheeses and yogurt. One cup of two-percent milk, three-fourths cup of yogurt, or one and one-half ounces of cheddar cheese counts as one calcium-rich serving.

Don=t leave dairy products out of your diet because you=re worried about added fat and calories. Otherwise, you=ll miss other valuable vitamins and nutrients these products contain, including some B vitamins, phosphorus and protein. In addition, many dairy foods are fortified with vitamins A and D.

To reduce the fat and calories in dairy foods, choose reduced-fat, low-fat, or no-fat products. They have the same nutritive value as their higher-fat cousins; but contain fewer grams of fat.

Other dietary sources of calcium are dark green leafy vegetables, canned sardines, salmon with bones, legumes, particularly soybean products like soy milk or tofu, and calcium-fortified foods such as orange juice, bread, cereal and breakfast bars.

In addition to the time-honored benefits of helping build strong bones and teeth, research shows that calcium can help you maintain a normal heart beat.

Rather than taking a calcium supplement, meet your daily calcium needs by combining good food sources of calcium in a diet based on a variety of foods. Eating the variety of foods provides essential vitamins and nutrients you can=t get from a calcium supplement alone.

However, if your diet doesn=t contain sufficient calcium, take a supplement such as calcium carbonate which is well-absorbed into the body. Avoid a supplement containing oyster shells because they might be contaminated with chemicals.

The next time you need a quick refresher on a warm afternoon, have a big, cold glass of low-fat milk instead of a less nutritious soft drink.

Since fluid milk is highly perishable, make it one of your last purchases when buying groceries and immediately refrigerate it when you get home. Be sure to tightly close opened milk containers to keep the milk from absorbing other odors in your refrigerator.

For more information, contact your (COUNTY NAME)Cooperative Extension Service office.

Educational programs of the Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability or national origin.


Source: Monty Chappell
It all started in the early 1970s with one show involving about six or eight 4-H members. In 2002, there is a total of nine District Market Lamb Shows and expositions with 300 to 400 4-H members competing.

The growth of these events shows that they=re fun as well as educational experiences. The time and money 4-H members spend on lambs is an investment in these young peoples= educations. And the benefits of their investments will benefit 4-Hers throughout their lives.

The schedule and locations for District Market Lamb Shows and expositions, which include other livestock species, is as follows: June 1, Georgetown; June 8, Stanford; June 15, Falmouth; June 17 and 18, Morehead; June 22, Hartford; July 6, Germantown; July 13, Winchester; July 27, Hopkinsville, and August 2 and 3, Bowling Green.

NOTE AGENTS: If you have members competing in any of the above-mentioned events, complete the following sentence: (County Name) 4-H members competing in the (Show Location) are:

A new regulation this year is that youth must have shown lambs in district shows to qualify to show those lambs at the Kentucky State Fair. The Junior Sheep Show will be August 19 through 21; the Open Sheep Show, August 22 through 25. The entry deadline for these two shows is July 10. To obtain a catalogue, contact Mary Herbert at 502-367-5190.

By competing in livestock shows, 4-H members reap many life-long benefits, including setting goals, assuming responsibility, accepting disappointments, and improving social skills, among others.

For instance, youth start with a 110- to 120-pound lamb and take all responsibility for its daily care with the goal of having a 350- to 400-pound lamb prepared to show at the state fair. Daily care involves providing feed and water, cleaning the pen and bedding and exercising the animal. 4-H members show their lambs all summer long. This competition also helps 4-Hers build character as they accept not winning a show, or the periodic loss of a lamb.

Meeting new people and former acquaintances at the shows aids the development and improvement of social skills. Since most shows are on Saturday, they are an opportunity for involvement and interaction as families travel together to attend the events.

For more information on livestock and other educational opportunities available through Kentucky 4-H Youth Development, contact your (County Name) Cooperative Extension Service.

Educational programs of the Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability or national origin.


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