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Activities in 2009 Zoonoses in Europe Prof. Dr Thomas C. Mettenleiter

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Activities in 2009

Zoonoses in Europe

Prof. Dr Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health

Headquarters, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald – Isle of Riems, GERMANY

Tel.: (+49-38351) 71.02, Fax: (+49-38351) 71.51

Summary of activities specifically related to the mandate of
OIE Collaborating Centres

1. Activities as a centre of research, expertise, standardisation and dissemination of techniques within the remit of the mandate given by the OIE

Centre of research: The Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI) is a higher independent Federal authority with the legal task to perform research on infectious diseases of animals. It houses all national reference laboratories for notifiable infectious diseases of animals. It is also the national authority to give market authorization for tests for diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and participates in epidemiological investigations of animal disease outbreaks

The FLI is a leading member of the network of excellence 'Epizone' funded by the European Union which brings together 20 institutes to coordinate research on epizootic diseases of animals. On the national level it coordinates together with the university of Münster and the Telematikplattform für Medizinische Forschungsnetze e.V. (TMF) the National Research Platform for Zoonoses. This network bundles the research activities in the field of zoonotic infectious diseases. Development of flexible and sustainable solutions to strengthen research, prevention, and therapy of zoonotic infectious diseases are its main objectives.

Bovine tuberculosis/Paratuberculosis: Research project (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [German Research Foundation] TA 668/1-1): Mycobacterium bovis in the wildlife-livestock-human interface in East and Southern Africa. African network building for the control of neglected zoonoses. Research project (EU FP7 – 221948; ICONZ): Integrated control of neglected zoonoses: improving human health and animal production through scientific innovation and public engagement.

Participation in the final meeting of the EU Coordination Action VENoMYC (Veterinary Network of Laboratories Researching into Improved Diagnosis and Epidemiology of Mycobacterial Diseases) in Turin, 17th-20th June, 2009. Summing up of the workshop “Laboratory diagnosis of Mycobacterium spp.”. Participation in the meeting of the EU Coordination Action VENoMYC (Veterinary Network of Laboratories Researching into Improved Diagnosis and Epidemiology of Mycobacterial Diseases) in Madrid, 23rd – 25th March, 2009. VNTR/MIRUs and DVR spoligotyping for M. bovis typing - Results of the VNTR-DVR Spoligotyping Ring Trial”.

Participation in the meeting of the EU Community Reference Laboratory for Bovine Tuberculosis in Madrid, 5th – 6th November, 2009

Brucellosis: A second international ring trial for brucella genotyping with Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) was organized by our lab together with Italian colleagues (Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale "G. Caporale", Teramo). 12 DNA samples were sent out to 15 laboratories in 11 countries and results from 12 labs were received.

Chlamydiae: The Reference Laboratory for Chlamydiosis initiated the drafting of a review article on recent advances in the laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia infections, which was published in 2009 (Sachse et al. Vet. Microbiol. 135, 2-21; see list of publications). This paper contains numerous recommendations and comments, all of which represent the common position of the leading European researchers in the field of veterinary chlamydiology

Protocols and technical expertise of real-time PCR detection and DNA microarray tests have been provided to laboratories in the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Ireland, Sweden and Argentina. These methods are being used by diagnostic labs in a number of countries, and some of them have the potential to become standard procedures.

Echinococcosis: Identification of the red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) as an intermediate host of Echinococcus multilocularis. Studies on the spread and behaviour of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) as a new definitive host of Echinococcus multilocularis in eastern and central Europe. After accreditation of the laboratory according to ISO 17025:2005, the laboratory validated molecular techniques for diagnosis and for the differentiation of Echinococcus spp. samples and for the distinction of Echinococcus spp. from Taenia spp. eggs. Contribution to a new edition of the WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis.

Glanders: A protocol of the Western Blot technique for the serological diagnostic was evaluated and compared with other diagnostic techniques.

Hantavirus: FLI continued the development of diagnostic tools for serological and molecular biological detection of hantavirus infections in rodents and other small mammals. These techniques were developed in close collaboration with the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, the Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, the Institute of Virology, Charité, Berlin and the Institute of Biotechnology in Vilnius, Lithuania.

Influenza: Avian Influenza: Research into avian influenza virology in 2009 focussed on molecular tools enhancing diagnostic capabilities. Studies on the production of recombinant hemagglutinin antigen tailored for use in subtype-specific ELISAs have been successfully finished. Promising results have also been obtained for a genetically modified porcine cell line suitable to promote the replication of a wide variety of avian influenza viruses of low pathogenicity independent of supplementation of the culture medium with trypsin. In addition, commercial kits for real-time RT LAMP analysis of subtype H5 and H7 viruses have been evaluated; while the LAMP technology offers advantages particularly for on-site use, the currently available kits were found significantly less sensitive than the gold standard method, real-time RT PCR.
An OIE twinning project between the National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production (NLQP), Institute for Animal Health Research (ARI), Cairo, Egypt, and the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Isle of Riems, Germany continued. Ongoing collaborations within OFFLU, the OIE/FAO network of expertise on Avian influenza.

Influenza: New Influenza A/H1N1 “Swineflu”: Research projects in 2009 focussed on disease pathogenesis and transmissibility studies in pigs. Current activities evaluate commercially available vaccines against influenza virus infections in pigs for their potential to protect from virus infection, clinical signs, and/or virus shedding.

Newcastle Disease: Research was focussed on NDV in pigeons. Beside molecular characterization and pathotyping of currently circulating NDV isolates from pigeons a study on prevalence of Avian Paramyxovirus in wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) was conducted. In addition investigations on immune response of turkeys after NDV-vaccination were initiated.

The OIE twinning project between the National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production (NLQP), Institute for Animal Health Research (ARI), Cairo, Egypt, and the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Isle of Riems, Germany was ongoing. The program is focused on collaboration for AI and ND diagnosis. This year a total of seven scientists visited the laboratory for training purposes. Besides national activities for federal agencies the Laboratory provided assistance for NDV – diagnostic for laboratories from the United Emirates and Ethiopia.

Orthopoxviruses: In 2009, several human infection clusters with cowpox virus (CPXV), transmitted by so-called pet rats, occurred in Germany and France. Therefore, in a series of animal experiments, pet rats, Wistar rats, and cattle were infected with a CPXV strain isolated from an infected pet rat. Reference materials from the infected animals and pathogenesis data were collected. Infection of Wistar rats was established as a suitable infection model for the recent CPXV.

Rabies: The FLI is responsible for editing the Rabies Bulletin Europe (RBE), in which numbers of reported rabies cases and rabies surveillance data from all European countries are collected and published quarterly. In 2009, the issues 03/2008, 04/2008, 1/2009 and 02/2009 were edited and distributed throughout the world. Data are free to download and available from our website (

Salmonellosis in cattle: Molecular and epidemiological analysis of Salmonella Dublin infections in cattle in Germany. Epidemiological analysis of bovine salmonellosis according to the data in National Animal Disease Reporting System in Germany.

TSE: The National TSE Reference Laboratory at the FLI has been in close collaboration with the NRLs of the other European countries, especially with those of EU members. This is reflected in numerous EU-funded research projects that have been joined during the last year(s). In the context of these activities FLI has supplied other TSE NRLs and research groups with several dozens of BSE or scrapie positive samples and reference materials (e.g. fresh brainstem material or paraffin-embedded fixed tissue). A special emphasis was put on the collaboration with the Polish NRL regarding the biochemical characterization of the first notified atypical scrapie cases in Poland. Moreover, the German NRL has been in close contact with the Canadian NRL over the last years and has supplied this laboratory with ring trial samples in order to support their quality control system.

Tularemia: The National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at the FLI has been in contact with the NRLs of France and Switzerland as well as other laboratories in Austria, China, Poland and Spain that are involved in the detection of biological agents. An exchange of strains, techniques and information to evaluate diagnostic and typing tools took place.

West Nile Fever: The FLI has developed and validated serological (ELISA, Immunofluorescence-assays, micro-neutralisation test) and molecular biological methods (different quantitative realtime-PCR) for detection of West-Nile-Virus (WNV) infections in animals. These techniques were developed in close collaboration with the Robert-Koch-Institute in Berlin, the Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg and the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute in Langen.

The National West-Nile-Virus Reference Laboratory at the FLI has been in contact with the NRLs of France, Austria, Cyprus, Poland, Switzerland and Romania. Realtime PCR protocols for WNV which were developed by FLI and evaluated against published methods were supplied to the Swiss WNV NRL in Bern. With the newly established EU-CRL for equine diseases, AFSSA, Paris, France a vivid exchange of techniques and information to evaluate a sensitive WNV diagnostic is has been continued. With the NRL in Austria and Poland we exchanged PCR-protocols, requirements for the safety level 3 laboratories and exchange of information for a better monitoring study to use as an early-warning system. Furthermore we carry out an intensive advisory service for the Central Veterinary Service of Cyprus. First efforts for an exchange of serum samples with WNV-antibodies and virus isolates with the arbovirus NRL in Romania were undertaken.

2. Proposal or development of any procedure that will facilitate harmonisation of international regulations applicable to the surveillance and control of animal diseases, food safety or animal welfare

Bovine tuberculosis/Paratuberculosis: Development of a novel probe based two-target real-time PCR system for the detection of DNA of members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), including M. bovis and M. caprae, in tissue samples from cattle and transfer of the protocol to the regional diagnostic laboratories in Germany.

Chlamydiae: RL Chlamydiosis proposes the introduction of an alternative diagnostic reference test for chlamydial infections to replace cell culture. This procedure includes a validated real-time PCR detection assay in conjunction with the ArrayTube® microarray test. The proposal is currently being discussed among the chlamydia research community.

Echinococcosis: Proficiency testing was prepared to compare the performance of different diagnostic techniques in various laboratories at the international level.

Glanders: In the frame of an EU-Project, the laboratory took part in two international ring trials for antigen detection of highly infectious agents, including B. mallei and B. pseudomallei together with 21 other European laboratories. Furthermore, the laboratory took part in the Glanders CFT QAU Proficiency Testing organized by the VLA, Weybridge.

Influenza: New Influenza A/H1N1 “Swineflu”: Animal experiments also investigated viral dissemination in the infected organism in order to verify food safety.

Q fever: The EFSA project "Development of harmonised schemes for monitoring and reporting of rabies and Q fever in animals in the European Union" has been continued.

Rabies: The FLI together with other 4 European rabies laboratories participated in a project funded by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on the development of harmonised schemes for monitoring and reporting of rabies and Q fever in animals in the European Union. Within this project currently existing recommendations on rabies surveillance of international organisations were reconsidered and based on scientific data the introduction of a situation-based rabies surveillance both for terrestrial (classical) rabies as well as bat rabies suggested.

Salmonellosis in cattle: Further studies on improving the method for the bacterial detection of salmonellae according to the national German “Regulation on protection against salmonellosis in cattle” and comparing with the method according to ISO 6579 Annex D. As result of these activities, the existing method for bacterial detection of salmonellae according to the national German “Regulation on protection against salmonellosis in cattle” was replaced by method according to ISO 6579 Annex D.

TSE: In close collaboration with the Community Reference Laboratory for TSEs in Weybridge, UK and other NRLs, FLI scientists were involved in the establishment of an EU-wide batch control system for rapid tests for the mass screening of ruminant samples for BSE and scrapie. A major progress has been achieved in this goal, as an EU-wide batch control system has already been established for four different BSE rapid tests (IDEXX HerdChek Test, PrioSTRIP Test, Prionics Western Test, BetaPrion BSE EIA Test Kit / ajRoboscreen). The German NRL is responsible for the EU wide batch control for the TeSeE Test (BioRad), which is currently under preparation and the start of the EU wide batch control for this test is anticipated for the first quarter of 2010. Moreover, FLI has contributed to the revisions of the BSE chapter 11.6., the scrapie chapter 14.9., and appendix 3.8.5 of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission.

Tularemia: In order to obtain an overview of the prevalence of tularemia in Europe we propose that sentinel animals (e.g. wild boars) that are tested for other diseases on a routinely basis should be screened serologically. Serological tests for this purpose need to be evaluated and standardized.

3. Placement of expert consultants at the disposal of the OIE

Influenza: Avian Influenza: Members of the OIE Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza at the FLI contributed to three OFFLU technical groups. Expertise on the availability of commercial AI-related diagnostics, the production and dissemination of PCR standard controls, and on use of AI vaccines in Indonesia is continuously provided. In addition, Dr. Harder represented OFFLU at a meeting of the WHO Technical Advisory Group on molecular influenza diagnosis.

Influenza: New Influenza A/H1N1 “Swine flu”: Dr. Vahlenkamp participated as expert in three meetings organized by the EU discussing and approving the ‘Working document on surveillance, monitoring and control measures for the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus in pigs and in poultry’.

Newcastle Disease: Revison of the O.I.E. Chapter 2.3.14. NEWCASTLE DISEASE (Editor Claudio L Afonso)

Rabies: Expert opinion on the evaluation of the Rabies Platelia II ELISA test in the frame of the pet travel scheme

Other activities related to the mandate
of OIE Collaborating Centres

4. Provision of scientific and technical training, within the remit of the mandate given by the OIE, to personnel from OIE Members

Bovine tuberculosis/Paratuberculosis: Dr. Sodnomdarjaa, Director of the State Central Veterinary Laboratory, Mongolia, stayed in the FLI for consultation about diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis.

Brucellosis: One responsible veterinarian from the NRL Lithuania was trained for one week in serological methods. Two scientists from University of Veterinary & Animal Science, Lahore, Pakistan and from the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt underwent a three-month training on laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis.

Chlamydiae: In 2009, researchers and lab diagnosticians from France, Italy, Belgium and Sweden visited the reference lab for technical training and consultations on chlamydial diagnostic methods, with emphasis on molecular detection methods.

Glanders: One PHD student from University of Veterinary & Animal Science, Lahore, Pakistan started the work in the field of “Molecular Seroepidemiology of Glanders”. Veterinarians from Brazil, Poland, Spain and UK stayed each for a two-weeks training on laboratory diagnosis of glanders.

Hantavirus: In the frame of the network “Rodent-borne pathogens” FLI has a close collaboration with a large number of groups in Germany. These collaborations are mainly driven by the exchange of materials for the surveillance of infections with hantaviruses and other zoonotic pathogens such as Ljungan virus, orthopox viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., E. coli and other bacterial pathogens, and endoparasites. Serological and molecular biological studies on the orthopox virus prevalence in wild rodents from Germany were performed in a close collaboration with the Haartman Institute, Helsinki, Finland. For training purposes young scientists from other laboratories in Germany were involved in the hantavirus investigations.

Influenza: Avian Influenza: Within the OIE twinning project extensive training visits of staff have been organized. Training on the job has been provided at the FLI for seven colleagues from the NLQP. Further training was provided for colleagues from Bangladesh and Russia.

Newcastle Disease: A one year training program for Dr. Fufa Dawo Bari, a scientist from the university of Adis Abeba, Ethiopia was ongoing. He left the Laboratory on September 5th 2009. Issues of training comprised molecular and classical techniques of NDV diagnosis. During the second half of the training the focus was on phylogenic analysis of NDV-isolates. As part of the OIE twinning project with the NLQP, Egypt scientists were trained on classical diagnostic methods (2 week program), on production of reference materials (4 week program) and pathogenicity testing (4 weeks program).

Q fever: A training in diagnostic methods for the detection of Q fever was performed for colleagues from Spain and Poland.

Rabies: Training of scientific and technical staff: In 2009 we hosted a number of colleagues from other OIE member countries including one person from Lithuania, two persons from Ukraine, two persons from Turkey, two persons from Mongolia. The training included all standard rabies diagnostic tests, e.g. rabies diagnosis, rabies serology, follow-up investigations of oral vaccination campaigns and virus characterization (virus typing, sequencing, rabies surveillance, evaluation of ORV campaigns).

TSE: FLI has been particularly contacted by NRLs of new member states to get assistance in elaborating and establishing the diagnostic routine. In the past colleagues from FLI have participated in Twinning Projects (one of these projects was lead by the FLI) and have developed an excellent working relationship with scientists in these countries. Several follow up visits and visits to other eastern European NRLs have therefore taken place e.g. in Sofia, Bulgaria, and in Pulawy, Poland. Moreover, colleagues from Bulgaria, Poland and Turkey have stayed in the FLI laboratory for extended visits in order to gain a thorough insight into the diagnostic and confirmatory work as it is performed at the FLI-associated TSE National Reference Laboratory.

Tularämie: Short term training in conventional and molecular diagnostic procedures was provided for scientists from China and Egypt.

5. Organisation of scientific meetings on behalf of the OIE

Bovine tuberculosis/Paratuberculosis: Organisation of the 4th Workshop on Mycobacterial Infections on 13th-14th May, 2009, in Jena with participants from Germany, Austria, GB, Switzerland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands and France.

TBE and other Tick-borne Diseases: The Xth International Jena Symposium on Tick-borne Diseases (IJSTD-X) was held in Weimar, 19-21 march 2009.
The very high participation (more than 300 participants from 31 countries) and the large number of presentations (52 oral and 112 poster presentations) have shown that the Symposium promises to thrive at the new venue Weimar. We chose PREVENTION as the main topic for this anniversary symposium, a theme that summarizes the ultimate aims of all our efforts, i.e. to prevent tick bites and cases of tick-borne disease. In addition to PREVENTION, all fields of research on ticks, tick-borne pathogens, and tick-borne diseases were dealt with during the meeting

Süss, J., Kahl, O. (2009): X International Jena Symposium on Tick-borne Diseases: Book of Abstracts, pp. 1-190 www.TBD-SYMPOSIUM.COM

6. Coordination of scientific and technical studies in collaboration with other laboratories, organisations or collaborating centres

Bovine tuberculosis/Paratuberculosis: Organisation of an inter-laboratory ring trial regarding detection of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in bovine faecal samples with bacteriological and molecular biological methods (Germany, Austria, Luxembourg, The Netherlands) – summing up.

Organisation of an inter-laboratory ring trial regarding detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue samples with molecular-biological methods (Germany).

Organisation of an inter-laboratory ring trial regarding isolation, cultivation and identification of different mycobacterial species (Germany, Austria, Spain).

Brucellosis: Two representatives of the OIE reference laboratory for brucellosis (Dr. Neubauer and Dr. Melzer) were members of the scientific workgroup of the EFSA “Brucellosis in pigs”. It was founded to provide scientific advice on the risks of Brucella suis being introduced into domestic pig herds as a result of the new epidemiological situation, the suitability of current and new tests for porcine brucellosis and existing strategies to control or eradicate this disease. The outcome of the work was published in the EFSA Journal.

Chlamydiae: A joint validation study examining the use of a new DNA microarray-based test for identification of Chlamydophila psittaci genotypes (serovars) was conducted with AFSSA, Unité Zoonoses Bactériennes, Maisons-Alfort, France (see 7.7 below).
Another collaborative study focused on testing of samples from wild bird monitoring in Switzerland to characterise the prevalence of chlamydiae in wild bird populations (partners: University of Zurich; see 7.9 below).

Hantavirus: The group at the FLI continued the coordination of the network “rodent-borne pathogens” and recruited novel partners working on different rodent-associated pathogens such as retroviruses and endoparasites or rodent phylogeography. Besides the long time running studies on wild rodents, investigations on commensal rodents such as house mouse and Norway rat were intensified together with several novel network partners. Moreover, longitudinal studies on rodent population dynamics were initiated together with a group at the Julius Kühn-Institut, Münster.

Rabies: Research activities were finished to experimentally investigate the host response to infection with European bat lyssavirus types 1 in Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) (collaboration with VLA, UK; CDC, USA; Pasteur Institute, France). The FLI continued work within a WHO co-ordinated research project on research and development on a murine monoclonal antibody (MAbs) cocktail to replace HRIG and ERIG for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in humans
The OIE reference laboratory is partner in the EU funded EPIZONE project, work package WILDSURV harmonization, with special emphasis on rabies surveillance. Also, the FLI together with other 4 European rabies laboratories participated in a project funded by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on the development of harmonised schemes for monitoring and reporting of rabies and Q fever in animals in the European Union.

TSE: FLI has collaborated with the Polish NRL for TSEs to characterise atypical and scrapie BSE cases. Moreover, FLI has worked together with the Central Veterinary Service of Cyprus on the diagnosis and pathogenesis of TSE diseases in Cypriot sheep and goats.

7. Publication and dissemination of any information within the remit of the mandate given by the OIE that may be useful to Members of the OIE

Hoffmann, B., M. Beer, S. M. Reid, P. Mertens, C. A. Oura, P. A. van Rijn, M. J. Slomka, J. Banks, I. H. Brown, D. J. Alexander, and D. P. King. 2009. A review of RT-PCR technologies used in veterinary virology and disease control: Sensitive and specific diagnosis of five livestock diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Veterinary Microbiology 139:1-23

Thulke, H. H., D. Eisinger, C. Freuling, A. Frohlich, A. Globig, V. Grimm, T. Muller, T. Selhorst, C. Staubach, and S. Zips. 2009. Situation-Based Surveillance: Adapting Investigations to Actual Epidemic Situations. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:1089-1103.

Bovine tuberculosis/Paratuberculosis: Bauer, K., Kummer, C., and Moser, I. VNTR-typing of Animal Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates using 24 Loci – Experiences in the German Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. Proceedings of the VENoMYC WP7 "VNTR/MIRUs and DVR spoligotyping for M.bovis typing", 9. 2009.

Borrmann, E., Möbius, P., and Köhler, H. Different cytokine responses after interaction between human macrophages and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II and type III strains. Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP). August 9th -14th, 2009, Minneapolis, Minnesota. In press.

Elze, J., Köhler, H., and Liebler-Tenorio, E. The suitability of macroscopic preselection for prevalence estimation of bovine paratuberculosis at the slaughterhouse. Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP). August 9th -14th, 2009, Minneapolis, Minnesota. In press.

Fritsch, I., Köhler, H., and Möbius, P. Comparative characterization from German isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using SSR-, IS900-RFLP- and MIRU-VNTR-analysis. Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP). August 9th -14th, 2009, Minneapolis, Minnesota. In press.

Gierke, F. and H. Kohler. 2009. Tenacity, excretion and transmission of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis - Consequences for the control of paratuberculosis in cattle herds. Praktische Tierarzt 90:1169-1178.

Gierke, F., Ziller, M., and Köhler, H. Multinomial regression analysis of individual host factors and paratuberculosis test results. Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP). August 9th -14th, 2009, Minneapolis, Minnesota. In press.

Knobloch, H., Commander, N., Reinhold, P., Turner, C., Spooner, A., Chambers, M., and Köhler, H. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in sera - a future prospect of paratuberculosis diagnosis? Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP). August 9th -14th, 2009, Minneapolis, Minnesota. In press.

Knobloch, H., H. Köhler, N. Commander, P. Reinhold, C. Turner, and M. Chambers. 2009. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis In M. Pardo and G. Sberveglieri (eds.), CP1137, Olfaction and Electronic Nose: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium. American Institute of Physics.

Köhler, H., F. Gierke, T. Seidler, and M. Ziller. Control of paratuberculosis by vaccination - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Proceedings of the 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP). August 9th -14th, 2009, Minneapolis, Minnesota. In press.

Möbius, P., I. Fritsch, G. Luyven, H. Hotzel, and H. Köhler. 2009. Unique genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis strains of Type III. Veterinary Microbiology 139:398-404

Moser, I. The Challenge of Dourine Diagnostics - Actual Methods Performed in the German Reference Laboratory, Proposals for Future Work. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop of the EU CRL for Dourine, AFSSA-LERPAZ Maisons-Alfort, France, 10th December 2009 . 2009. 10-12-2009.

Brucellose: Al Dahouk, S., S. Loisel-Meyer, H. C. Scholz, H. Tomaso, M. Kersten, A. Harder, H. Neubauer, S. Kohler, and V. Jubier-Maurin. 2009. Proteomic analysis of Brucella suis under oxygen deficiency reveals flexibility in adaptive expression of various pathways. Proteomics 9:3011-3021

Maquart, M., P. Le Fleche, G. Foster, M. Tryland, F. Ramisse, B. Djonne, S. Al Dahouk, I. Jacques, H. Neubauer, K. Walravens, J. Godfroid, A. Cloeckaert, and G. Vergnaud. 2009. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis. Bmc Microbiology 9:

Scholz, H. C., K. Nöckler, C. Göllner, P. Bahn, G. Vergnaud, H. Tomaso, S. Al Dahouk, P. Kämpfer, A. Cloeckaert, M. Maquart, M. S. Zygmunt, A. M. Whatmore, M. Pfeffer, B. Huber, H. J. Busse, and K. De Barun. Brucella inopinata sp. nov., isolated from a breast implant infection International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, doi:10.1099/ijs.0.011148-0

Scholz, H. C., E. Hofer, G. Vergnaud, P. Le Fleche, A. M. Whatmore, S. Al Dahouk, M. Pfeffer, M. Kruger, A. Cloeckaert, and H. Tomaso. 2009. Isolation of Brucella microti from Mandibular Lymph Nodes of Red Foxes, Vulpes vulpes, in Lower Austria. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 9:153-155

Schulze zur Wiesch, J., D. Wichmann, I. Sobottka, H. Rohde, G. Schmoock, R. Wernery, S. Schmiedel, G. D. Burchard, and F. Melzer. 2009. Genomic Tandem Repeat Analysis Proves Laboratory-Acquired Brucellosis in Veterinary (Camel) Diagnostic Laboratory in the United Arab Emirates. Zoonoses and Public Health doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01258.x

Thoma, B., E. Straube, H. C. Scholz, S. Al Dahouk, L. Zoller, M. Pfeffer, H. Neubauer, and H. Tomaso. 2009. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ochrobactrum spp. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 299:209-220

Chlamydiae: Gaede, W., K. F. Reckling, A. Schliephake, D. Missal, H. Hotzel, and K. Sachse. 2009. Detection of Chlamydophila caviae and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in horses with signs of rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Vet. Microbiol. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.10.011:

Kühlewind, S., Sachse, K, Schubert, E., Ulbrich, M., Schärling, B., Matzner, N. et al. (2009) Patterns of zoonotic exposure to chlamydia and their impact on acute and/or persistent pulmonary morbidity. Eur. Respir. J. 2009, 34.

Laroucau, K., B. de Barbeyrac, F. Vorimore, M. Clerc, C. Bertin, T. Harkinezhad, K. Verminnen, F. Obeniche, I. Capek, C. Bebear, B. Durand, G. Zanella, D. Vanrompay, B. Garin-Bastuji, and K. Sachse. 2009. Chlamydial infections in duck farms associated with human cases of psittacosis in France. Veterinary Microbiology 135:82-89

Laroucau, K., F. Vorimore, C. Bertin, K. Y. Mohamad, S. Thierry, W. Hermann, C. Maingourd, C. Pourcel, D. Longbottom, S. Magnino, K. Sachse, E. Vretou, and A. Rodolakis. 2009. Genotyping of Chlamydophila abortus strains by multilocus VNTR analysis. Veterinary Microbiology 137:335-344

Laroucau, K., F. Vorimore, R. Aaziz, A. Berndt, E. Schubert, and K. Sachse. 2009. Isolation of a new chlamydial agent from infected domestic poultry coincided with cases of atypical pneumonia among slaughterhouse workers in France. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 9:1240-1247

Pantchev, A., R. Sting, R. Bauerfeind, J. Tyczka, and K. Sachse. 2009. Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays. Comp Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. doi:10.1016/j.cimid.2009.08.002.

Pantchev, A., R. Sting, R. Bauerfeind, J. Tyczka, and K. Sachse. 2009. New real-time PCR tests for species-specific detection of Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila abortus from tissue samples. Veterinary Journal 181:145-150.

Reinhold, P., H. Hartmann, and P. D. Constable. 2009. Characterisation of acid-base abnormalities in pigs experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis. Vet. J. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.02.005

Sachse, K., E. Vretou, M. Livingstone, N. Borel, A. Pospischil, and D. Longbottom. 2009. Recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of chlamydial infections. Veterinary Microbiology 135 :2-21.

Sachse, K., K. Laroucau, F. Vorimore, S. Magnino, J. Feige, W. Muller, S. Kube, H. Hotzel, E. Schubert, P. Slickers, and R. Ehricht. 2009. DNA microarray-based genotyping of Chlamydophila psittaci strains from culture and clinical samples. Veterinary Microbiology 135:22-30.

Sprague, L. D., E. Schubert, H. Hotzel, S. Scharf, and K. Sachse. 2009. The detection of Chlamydophila psittaci genotype C infection in dogs. Veterinary Journal 181:274-279

Zweifel, D., R. Hoop, K. Sachse, A. Pospischil, and N. Borel. 2009. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in wild birds - potential risk for domestic poultry, pet birds, and public health? European Journal of Wildlife Research 55:575-581

Echinococcosis: Peters, M. K. J. W. P. C. F. J. 2009. Alveolar echinococcosis in a captive red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus). Berl. Münch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr (in press)

Pitra, C., S. Schwarz, and J. Fickel . 2009. Going west - invasion genetics of the alien raccoon dog Nyctereutes procynoides in Europe. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55: DOI 10.1007/s10344-009-0283-2

Sutor, A. K. K. A. H. 2010. Diet of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) – a canid with an opportunistic foraging strategy. Acta Theriologica (in press)

Glanders: Sprague, L. D., R. Zachariah, H. Neubauer, R. Wernery, M. Joseph, H. C. Scholz, and U. Wernery. 2009. Prevalence-dependent use of serological tests for diagnosing glanders in horses. BMC Veterinary Research 5: 32; DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-5-32

Yen, M. W. S., O. Lisanti, F. Thibault, T. S. San, L. G. Kee, V. Hilaire, L. Jiali, H. Neubauer, G. Vergnaud, and V. Ramisse. 2009. Validation of ten new polymorphic tandem repeat loci and application to the MLVA typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates collected in Singapore from 1988 to 2004. Journal of Microbiological Methods 77:297-301

Hantavirus: Chandy, S., M. Okumura, K. Yoshimatsu, R. G. Ulrich, G. T. John, P. Abraham, J. Arikawa, and G. Sridharan. 2009. Hantavirus species in India: A retrospective study. Journal of Medical Microbiology 27:348-350

Essbauer, S., S. Schex, W. Splettstoesser, M. Pfeffer, R. G. Ulrich, E. Seibold, G. Dobler, R. Wölfel, and W. Bäumler. 2009. Nagetier-übertragene Zoonosen: Beispiele aus Untersuchungen in Süd- und Westdeutschland, p. 37-48. In J. Jacob (ed.), Wirbeltierforschung in der Kulturlandschaft - Grundlagen und Anwendung Zur Verabschiedung von Dr. Hans-Joachim Pelz in den Ruhestand, vol. 421.

Mertens, M., R. Wölfel, K. Ullrich, K. Yoshimatsu, J. Blumhardt, I. Römer, J. Esser, J. Schmidt-Chanasit, M. H. Groschup, G. Dobler, S. S. Essbauer, and R. G. Ulrich. 2009. Seroepidemiological study in a Puumala virus outbreak area in South-East Germany. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 198:83-91

Schlegel, M., B. Klempa, B. Auste, M. Bemmann, J. Schmidt-Chanasit, T. Buchner, M. H. Groschup, M. Meier, A. Balkema-Buschmann, H. Zoller, D. H. Kruger, and R. G. Ulrich. 2009. Dobrava-Belgrade Virus Spillover Infections, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15:2017-2020

Schmidt-Chanasit, J., A. Bialonski, P. Heinemann, R. G. Ulrich, S. Günther, H. F. Rabenau, and H. W. Doerr. 2009. A 10-year molecular survey of herpes simplex virus type 1 in Germany demonstrates a stable and high prevalence of genotypes A and B. Journal of Clinical Virology 44:235-237

Ulrich, R. G., G. Heckel, H.-J. Pelz, L. H. Wieler, M. Nordhoff, G. Dobler, J. Freise, F.-R. Matuschka, J. Jacob, J. Schmidt-Chanasit, F. W. Gerstengarbe, T. Jäkel, J. Süss, B. Ehlers, A. Nitsche, R. Kallies, R. Johne, S. Günther, K. Henning, R. Grunow, M. Wenk, L. C. Maul, K.-P. Hunfeld, R. Wölfel, G. Schares, H. C. Scholz, S. O. Brockmann, M. Pfeffer, and S. S. Essbauer. 2009. Nagetiere und Nagetier-assoziierte Krankheitserreger - Das Netzwerk "Nagetier-übertragene Pathogene" stellt sich vor. Bundesgesundheitsbl - Gesundheitsforsch - Gesundheitsschutz 52:352-369


Avian Influenza: Scientific and Technical Review 28 (1), 2009 by Thomas C. Mettenleiter
Including the following contributions from the FLI:

Artois, M., D. Bicout, D. Doctrinal, R. Fouchier, D. Gavier-Widen, A. Globig, W. Hagemeijer, T. Mundkur, V. Munster, and B. Olsen. 2009. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Europe: the risks associated with wild birds. Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties 28:69-92

Fuchs, W., A. Romer-Oberdorfer, J. Veits, and T. C. Mettenleiter. 2009. Novel avian influenza virus vaccines. Rev. Sci. Tech. 28:319-332.

Matrosovich, M., J. Stech, and H. D. Klenk. 2009. Influenza receptors, polymerase and host range. Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties 28:203-217

Rudolf, M., M. Poppel, A. Frohlich, T. Mettenleiter, M. Beer, and T. Harder. 2009. Efficacy of a commercial inactivated H5 influenza vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in waterfowl evaluated under field conditions. Rev. Sci. Tech. 28:275-291.

Fereidouni, S. R., E. Starick, C. Grund, A. Globig, T. C. Mettenleiter, M. Beer, and T. Harder. 2009. Rapid molecular subtyping by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the neuraminidase gene of avian influenza A viruses. Veterinary Microbiology 135:253-260

Fereidouni, S., E. Starick, M. Beer, H. Wilking, D. Kalthoff, C. Grund, R. Häuslaigner, A. Breithaupt, E. Lange, and T. Harder. 2009. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection of Mallards with homo- (H5) and heterosubtypic (H4) Immunity induced by Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus. PLoS one 4:

Gall, A., B. Hoffmann, T. Harder, C. Grund, D. Hoper, and M. Beer. 2009. Design and Validation of a Microarray for Detection, Hemagglutinin Subtyping, and Pathotyping of Avian Influenza Viruses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47:327-334

Gall, A., B. Hoffmann, T. Harder, C. Grund, R. Ehricht, and M. Beer. 2009. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Neuraminidase Subtyping of Avian Influenza Viruses by Use of a Diagnostic DNA Microarray. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47:2985-2988

Gall, A., B. Hoffmann, T. Harder, C. Grund, R. Ehricht, and M. Beer. 2009. Rapid haemagglutinin subtyping and pathotyping of avian influenza viruses by a DNA microarray. Journal of Virological Methods 160:200-205

Globig, A., A. Baumer, S. Revilla-Fernandez, M. Beer, E. Wodak, M. Fink, N. Greber, T. C. Harder, H. Wilking, I. Brunhart, D. Matthes, U. Kraatz, P. Strunk, W. Fiedler, S. R. Fereidouni, C. Staubach, F. J. Conraths, C. Griot, T. C. Mettenleiter, and K. D. C. Stark. 2009. Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15:1633-1636

Globig, A., C. Staubach, M. Beer, U. Koppen, W. Fiedler, M. Nieburg, H. Wilking, E. Starick, J. P. Teifke, O. Werner, F. Unger, C. Grund, C. Wolf, H. Roost, F. Feldhusen, F. J. Conraths, T. C. Mettenleiter, and T. C. Harder. 2009. Epidemiological and Ornithological Aspects of Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 of Asian Lineage in Wild Birds in Germany, 2006 and 2007. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 56:57-72

Harder, T. C. and T. W. Vahlenkamp. 2009. Influenza virus infections in dogs and cats. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.

Harder, T. C., J. Teuffert, E. Starick, J. Gethmann, C. Grund, S. Fereidouni, M. Durban, K. H. Bogner, A. Neubauer-Juric, R. Repper, A. Hlinak, A. Engelhardt, A. Nockler, K. Smietanka, Z. Minta, M. Kramer, A. Globig, T. C. Mettenleiter, F. J. Conraths, and M. Beer. 2009. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Frozen Duck Carcasses, Germany, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15:272-279

Höper, D., B. Hoffmann, and M. Beer. 2009. Simple, Sensitive, and Swift Sequencing of Complete H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Genomes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47:674-679

Kalhoro, N. H., J. Veits, S. Rautenschlein, and G. Zimmer. 2009. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1). Vaccine 27:1174-1183

Kalthoff, D., A. Breithaupt, B. Helm, J. P. Teifke, and M. Beer. 2009. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species. PLoS one 4 :

Kreibich, A., J. Stech, T. C. Mettenleiter, and O. Stech . 2009. Simultaneous one-tube full-length amplification of the NA, NP, M, and NS genes of influenza A viruses for reverse genetics. Journal of Virological Methods 159:308-310

Michael, K., T. C. Harder, T. C. Mettenleiter, and A. Karger. 2009. Diagnosis and strain differentiation of avian influenza viruses by restriction fragment mass analysis. Journal of Virological Methods 158:63-69

Pannwitz, G., C. Wolf, and T. Harder. 2009. Active Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Wild Birds by Analysis of Avian Fecal Samples from the Environment. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:512-518

Pavlova, S. P., J. Veits, G. M. Keil, T. C. Mettenleiter, and W. Fuchs. 2009. Protection of chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection by live vaccination with infectious laryngotracheitis virus recombinants expressing H5 hemagglutinin and N1 neuraminidase. Vaccine 27:773-785

Pavlova, S. P., J. Veits, T. C. Mettenleiter, and W. Fuchs. 2009. Live vaccination with an H5-hemagglutinin-expressing infectious laryngothracheitis virus recombinant protects chickens against different highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype. Vaccine 27:5085-5090

Schoene, C., T. Harder, A. Globig, M. Beer, F. J. Conraths, and T. C. Mettenleiter. 2009. The wild bird enigma: what role do wild birds play in the highly pathogenic avian influenza epizootic? Tieraerztliche Umschau 64:77-83

Schroer, D., J. Veits, C. Grund, M. Dauber, G. Keil, H. Granzow, T. C. Mettenleiter, and A. Romer-Oberdorfer. 2009. Vaccination with Newcastle Disease Virus Vectored Vaccine Protects Chickens Against Highly Pathogenic H7 Avian Influenza Virus. Avian Diseases 53:190-197

Stech, O., J. Veits, S. Weber, D. Deckers, D. Schroer, T. W. Vahlenkamp, A. Breithaupt, J. Teifke, T. C. Mettenleiter, and J. Stech. 2009. Acquisition of a Polybasic Hemagglutinin Cleavage Site by a Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Is Not Sufficient for Immediate Transformation into a Highly Pathogenic Strain. Journal of Virology 83:5864-5868

Werner, O., T. Harder, J. Veits, A. Römer-Oberdörfer, W. Fuchs, M. Beer, F. J. Conraths, and T. C. Mettenleiter. 2009. Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Germany – Development of New Avian Vaccines. In H. D. Klenk, M. Matrosovich, and J. Stech (eds.), Influenza Monogr. Virol. 27. Karger, Basel.

New Influenza A/H1N1 “Swineflu”: Fereidouni, S. R., M. Beer, T. Vahlenkamp, and E. Starick. 2009. Differentiation of two distinct clusters among currently circulating influenza A(H1N1)v viruses, March-September 2009. Euro. Surveill 14:

Lange, E., D. Kalthoff, U. Blohm, J. P. Teifke, A. Breithaupt, C. Maresch, E. Starick, S. Fereidouni, B. Hoffmann, T. C. Mettenleiter, M. Beer, and T. W. Vahlenkamp. 2009. Pathogenesis and transmission of the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 after experimental infection of pigs. J. Gen. Virol. 90:2119-2123

Newcastle Disease: Hauslaigner, R., J. Sonnenburg, S. Kothlow, B. Kaspers, C. Staubach, and C. Grund. 2009. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the specific humoral immune response of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) after vaccination against Newcastle disease virus. Avian Pathology 38:89-95

Q fever: Henning, K., H. Hotzel, M. Peters, P. Walter, W. Popp, and D. Theegarten. 2009. Unanticipated outbreak of Q fever during a study using sheep, and its significance for further projects. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 122:13-19.

Kittelberger, R., J. Mars, G. Wibberley, R. Sting, K. Henning, G. W. Horner, K. M. Garnett, M. J. Hannah, J. A. Jenner, C. J. Pigott, and J. S. O'Keefe. 2009. Comparison of the Q-fever complement fixation test and two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever) in ruminants: Recommendations for use of serological tests on imported animals in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 57:262-268.

Neubauer, H. 2009. Q-Fever. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 122:471-473

Rabies: Beckert, A., L. Geue, A. Vos, A. Neubert, C. Freuling, and T. Müller. 2009. Genetic stability (in vivo) of the attenuated oral rabies virus vaccine SAD B19. Microbiology and Immunology 53 :16-21.

Fooks, A. R., N. Johnson, C. M. Freuling, P. R. Wakeley, A. C. Banyard, L. M. McElhinney, D. A. Marston, A. Dastjerdi, E. Wright, R. A. Weiss, and T. Muller. 2009. Emerging Technologies for the Detection of Rabies Virus: Challenges and Hopes in the 21st Century. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases 3.

Fooks, A. R., N. Johnson, T. Müller, A. Vos, K. Mansfield, D. Hicks, A. Nunez, C. Freuling, L. Neubert, I. Kaipf, A. Denzinger, R. Franka, and C. E. Rupprecht. 2009. Detection of High Levels of European Bat Lyssavirus Type-1 Viral RNA in the Thyroid Gland of Experimentally-Infected Eptesicus fuscus Bats. Zoonoses and Public Health 56:270-277.

Freuling, C., A. Vos, N. Johnson, A. R. Fooks, and T. Muller. 2009. Bat Rabies - a Gordian knot? Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 122:425-433.

Freuling, C., A. Vos, N. Johnson, I. Kaipf, A. Denzinger, L. Neubert, K. Mansfield, D. Hicks, A. Nunez, N. Tordo, C. E. Rupprecht, A. R. Fooks, and T. Müller. 2009. Experimental infection of Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with European bat lyssavirus type 1a (EBLV-1a). Journal of General Virology 90:2493-2502.

Johnson, N., H. Un, A. R. Fooks, C. Freuling, T. Muller, O. Aylan, and A. Vos. 2009. Rabies epidemiology and control in Turkey: past and present. Epidemiol. Infect. doi:10.1017/S0950268809990963:1-8

Malerczyk, C., T. Selhorst, N. Tordo, S. Moore, and T. Muller. 2009. Antibodies induced by vaccination with purified chick embryo cell culture vaccine (PCECV) cross-neutralize non-classical bat lyssavirus strains. Vaccine 27:5320-5325.

Marston, D. A., L. M. McElhinney, Y. H. Ali, K. S. Intisar, S. M. Ho, C. Freuling, T. Müller, and A. R. Fooks. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses from Sudan provides evidence of a viral clade with a unique molecular signature. Virus Research 145:244-250.

Muller, T., B. Dietzschold, H. Ertl, A. R. Fooks, C. Freuling, C. Fehlner-Gardiner, J. Kliemt, F. X. Meslin, C. E. Rupprecht, N. Tordo, A. I. Wanderler, and M. P. Kieny. 2009. Development of a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Cocktail for Post-exposure Rabies Prophylaxis in Humans. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases 3.

Müller, T., H. J. Bätza, A. Beckert, C. Bunzenthal, J. H. Cox, C. M. Freuling, A. R. Fooks, J. Frost, L. Geue, A. Hoeflechner, D. Marston, A. Neubert, L. Neubert, S. Revilla-Fernandez, E. Vanek, A. Vos, E. Wodak, K. Zimmer, and T. C. Mettenleiter. 2009. Analysis of vaccine-virus-associated rabies cases in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) after oral rabies vaccination campaigns in Germany and Austria. Archives of Virology 154:1081-1091.

Pitra, C., S. Schwarz, and J. Fickel. 2009. Going west - invasion genetics of the alien raccoon dog Nyctereutes procynoides in Europe. European Journal of Wildlife Research 55.

Ramnial, V., R. Kosmider, O. Aylan, C. Freuling, T. Muller, and A. R. Fooks. 2009. Quantitative risk assessment to compare the risk of rabies entering the UK from Turkey via quarantine, the Pet Travel Scheme and the EU Pet Movement Policy. Epidemiol. Infect. doi:10.1017/S0950268809991221:1-12.

Thalwitzer, S., B. Wachter, N. Robert, G. Wibbelt, T. Muller, J. Lonzer, M. L. Meli, G. Bay, H. Hofer, and H. Lutz. 2009. Seroprevalences to viral pathogens in free-ranging and captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on Namibian farmland. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. doi:10.1128/CVI.00345-09.

Un, H., N. Johnson, A. Vos, T. Muller, A. R. Fooks, and O. Aylan. 2009. Genetic analysis of four human rabies cases reported in Turkey between 2002 and 2006. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15:1185-1189.

Vos, A., C. Freuling, S. Eskiizmirliler, H. Un, O. Aylan, N. Johnson, S. Gurbuz, W. Muller, N. Akkoca, T. Muller, A. R. Fooks, and H. Askaroglu. 2009. Rabies in Foxes, Aegean Region, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15:1620-1622.

Salmonellosis in cattle:

Berndt, A., J. Müller, L. Borsi, H. Kosmehl, U. Methner, and A. Berndt. 2009. Reorganisation of the caecal extracellular matrix upon Salmonella infection--relation between bacterial invasiveness and expression of virulence genes. Vet. Microbiol. 133:123-137.

Methner, U., Heller, M., and Bocklisch, H. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis in a wild boar population in Germany. European Journal of Wildlife Research DOI 10.1007/s10344-009-0339-3. 2009.

TBE and other Tick-borne Diseases

Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TTBD) : an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal was founded in 2009. The journal covers the following topics: Ticks; Ecology/ecoepidemiology of tick-borne diseases; Tick-borne pathogens; Tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and wildlife; and Tick-borne human diseases: Editor-in-Chief: Jochen Süss, FLI; Germany (www.TBD-SYMPOSIUM.COM):

Klaus, C., B. Hoffmann, U. Hering, B. Mielke, K. Sachse, M. Beer, and J. Süss. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, in press.

Süss, J. 2009. FSME-, RSSE-Virus, p. 886-891. In B. Neumeister (ed.), Mikrobiologische Diagnostik: Bakteriologie, Mykologie, Virologie, Parasitologie. Thieme, Stuttgart.

Suss, J. 2009. Ticks - TBE - Climate change: do we have reliable data? Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 122:481-482

Newcastle Disease: Häuslaigner, R., J. Sonnenburg, S. Kothlow, B. Kaspers, C. Staubach, and C. Grund. 2009. Evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the specific humoral immune response of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) after vaccination against Newcastle disease virus. Avian Pathology 38:89-95

TSE: The FLI has made major contributions to the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals by the OIE that has been revised in 2008. The confirmatory methods applied for BSE and scrapie diagnostics have been formulated in close contact with the FLI.

Beck, J., H. B. Urnovitz, M. H. Groschup, U. Ziegler, B. Brenig, and E. Schutz. 2009. Serum Nucleic Acids in an Experimental Bovine Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Model. Zoonoses and Public Health 56:384-390

Brenn, A., A. Karger, M. Skiba, U. Ziegler, and M. H. Groschup. 2009. A comprehensive proteome map of bovine cerebrospinal fluid. Proteomics 9:5199-5205

Geissen, M., H. Mella, A. Saalmüller, M. Eiden, J. Proft, E. Pfaff, H. M. Schätzl, and M. H. Groschup. 2009. Inhibition of prion amplification by expression of dominant inhibitory mutants--a systematic insertion mutagenesis study. Infect. Disord. Drug Targets. 9:40-47

Gordon, P. M. K., E. Schutz, J. Beck, H. B. Urnovitz, C. Graham, R. Clark, S. Dudas, S. Czub, M. Sensen, B. Brenig, M. H. Groschup, R. B. Church, and C. W. Sensen. 2009. Disease-specific motifs can be identified in circulating nucleic acids from live elk and cattle infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Nucleic Acids Research 37:550-556

Kuczius, T., H. Karch, and M. H. Groschup. 2009. Differential solubility of prions is associated in manifold phenotypes. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 42:226-233.

Polak, M. P., M. Larska, J. P. M. Langeveld, A. Buschmann, M. H. Groschup, and J. F. Zmudzinski. Veterinary Journal, in press.

Vaccari, G., C. H. Panagiotidis, C. Acin, S. Peletto, F. Barillet, P. Acutis, A. Bossers, J. Langeveld, L. van Keulen, T. Sklaviadis, J. J. Badiola, O. Andreoletti, M. H. Groschup, U. Agrimi, J. Foster, and W. Goldmann. 2009. State-of-the-art review of goat TSE in the European Union, with special emphasis on PRNP genetics and epidemiology. Veterinary Research 40.


Annual reports of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres, 2009

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