ACF Regionals 2006
Packet by Virginia Commonwealth (Matt Weiner)
1. This chemical is transported bound to SHBG like estradiol. A noted teratogen, it can be excessively produced when tumors are present in the Leydig cells. It stimulates the secretion of inhibin from Sertoli cells, acts as the feedback inhibitor for LH and GnRH secretion, and causes the embryonic Wolffian ducts to become seminiferous tubules. FTP, name this hormone produced in the testicles that prompts vocal deepening, growth of facial hair, and development of sex organs in males.
ANSWER: testosterone (or 17-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one; accept estradiol before it’s mentioned; prompt on C19H28O2)
2. Dice v. Akron held that it must be preserved when a state enforces a “federally created right,” an exception to the Minneapolis v. Bombolis decision which found that no such right exists in state-level civil actions. Strauder v. West Virginia applied the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to this right’s providence in ruling that race may not be a factor in its execution. Salinger v. Loisel addressed the requirement that the central body be locally drawn and numerous cases clarified their impartiality, a requirement typically addressed via voir dire testimony. FTP, name this right protected by the Sixth and Seventh Amendments which entitles a defendant to receive a verdict from a group of ordinary citizens.
ANSWER: right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
3. According to the Old Testament, this name meaning “waterless hill” was used by the pre-Hebrew inhabitants of Jerusalem for the city. Its namesake tribe was the last conquered by Israel in Canaan and may have been the origin of such figures as Nathan and Zadok. More recently, someone by this name failed to respond to entreaties on a shortwave radio and the person behind that attempt declared non-belief in this entity when forced into missionary work to escape from a debt to the PBS pledge drive. FTP, name this botched pronunciation of the name of a major religious figure prayed to by Homer Simpson.
4. The Heart Mountain Detachment is a rare example of one of these caused entirely by gravity. Material above its plane is known as the hanging wall while that below is the footwall. A change in their size can form breccia, gouge, or slickensides and, when two of the normal kind approach each other, a graben or horst may be created in between them. Types include thrust, transform dip-slip, oblique-slip, and strike-slip. FTP, plate boundaries are a common place to find what fractures in the crust, such as the New Madrid and San Andreas, where earthquakes usually occur?
ANSWER: faults (or faultlines)
5. The piano is instructed to play “blue-orange chords” in the second movement while the third movement is a clarinet solo depicting an “abyss.” Among its eight total movements are “dance of fury, for the seven trumpets,” despite the lack of any trumpets in the score. It begins with a depiction of birds waking up at three in the morning in the “liturgy of crystal” and includes “praises” to the “immortality” and “eternity” of Jesus. Originally performed by Henri Akoka on clarinet, Étienne Pasquier on cello, and Jean Le Boulaire on violin along with the composer on piano, it is based on an announcement by an angel in chapter ten of Revelation. FTP, name this piece written at the Görlitz concentration camp by Olivier Messiaen.
ANSWER: Quatuor pour la fin du temps, for violin, cello, clarinet & piano, I/22 (or Quartet for the End of Time; accept any underlined part)
6. He entered politics through the connections of his wife, the countess Eleonore Kaunitz. In his first ministerial position, he forged a friendship with Friedrich von Gentz and he replaced Count Stadion in his most famous post. Following his nation’s defeat at the Battle of Wagram, he was forced to relinquish control of Fiume, Istria, and Trieste in the Treaty of Schönbrunn. The first victim of the 1848 revolution in Austria and staunch exponent of a European balance of power, he advocated the continental system at a meeting hosted in his nation following the Napoleonic Wars. FTP, name this Austrian diplomat known for his role at the Congress of Vienna.
ANSWER: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Fürst Von Metternich
7. The site that this building currently occupies was once the office of Sun Yat-Sen’s Young China newspaper. Its exterior color is due to a coat of cast quartz applied to the building. Conceived by John R. Beckett after viewing trees in a public park, it was designed by the William Pereira firm which wanted to make it taller but were not allowed to break the line of sight between Nob Hill and the nearby bay. From the twenty-ninth floor to the top, elevators and a smoke tower are supported by the prominent “wings” and, until the construction of the Aon Center, it was the tallest building west of the Mississippi. FTP, name this building found in the Montgomery Financial District of San Francisco; the oddly shaped former headquarters of an American financial concern.
ANSWER: the Transamerica Pyramid (or the Transamerica Tower)
8. This novel’s central couple begins to grow apart when the protagonist removes a set of stakes left by Irishmen. The family lives near Spring Creek, their children attend Henry Solum’s school and, during an invasion of locusts, the main character’s wife hides in a trunk. Precipitated by the arrival of a minister into town, the final descent into madness of Beret is accompanied by the belief that her son Peder Victorious will be her family’s savior. Ironically, it is on a trip to bring that minister to the deathbed of his friend that the protagonist dies in a blizzard. FTP, name this novel that takes its name from the underground trolls perceived by the wife of Per Hansa; an examination of Norwegian pioneers in the Dakota Territory by Ole Rölvaag.
ANSWER: Giants in the Earth: A Saga of the Prairie or I de dage
9. In Rome, he was worshipped at Egeria and was believed to have ruled as a king in Italy under the name Virbius after Asclepius resurrected him. This husband of Aricia received locks of hair from new brides at Troezen, where Pittheus raised him. His fatal decision may have resulted from devotional chastity to Artemis or from a general misogyny. After a sea monster terrified his horses, he was dragged to death behind his chariot; that monster was sent because his father invoked a curse from Poseidon following a false accusation of making unwanted advances on his stepmother, Phaedra. FTP, name this son of Theseus.
10. Near the end of his life, he defended himself in a confrontation with Samuel Untermeyer at the Pujo committee hearings and he had earlier been lambasted for allegedly supplying defective guns to Union troops in the Hall Carbine Affair. His successful mediation of the rate war between the New York Central and Pennsylvania railroads convinced the Southern, Erie, and Northern Pacific railroads to let him reorganize those companies. That action, along with his arranging the transfer of sixty-two million dollars in gold to the U.S. Treasury, allowed him to calm the Panic of 1893. FTP, name this consolidator of International Harvester, General Electric, and U.S. Steel; the leading financier at the turn of the twentieth century.
ANSWER: John Pierpont Morgan
11. In one of his works, a female on the left floats in the air dripping blood out of the object in her hands onto a prominent flower sticking straight up in the foreground. That work, The Climax, was done shortly before he was fired and went to work with Arthur Symons at The Savoy, where he contributed to a translation commissioned by the “decadent” publisher Leonard Smithers, The Rape of the Lock. He took classes at the urging of Edward Burne-Jones, was soon commissioned to work on a new edition of Le Morte D’arthur, and quickly gained fame working under Lane and Harland at The Yellow Book. FTP, name this artist who courted controversy with his erotic drawings for Lysistrata and for Oscar Wilde’s Salomé.
ANSWER: Aubrey Vincent Beardsley
12. One dynasty which ruled in this kingdom used the “bone-rank” system to select “true-bone” men for the Council of Nobles. Another dynasty here was founded at Songak, encouraged immigration from the defunct state of Parhae, and fought several wars with Khitan. The government here protested relations with the U.S. by burning the General Sherman and, later, some groups here fought for democracy in the Tonghak Uprising and sought independence under the banner of the March First Movement. Earlier, the Hall of Worthies established by Sejong had finished constructing the hangul alphabet. FTP, name this former kingdom in which the Silla; Goryo; and Yi, or Choson, dynasties ruled, presently split into two countries.
13. When the daughter of Inachus appears in this play, the protagonist informs her that she will visit the land of the Gorgons and eventually find the source of the Nile. The chorus is composed of the daughters of Oceanus who decry the imposition of force over custom. The play begins with the journey of Kratos, Bia, and Hephaestos into Scythia and it culminates with a visit from Hermes to the titular son of Themis, whose refusal to reveal the usurper of Zeus’ throne leads to his smiting by thunderbolt and descent into the underworld. FTP, name this Aeschylus play set at the rock to which the title character is chained for giving fire to mortals.
ANSWER: Prometheus Bound or Prometheus desmotes
14. This man’s namesake differential transform can sometimes reduce the one-space unsteady heat conduction PDE to an ODE, but is generally degenerate. Decoupling the spatial dependence of the diffusion equation yields this man’s namesake PDE, of which the Laplace equation is a homogeneous special case. His namesake theorem states that all properties of a vector field can be derived from its divergence and curl. The change in his namesake function for a process is the amount of reversible work by that process; that function is the thermodynamic potential in a closed system. FTP, name the German physicist for whom the internal energy minus the product of entropy and temperature is his namesake free energy.
ANSWER: Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
15. In this poem’s final section, the poet invokes the Lord’s Prayer in a manner one critic refers to as “decaying anaphora.” In its second section, the author suggests a “rat’s coat, crowskin, cross staves” as “deliberate disguises” to hide from “eyes I dare not meet in dreams.” In the fourth section, the eyes “reappear as the perpetual star multifoliate rose of death’s twilight kingdom” while the fifth begins with a children’s rhyme, “Here we go round the prickly pear.” FTP, name this poem hypothesized to have taken its title from Julius Caesar which concludes“the world ends / Not with a bang but with a whimper;” a work of T.S. Eliot.
ANSWER: “Hollow Men”
16. It was resolved here to move one force towards Rabaul while another army moved from India to Burma, and its operational plans were clarified four months later in the Trident conference. At this meeting, the delegates also decided whether Henri Giraud or Charles de Gaulle should be recognized as leader of the Free French, planned the intensive bombing of Germany, and determined to invade Sicily instead of landing in the West. Some have suggested that a proclamation at its end discouraged attempts to overthrow Hitler by demanding the “unconditional surrender” of Axis powers. It took place in January, 1943, and Stalin declined to participate, so, FTP, only Roosevelt and Churchill met at what World War II summit in North Africa?
ANSWER: the Casablanca conference
17. One of his novels is set in a nameless Arctic city in which Lloyd Seawright and Ward Bennett discover their incompatibility. He reported on-location on both the Boer and Spanish-American wars and outlined his literary beliefs in The Responsibility of the Novelist. He rewrote one of his more prominent novels to exclude a pants-wetting sequence at a theater and his fascination with disgusting characters led him to write of a man who dies in Death Valley after killing his wife and abandoning his dental practice. While he wrote enough of Vandover and the Brute to enable posthumous publication, he died before finishing Wolf, the third part of the Epic of the Wheat. FTP, name this naturalist author of A Man’s Woman, The Pit, McTeague, and The Octopus.
ANSWER: Benjamin Franklin “Frank” Norris
18. This doctrine preaches that only the first man received a soul from the divine and all other souls are physically inherited from parents during conception. It believes that reality can be distinguished from the error of the senses by the strength of the impression produced and, from a strict materialism, it deduces that the human soul, human body, fire, God, and the logos are all identical. It preaches apathea to the external world and its formal school was led by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. Calling for the suppression of all passions and individual desires, this philosophy found later proponents in Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. FTP, name this school of philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium and antithetical to Epicureanism.
19. It first occurred after the Praeneste campaign at the urging of Valerius Flaccus and was announced in the Temple of Bellona. A later example was carried out by Quintus Pedius and Plutarch writes of it happening to the gentleman Quintus Aurelius. Descendants of anyone subjected to this procedure were barred from public office for two generations and Catiline became notorious for killing his brother-in-law in the one that happened in 82 BCE. Formulated during a Senate discussion between Gaius Metellus and Sulla, this activity returned during the Second Triumvirate, when Cicero fell victim to it. FTP, name this practice in which a Roman ruler posted lists of opponents to be stripped of property and killed.
ANSWER: proscriptions or proscriptiones
20. The linear variation of this quantity with applied electric field is known as the Pockels effect and evanescence occurs when the magnitude of this physical quantity is dominated by the extinction coefficient. The path integral of this quantity is classically stationary according to Fermat’s principle; a fact which may be used to derive the law of Snellius, which governs this property’s namesake phenomenon at the interface of two media with different values for it. FTP, identify this physical property that is commonly defined as the ratio of the speed light in a medium to that in a vacuum.
ANSWER: index of refraction (prompt on n or eta)
21. While its name is an alternative name for Hag Shavout, this Christian holiday itself has an alternative Anglican name referring to the color of the garments used for Baptism, but the liturgical calendar actually calls for red rather than white vestments. It is the anniversary of the “inauguration of the new age” and “fulfillment of the law” described in Acts. Occurring one week before the Feast of the Holy Trinity, it commemorates the appearance of the Holy Ghost to the disciples on the Sunday fifty days after Easter. FTP, name this Christian holiday which thus takes its name from the Greek for “fifty days” and plays a central role in the theology of a snake-handling, tongue-speaking namesake sect.
ANSWER: Pentecost (accept Whitsunday or White Sunday until “white” and prompt on it afterward)
22. The “chickee” house was engineered for use in this area, which is the home of the Miccosukee and borders the national parks of Fort Jefferson, Biscayne and Dry Tortugas. Areas of slightly higher elevation here are receptive to the growth of tropical trees such as cocoplum and mahogany, which mix with temperate vegetation in an arrangement found nowhere else in the United States. Among its endangered species are the wood stork, Atlantic leatherback turtle, and American crocodile; it is the only place where crocodiles co-exist with alligators. FTP, name this four thousand, three hundred square mile region bordering Big Cypress Swamp and Lake Okechobee; a grassy marshland that comprises a protected national park in Florida.
ANSWER: the Everglades
1. First appearing in Barrack-Room Ballads, it describes an Indian water-porter who meets his end dragging the narrator out of a battle. FTPE:
 Name this poem about a “Lazarushian-leather” who is ultimately described as “a better man than I am.”
 This author of “Gunga-Din” also penned “Gentlemen Rankers” and “Danny Deever” for Barrack-Room Ballads.
ANSWER: Joseph Rudyard Kipling
 In this Kipling story, collected in The Phantom Rickshaw, the narrator meets Dravot and Carnahan who overthrow the government of Kafiristan but are eventually ruined when their mortality is exposed.
ANSWER: “The Man Who Would Be King”
2. His exploits as leader of the Knights of the Red Branch are chronicled in the Ulster cycle. FTPE:
 Name this son of Dechtire who had fourteen fingers, fourteen toes, and fourteen pupils and defended Ulster from Queen Maeve of Connaught.
ANSWER: Cú Chulainn (or Sétante)
 The confrontation between Ulster and Connaught is described in this epic found in the Book of the Dun Cow. It recounts a confrontation with Fer Díad and Cú Chulainn’s youthful exploits through Fergus.
ANSWER: The Cattle Raid of Cooley (or Táin Bó Cuáilnge)
 Cú Chulainn is the nephew of this king of Ulster who ruled from Emain Macha during the Cattle Raid of Cooley. In the Book of Leinster, he kills Noísi in an attempt to get with Deirdre.
ANSWER: Conor (or Conchobar mac Nessa)
3. He replaced Theobald as Archbishop of Canterbury and clashed with Henry II at the Council of Northampton, despite serving as Henry’s loyal chancellor before accepting his church office. FTPE:
 Name this man who was killed in 1170 by Henry’s knights.
ANSWER: St. Thomas à Becket (accept St. Thomas of London; prompt on St. Thomas)
 The conflict between Henry and Thomas was exacerbated by this sixteen-article series issued by Henry in 1164. It asserted royal control over Church courts and restricted clerical power to excommunicate, appeal to Rome, or operate property without oversight.
ANSWER: the Constitutions of Clarendon
 The Constitutions also took secular control of this privilege, holders of which had control of certain salaried church positions and decided who received them.
4. Name these ways in which the Earth wobbles FTPE.
 Caused by solar and lunar gravity, this cyclic variation of the orientation of the Earth’s axis has a period of about twenty-six millennia.
ANSWER: precession of the equinoxes
 The inclination of the moon’s orbit causes this variation in the shape described by the precessing axis, causing it to move in epicycles around an ellipse instead of in a perfect circle.
 Even absent the influence of other gravitational forces, the Earth exhibits inconsistent angular velocity due to this cumulative effect of fluid movement and pressure changes in oceans and the mantle.
ANSWER: Chandler wobble
5. Name these twentieth-century British philosophers FTPE.
 His empiricist and positivist Language, Truth and Logic posits that non-empirical statements are meaningless. Later works include The Origins of Pragmatism and The Central Questions of Philosophy.
ANSWER: Alfred Jules Ayer
 Soon after writing The Nature of Judgment and The Refutation of Idealism, this ethical naturalist penned Principia Ethica in an attempt to expunge transcendentalism from British thought.
ANSWER: George Edward Moore
 This logician’s namesake paradox involves the set of all sets that do not contain themselves. With Whithead, he wrote 1910’s Principia Mathematica.
ANSWER: Bertrand Arthur William Russell
6. He overthrew Sonni Baru in the 1493 Battle of Anfao and appointed el-Mehrili to institute an orthodox Islamic law code. FTPE:
 Name this ruler who conquered Yatenga and Aïr from his palace at Gao before falling short in Borgu and being exiled by his quarreling sons.
ANSWER: Askia Muhammad (or Muhammed I Askia or Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr Ture; prompt on Muhammad I)
 Askia Muhammad expanded the boundaries of this empire, which was founded by Kossoi. It was briefly overrun by Mali and it eventually fell to Morocco under Issahak II.
ANSWER: the Songhai Empire
 Popular and certainly untrue myth held that Askia Muhammad had a hereditary claim to the throne as the nephew of this ruler, who first began Songhai expansion from the Niger valley into greater West Africa and participated in the division of the fallen Mali state.
ANSWER: Sonni Ali Ber
7. Recognition, cohesion, internodal, ecologial, and evolutionary definitions of this concept exist. FTPE:
 All those models attempt to define what taxonomic category?
 This approach, probably the most generally popular, defines a species as a group of individuals fertile with each other but unable to produce fertile offspring with other groups.
ANSWER: the biological species concept (or the isolation species concept)
 This highly general concept of speciation from the late 1980’s defines a species as an irreducible cluster of organisms with a known pattern of ancestry and features enabling distinction from other groups.
ANSWER: the phylogenetic species concept
8. It resides in the Cornaro Chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria and shows an angel visiting the title saint, who is receiving rays of divinity from hidden light portals. FTPE:
 Name this sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
ANSWER: The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa (or Saint Theresa in Ecstasy)
 This Italian Rococo painter of the fresco Glory of St. Theresa decorated the Colleoni chapel and Villa Loschi. His varied ceiling frescoes include the chiaroscurist The Force of Eloquence and the brightly colored The Banquet of Anthony and Cleopatra.
ANSWER: Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
 The Banquet of Anthony and Cleopatra is based on the feast paintings of this Renaissance artist, who painted dinners in Pilgrims of Emmaus, Marriage at Cana, and Feast in the House of the Pharisee, as well as a work originally conceived as a Last Supper that he was pressured to change to Feast in the House of Levi.
ANSWER: Paolo Veronese (or Paolo Caliari)
9. Name these recent American writers FTPE.
 This proponent of the “collage” technique penned such collections as City Life, Sadness, and Come Back, Dr. Caligari.
ANSWER: Donald Barthelme
 Although he later became a practitioner of the short story in the volumes The Magic Barrel and Idiots First, he made his name with the novels The Fixer, The Assistant, and The Natural.
ANSWER: Bernard Malamud
 This convert to Catholicism and explorer of malaise wrote a monograph on semantics, The Message in the Bottle, in addition to the fiction Love in the Ruins, The Thanatos Syndrome, and The Moviegoer.
ANSWER: Walker Percy
10. Name these energetic physical quantities FTPE.
 Commonly measured via the Born-Haber cycle, this is the work required to separate the components of an ionic solid into a gas of mixed ions.
ANSWER: lattice binding energy (or lattice binding enthalpy; prompt on binding energy)
 The Lamb shift and Casimir effect can be viewed as consequences of this, the energy of a quantum vacuum state.
ANSWER: zero point energy (prompt on vacuum state energy)
 This is the energy equivalent of the mass defect for a given nucleus. It is extracted by exothermal nuclear reactions.
ANSWER: nuclear binding energy
11. In May, 1968, communists and student radicals rioted and attempted to overthrow the government of France. FTPE:
 Their target was what French republic, established in 1959 and tailored to the rule of Charles de Gaulle, which remains in power today?
ANSWER: the Fifth Republic of France
 The revolt was led by this German student-orator who was banned from France for ten years following the revolt and who is currently the leader of the Green Party bloc in the European Parliament.
ANSWER: Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit (or Danny the Red)
 The unrest was ended by the Grenelle Agreement which was negotiated by this prime minister who served during de Gaulle’s final years. He succeeded de Gaulle as president in 1969.
ANSWER: Georges Pompidou
12. FTPE, identify the subjects of these important experiments.
 This postulated physical symmetry is broken by some weak interactions, specifically those accompanying K-mesons, as was shown in 1964 by Cronin and Fitch.
ANSWER: charge conjugation-parity symmetry
 Nirenberg and Matthaei used a paste of E. Coli cells and a synthetic compound called poly-U to make a phenylalanine chain, demonstrating the relationship between this molecule and amino acid synthesis.
ANSWER: ribonucleic acid
 In 1956, Reines and Cowan used a tank of cadmium chloride dissolved in water and a series of photomultiplier tubes to detect these particles.
ANSWER: electron antineutrinos
13. It asserted a territory’s right to make slaveholding impractical by refusing to enforce slave codes in order to create a de facto free territory despite Supreme Court decisions legalizing slavery. FTPE:
 Name this idea put forth by Stephen Douglas and named for the location of Douglas’s second debate with Lincoln.
ANSWER: the Freeport Doctrine
 The Freeport Doctrine was a modification of this earlier, broader concept also advocated by Douglass which sought to decide the question of slavery with an election in each territory instead of through a single Congressional or Supreme Court policy.
ANSWER: popular sovereignty
 Popular sovereignty was put into practice by this 1854 bill, which organized two new territories under the principle.
ANSWER: the Kansas-Nebraska Act
14. In twelve steps, or nidanas, it relates the root cause, ignorance or avijja, to its ultimate consequence, age and death. FTPE:
 Name this Buddhist concept of the interrelation of all events.
ANSWER: the chain of dependent origination (or paticca-samuppada or paticca-samuppada; accept origination by dependence or chain of causation or anything close to those)
 The chain of causation begun by ignorance of these concepts, that “existence is suffering,” that “suffering is caused by desire,” that “there is a means to suppress desire” and that “the Eightfold Path” is that means.
ANSWER: the Four Noble Truths (or cattari-ariya-saccani; or catvari-arya-satyani)
 The tenth step in the chain, which leads to birth and then to age and death, is this “process of becoming,” which translates mental states to external forms.
15. Name these Christian authors whose works dealt with non-Western cultures FTPE.
 He discussed white and Japanese contact in White Man and Yellow Man, the morality of his home country in The Sea and Poison, and the sixteenth-century purge of Japanese Christians in Silence.
ANSWER: Endo Shusaku
 This American Christian critiqued the false assumptions underpinning Western attitudes towards the East in Orientalism.
ANSWER: Edward Said
 At the start of his career, he was a Christian writing in English, producing such works as The River Between, The Black Hermit, and A Grain of Wheat. He later became a Gikuyu nationalist and wrote Devil on the Cross in his native language.
ANSWER: James Ngugi wa Thiong’o
16. Grant Wiggins, Reverend Ambrose, and Miss Emma try to console Jefferson, who was sentenced to execution despite his lawyer’s attempt to equate his intelligence with that of a hog. FTPE:
 Name this novel.
ANSWER: A Lesson Before Dying
 This other novel’s title character is born as a slave named “Ticey,” sets out for Ohio with Big Laura, encounters the murderous Patrollers, works for Mr. Bone and Robert Samson, and joins Jimmy Aaron’s civil rights march.
ANSWER: The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman
 This author of The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman and A Lesson Before Dying often sets his novels, such as Catherine Carmier and In My Father’s House, in the fictitious Bayonne, Louisiana.
ANSWER: Ernest James Gaines
17. In an 1887 work, Ferdinand Tönnies explored the nature of two concepts corresponding to an actor’s “essential will” and “arbitrary will.” FTPE:
 Name that work which takes its names from those two concepts.
ANSWER: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft or Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft
 Tönnies’ second work demonstrated the indebtedness of his theories to this philosopher who described life as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
ANSWER: Thomas Hobbes
 Tönnies’ theorized gemeinschaft and gesellschaft as “normal” forms of these sociological paradigms. This theory was in opposition to Max Weber, who hypothesized “ideal” paradigms.
18. Her first film as a director was The Blue Light and she later created Olympia, which followed the 1936 Summer Olympics. FTPE:
 Name this filmmaker whose fawning documentaries about the Nazi Party led to the end of her movie career after World War II.
ANSWER: Berta Helene Amalie “Leni” Riefenstahl
 Perhaps Riefenstahl’s most troublesome Nazi work was this documentary of the 1934 party rally at Nuremberg.
ANSWER: The Triumph of the Will or Triumph des Willens
 Triumph of the Will was filmed at the 1934 rally to replace this film made at the 1933 rally, which inextricably included the soon-to-be-purged Ernst Rohm. All German prints were recalled and destroyed but a British copy turned up in the 1990’s.
ANSWER: The Victory of Faith or Der Sieg des Glaubens
19. In the space of twelve years, DC Comics uncreatively introduced three different characters who commit crimes by using a gun that shoots ice. FTPE:
 The most memorable of the bunch was probably this Batman foe whose current origin story involves cryogenic experiments on his ill fiancée Nora.
ANSWER: Mr. Freeze (or Victor Fries)
 This member of the Flash’s rogues gallery is the brother of the Golden Glider and the acknowledged chairman of supervillainy in Keystone and Central cities.
ANSWER: Captain Cold (or Leonard Snart)
 Originating as physicist Joar Makent, this character from All-American Comics #90 was usually foiled by Green Lantern, who once fought him in Metropolis as a young Bruce Wayne looked on.
20. It is narrated by a scholar of the Knights Templar who is writing a book called The History of Metals. FTPE:
 Name this novel in which Causabon, Belbo and Diotallevi find out that controlling “telluric currents” is the goal of all societies and the aim of all conspiracies.
ANSWER: Foucault’s Pendulum or L Pendolo Di Foucault
 This author of Foucault’s Pendulum has recently returned to writing novels with The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana after putting out such nonfiction as “Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language.”
ANSWER: Umberto Eco
 This 1992 Eco essay collection discusses eating on airplanes, the right way to greet people you know, the wrong way to use fax machines, and the dangers of spreading skin infections among kidnap victims as terrorists tend to re-use the same hoods.
ANSWER: How to Travel With a Salmon and Other Essays or Il Secondo Diario Minimo
21. Name these American composers FTPE.
 His work is closely tied to literature as in Essays for Orchestra, Music for a Scene from Shelley, and Prayers of Kierkegaard. He may be better known for the operas A Hand of Bridge and Vanessa or for the funeral favorite Adagio for Strings.
ANSWER: Samuel Barber
 He arranged Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue for orchestra and wrote pieces on American landmarks including Broadway at Night, Mississippi Suite, and the Grand Canyon Suite.
ANSWER: Ferde Grofé
 This longtime director of the Eastman School of Music adapted Whitman in Songs from Drum Taps and wrote the opera Merry Mount in addition to the Requiem, Nordic, and Romantic symphonies.
ANSWER: Howard Hanson
22. Answer each of the following about your friend and mine, enthalpy FTPE.
 This equation for an isothermal phase change states that the latent enthalpy of the change is equal to the slope of the coexistence line, times the volume change, times the temperature.
ANSWER: Clausius-Clapeyron equation
 This term describes a thermodynamic process in which the enthalpy of the system does not change.
ANSWER: throttling process (or isenthalpic process)
 This common type of thermodynamic chart has specific entropy on the ordinate and specific enthalpy on the abscissa and is consequently often called an enthalpy-entropy diagram.
ANSWER: Mollier diagram