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15. 1 Small Business Innovation Research (sbir) Proposal Submission Instructions Revised Closing Date: February 25, 2015, at 6: 00 a m. Et

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PHASE II: Required Phase II deliverables will include the construction, demonstration and validation of a prototype MIDAS system based on results from Phase I. All appropriate engineering testing will be performed along with a critical design review to finalize the design. Additional deliverables include: 1) a working prototype of the system, 2) drawings and specification for its construction, and 3) test data on its performance collected in one or more simulated operational settings, in accordance with the demo success criteria developed in Phase I.
PHASE III: Provide support in transitioning the technology for Marine Corps use. In accordance with the Phase III development plan, the company will extend the scope use to a wider range of platforms that are included within the Marine Corps Trusted Handheld program. The small business will provide support for test and validation and qualify the system for Marine Corps use. The small business will transition a package to the Marine Corps that includes user training package – e.g. user manual, training materials.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: This technology will have broad application in commercial as well as military settings. It will provide military medical practitioners across the healthcare treatment continuum with tools to better understand the medical status of a patient, in order to easily include treatment and diagnosis approaches while better understanding proximate and distal risk factors, and to develop effective courses of action which will significantly improve their performance and increase the rates of survivability for medical casualties. Commercially, this technology should allow for similar types of improvements in emergency rooms and trauma centers.

1. Haux, Reinhold (2010). "Medical informatics: Past, present, future". International Journal of Medical Informatics 79: 599–610.

2. Anderson, J. G. (2002). “A Focus on Simulation in Medical Informatics.” Journal of the American Medical Information Association 9(5): 554–556 (see all articles in this special issue).

3. Uti, N. V., Fox, R. (2010). Testing the Computational Capabilities of Mobile Device Processors: Some Interesting Benchmark Results. Computer and Information Science, ACIS International Conference on, pp. 477-481, 2010 IEEE/ACIS 9th International Conference on Computer and Information Science.

4. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2013). Keeping Up with Progress in Mobile Medical Apps. Retrieved from 15 Aug 2014.

5. Anhøj J., Møldrup C. (2004). Feasibility of collecting diary data from asthma patients through mobile phones and SMS (short message service): response rate analysis and focus group evaluation from a pilot study. J Med Internet Res 6(4):e42.

KEYWORDS: Mobile Device; Applications; Medical Informatics; Data Collection; Forecasting; Military Health System; Medical Readiness

N151-070 TITLE: Development of Marinized Protective Coatings for Higher Temperature Operations

of Marine Gas Turbine Engines
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes, Battlespace
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: EPE FY15-02 Gas Turbine Development for Reduced Total Ownership Cost (TOC)
OBJECTIVE: Develop an Integrated Computational Materials (Science) and Engineering (ICME) related methodology to predict and develop compatible marinized materials/coatings upgrades for Navy surface ship propulsion or auxiliary power gas turbines that will maintain long hot section life at sustained higher operating temperatures leading to reduced maintenance and repair budgets.
DESCRIPTION: It is the Navy’s goal to increase the operational capabilities of its gas turbine engines that are used in Surface Fleet propulsion and auxiliary electrical power generation. Operational changes and future needs will require increased gas turbine operating temperatures and change the associated operating environment to one where Type I and Type II hot corrosion AND oxidation will be prevalent in newly anticipated operational profiles. The U.S. Navy (USN) shipboard environment (the marine environment) is high in salt-laden air and water, which coupled with air and fuel sulfur species, causes aggressive Type I and Type II hot corrosion in gas turbine hot sections. Higher temperatures and environmental changes will increase engine corrosion and oxidation rates thereby shortening engine life and increasing engine maintenance and repair costs. Current USN Hot Section Materials were designed for Low Temperature Hot Corrosion (~700°C), but new USN operations may require engine materials to withstand higher sustained temperatures (950-1050°C) and cycle more often reducing engine life severely. Current coating development has been empirically based and has not been linked on computational/ scientific/ experimental data where predictive models could lessen time and cost for the development of corrosion-resistant and oxidation-resistant robust coatings capable of higher temperature service. This program would incorporate a computational and an experimental base to develop predictive models that will guide creation and development of coatings that are resistive to high temperature corrosion (including hot corrosion) and oxidation in the Navy's higher temperature operational profile.
PHASE I: Explore the coating literature as related to marine propulsion and develop coatings that would indicate the ability to perform at higher temperatures. Then perform short-term (~200 hours) high temperature experiments to correlate coating chemistry with hot corrosion and oxidation performance. The correlations should begin to form the ICME framework to assist in maximizing corrosion and oxidation resistance by changes in coating chemistry while not impacting fatigue, creep, or substrate strength of the substrate alloys.
PHASE II: The ICME framework shall be further expanded to include compatibility of the coating to different alloy substrates as well as further development, modification, and maturation of the ICME models. Coating and engine original gas turbine equipment manufacturers (OEMs) should be consulted for advice and direction for further developments of the ICME models. The performer shall correlate into the ICME-derived model the interaction of chromium and aluminum content in a coating that leads to the formation of chromia or alumina scales. Coatings on several alloys shall be tested to determine coating compatibility and assess impact of coatings on alloy substrate properties. Coatings shall be applied onto alloy substrates by at least one recognized commercial coating process (line-of-sight and/or non-line-of-sight).
PHASE III: The ICME model will be further developed and matured through the expansion of coating chemistry and hot corrosion and oxidation resistance testing results. The expected deliverables will be: (1) optimized corrosion and oxidation-resistant coatings for a given set of alloys and (2) an ICME-derived model that would predict and assist in the development of future coatings that are compatible to other alloy substrates. In Phase III, the performer shall correlate the interaction of the substrate alloy to the coatings’ ability to form chromia or alumina scales, especially when the substrate is a single crystal versus a polycrystalline alloy. A partnership between the small business and an engine OEM would be encouraged in order to further improve chances of transition.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Development of more robust coatings able to withstand hot corrosion and oxidation at higher temperatures for U.S. Navy applications will also enable more efficient service for commercial applications. Marine gas turbine engines are industrial gas turbines that are intended for Naval use. Successful development of better coatings for the current alloys, capable of extended service in the highly corrosive Naval operating environment, should enable subsequent use in commercial applications if the business case justifies the results.

1. D.A. Shifler, D. Hoffman, J. Hartranft, C. Grala, D. Groghan, L. Aprigliano, “USN Marine Gas Turbine Development Initiatives Part I: Advanced High Temperature Materials”, Paper GT2010-23596, TurboExpo 2010, IGTI, Glasgow, Scotland (June 2010).

2. D.A. Shifler, “Substrate-Coating Interactions and Their Effects on Hot Corrosion Resistance”, Symposium on High Temperature Corrosion and Materials Chemistry V, PV2004-16, E.Opila, J.Fergus, T. Maruyama, J. Mizusaki, T. Narita, D. Shifler, E. Wuchina, Eds., The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 294 (2005).
3. B. Gleeson, “Thermodynamics and Theory of External and Internal Oxidation of Alloys”, Shreir’s Corrosion, Vol. 1 Basic Concepts, High Temperature Corrosion, T. Richardson et al. (eds), Elsevier, (2010) pp. 180.

4. B. Gleeson, “High Temperature Corrosion of Metallic Alloys and Coatings,” chapter in Corrosion and Environmental Degradation of Materials, edited by M. Schütze, Vol. 19 of the Series: Materials Science and Technology, R.W. Cahn, P. Haasen, E.J. Kramer (Series Editors) (Wiley-VCH, Germany, 2000), 173.

KEYWORDS: Hot corrosion; oxidation; coatings; gas turbines; marinization; marinized alloys, interdiffusion

N151-071 TITLE: Offensive Mine Warfare (MIW) Planning and Assessment Software Framework

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: FNC SHD-FY14-04 Advanced Undersea Weapon System (AUWS) Enabling Capability
The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws.
OBJECTIVE: Develop an integrated software framework for offensive Mine Warfare (MIW) mission planning and assessment capabilities which supports both traditional mining as well as future concepts that utilize distributed vehicles, sensors, weapons and other disruptive effects.
DESCRIPTION: Future minefields will use precision emplaced unmanned systems requiring interactions among many functional elements, battle-space environments, and adversarial courses of actions. Performance predictions using stand-alone models will become infeasible and render current minefield planning methods ineffective. Currently, there are a number of gaps within minefield planning, modeling, and simulation capabilities. With the emergence of new mining technologies, new software methodologies are needed to investigate capabilities, drive new requirements and measures of effectiveness, address training needs, and to meet Navy strategic goals.
An integrated set of decision support technologies is required that:

a. Automates data exchange and model execution for MIW planning and analysis using advanced theory

b. Supports supplemental data when available (e.g., environmental, target features, traffic patterns, operational constraints)

c. Provides a robust set of Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) criteria for field planning beyond Simple Initial Threat (SIT)

d. Is consistent with modular, open-architecture standards and interfaces with legacy models and databases

e. Is compatible with higher-level Joint and Naval planning systems/software and Common Operating Picture (COP) such as MEDAL and GCCS which have standard interface requirements.

f. Provides user-interactive display of graphical charts and minefield mapping capabilities

g. Produces a standard set of offensive MIW planning products/folders incorporating the planning and assessment results

PHASE I: Identify framework requirements and what offensive MIW technologies and planning tools are currently available, what information and integrations should be included, and what methodologies best support the objective. Given an initial set of stakeholders and applicable systems, conduct research to identify other stakeholders, users, applicable delivery platforms and effectors that could potentially utilize the new integrated software framework. Identify all supporting data requirements and any existing data gaps which will limit/prohibit minefield planning and assessment. Once the framework requirements are complete, a detailed road map document will be developed describing the high level design and the required development and integration tasks needed to create the offensive MIW planning and simulation software framework. The company will prepare a Phase II development plan to prototype the offensive MIW planning and simulation software framework.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype offensive MIW planning and simulation software framework for evaluation, based on the results of Phase I. The prototype will be evaluated to determine its capability to meet the performance goals defined in the Phase II development plan and Navy requirements. Demonstrate system performance through prototype evaluation and modeling or analytical methods over the required range of parameters. Sample unclassified data sets and interface stubs will be used to represent interfaces to actual databases and Joint/Navy planning systems. Evaluation results will be used to refine the prototype into a design that will meet Navy requirements. The company will prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy use.
PHASE III: Develop a fully operational offensive MIW planning and simulation software framework including interfaces to all necessary models and databases and support Naval technology demonstration transition. The framework will be demonstrated working with applicable Joint/Navy planning systems and COPs to determine its effectiveness in an operationally relevant environment. The framework will output standard Navy offensive MIW planning products and assessment results/MOEs. The framework will be evaluated to determine its capability in meeting the performance goals defined in the Phase III development plan. The company will support the Navy for test and validation to certify and qualify the system for Navy use.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: This integrated software framework could have applicability for planning passive and actives systems to defend commercial undersea resources and infrastructure.

1. Oceanography and Mine Warfare. National Research Council, 2000.

2. F.B. Jensen, W.A. Kuperman, M.B. Porter, and H. Schmidt. Computational Ocean Acoustics. Springer, 2011.
3. Everhart, David and CAPT Pratt, Scott. “Asymmetric and Affordable.” USNI Proceedings Vol. 138/6/1,312 June 2012:46-49.
KEYWORDS: Integrated software framework; Minefield planning; Minefield assessment; Precision emplaced effects; Distributed systems optimization; Open architecture

N151-072 TITLE: Resin Infusible Carbon Fiber Unidirectional Broadgoods for Fatigue Dominated

TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Ground/Sea Vehicles, Materials/Processes
OBJECTIVE: Develop unstitched, uncrimped, dry carbon fiber unidirectional broadgoods intended for manufacturing of composite structures by resin infusion with the purpose of increased fatigue performance.
DESCRIPTION: Infused carbon epoxy composite laminate fatigue specimens were exhibiting lower than expected fatigue runout strains (at 10 million cycles, R=-1), and the observed fatigue degradation was initiating as microcracks at the stitching in the 90 degree plies of a laminate containing 0, +/-45, and 90 degree plies. Follow on screening tests of variations on the unidirectional fabric, such as thinner or different stitching threads, did not show any improvements. Stitching is the usual method of holding unidirectional fibers together forming a dry fabric used for wet resin fabrication methods, such as the infusion process used here. Autoclave cured unidirectional prepreg, which is held together by the B-staged epoxy resin rather than stitching, exhibits higher fatigue runout strains, but when compared to infusion the autoclave process significantly increases the cost of manufacturing.
This SBIR focuses on developing dry carbon unidirectional broadgoods consisting of straight fibers with no features that can create stress concentrations or resin rich areas, while maintaining a 55% fiber volume fraction when infused. The technology can be developed using standard modulus carbon fibers but should be extendable to intermediate and higher modulus fibers. The technology should be applicable to unidirectional cure ply thickness ranging from 0.005” to 0.025” - the researchers feel that thinner plies will improve fatigue performance, but there will be a tradeoff since thicker plies reduces manufacturing costs. The fatigue performance goal for a quasi-isotropic laminate (layup [0/45/90/-45]ns ) using the unidirectional broadgoods is runout at 10 million cycles, R=-1, at 3000 microstrain, with the specimens exhibiting no microcracking.
PHASE I: Develop concept(s) for dry fabric and demonstrate feasibility at lab scale using the specifications cited in the Description. Feasibility includes: demonstration of the technique used to form broadgoods from fiber tows; show that the dry fabric can maintain its shape when handled and draped dry; and show that it can be resin infused (epoxy resin TBD).
Phase I Option, if awarded, would be initial set up for Phase II, including planning and purchasing any long lead items.
PHASE II: Refine the concept to represent production material and show that good quality laminates can be infused. Quality would be assessed by conducting material testing to measure volume fractions, microscopy inspection, and 90 degree tensile performance (or another test to show good fiber matrix bond). Fabricate enough broadgoods for a panel 24” x 24” x 0.25” thick. Fabricate a laminate by resin infusion (resin TBD), and cut and test specimens. Conduct mechanical tests of composite specimens, including fatigue screening (+/- 5000 microstrain), and fatigue threshold (goal is at least +/- 3000 microstrain for 10 million cycles).
PHASE III: Coordinate with follow on programs of the FNC to incorporate material into next generation composite structural designs. Tasks will include developing the material database, conducting long term structural evaluation of large scale beams (6” thick), and manufacturing a full scale part with complex curvature as part of certifying and qualifying the material for Navy use. When appropriate the small business will focus on scaling up manufacturing capabilities and commercialization plans.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Composite structures with design envelopes controlled by cost and fatigue would benefit from this technology. These structures exist extensively in the energy and transportation industries. Composites are used in parts and structures such as shafting, wind turbine blade, trailers, bridges, equipment foundations, and springs.

1. Mandell, J. F., Samborsky, D. D. & Cairns, D. S. "Fatigue of Composite Materials and Substructures for Wind Turbine Blades," Contractor Report SAND2002-0771, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 2002.

2. Griffin, D., Roberts, D. & Laird, D. "Alternative Materials for Megawatt-Scale Wind Turbine Blades: Coupon and Subscale Testing of Carbon Fiber Composites," 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 2006-1197, Jan 2006, Nevada.
KEYWORDS: Composite; Carbon Fiber; Epoxy; Fatigue; Resin Infusion; VARTM

N151-073 TITLE: Enhanced Cell Designs for Improved Internal Heat Transfer for High Rate and

Power Capable, Large-Format Batteries
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Materials/Processes, Electronics, Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Multi-Mission Energy Storage FNC, Railgun INP
The technology within this topic is restricted under the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120-130, which controls the export and import of defense-related material and services, including export of sensitive technical data, or the Export Administration Regulation (EAR), 15 CFR Parts 730-774, which controls dual use items. Offerors must disclose any proposed use of foreign nationals (FNs), their country(ies) of origin, the type of visa or work permit possessed, and the statement of work (SOW) tasks intended for accomplishment by the FN(s) in accordance with section 5.4.c.(8) of the solicitation. Offerors are advised foreign nationals proposed to perform on this topic may be restricted due to the technical data under US Export Control Laws.
OBJECTIVE: Optimize heat transfer and cell design for large, high rate Lithium (Li)-ion cells for supporting pulsed power applications.
DESCRIPTION: Energy storage is a key enabling subsystem for supporting future shipboard loads. To date, industry and academia have performed substantial innovative work that has resulted in a continuous improvement in energy density of batteries destined for high energy applications. However, the capability of the high energy cells and chemistries developed do not necessarily apply to the rates and modes of operations required for shipboard applications. High power batteries have also undergone beneficial development and improvement; however, these improvements have generally focused on new chemistries or battery designs which reduce impedance and increase energy density while retaining power. The missing developmental area in the space of large-format high power batteries is internal, cell-level thermal management. This has typically been a challenge in the large-format battery space because of the increased length scale over which thermal energy must transfer. However, large-format batteries are essential for simplified, more manageable large-scale systems. Within large-scale shipboard energy storage systems, reduction of the number of components and connectors will be key for ensuring reliability while minimizing Direct Current (DC) losses, particularly at high rate and deep discharge (high current). Large-format storage offers the potential for maximizing reliability and reducing maintenance requirements by minimizing connectivity and monitoring points. To reduce the number of components, the cell format must be increased beyond commercially available 18650 or 26650 cylindrical cells, while retaining or improving upon performance, density and thermal character, and focusing upon safer yet well-characterized chemistries, preferably phosphate or titanate-based approaches.
Increased scale of cells present unique challenges, particularly as operational rate and depth of discharge increases. Larger designs can present thermal resistance issues due to design attributes that impede heat flow in certain directions. As the operational rate increases to 10C or higher to support pulsed power and directed energy applications, these challenges are manifested further. The greater rate of heat generation and higher inefficiency (losses) cannot be easily removed from within the cell. Thus, as cell format increases, the pathway for thermal conduction outward from the cell becomes more resistive (as diameter and length increase). Reduction of the conduction pathway in large format cells is thus an important and desirable trait that requires innovative approaches and investment. This is the case for both cylindrical as well as prismatic designs.
Innovative approaches are desired to enable larger and higher capacity cells capable of performance and efficiency at rate (>10C). The intent is to minimize thermal resistance either through improved cell construction materials (not electrochemical couples or electrolytes), improved material interfaces, improved cell design/construction, or a combination thereof. Specifically, this is a hardware-oriented effort, and so emphasis is made on innovation in the hardware design approaches, as well as on the ability to prove the innovative hardware in a practical manner as early as Phase I. The end intent is reduced conduction path resistance within a large format cell of over 20Ah. Innovation is also necessary such that the cell energy density is minimally impacted with such re-design, so that the benefits at the system-level can be manifested.
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