|PHASE I: Determine technical feasibility and develop physics-based models in order to produce a converter design capable of meeting the goals and thresholds as detailed in the description.
PHASE II: Develop a prototype based on Phase I work for demonstration and validation. The prototype should be delivered at the end of Phase II. The design should be at Transition Readiness Level (TRL) 3 or 4 at the end of this phase.
PHASE III: Integrate the Phase II developed converter into the P&E-FY14-01 FNC program for transition to the Electric Ship Office acquisition program.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The desired electrical power converter has direct applications in commercial power grid, power distribution, electric power conversion, cryogenic power applications, arctic operations and transportation traction, making it broadly applicable to the commercial world.
1. D.G. Holmes and T.A. Lipo, Pulse Width Modulation for Power Converters: Principles and Practice, Number ISBN:0-471-20814-0. Wilsey.
2. Kolawa, E.A. and EE Technologies Study Team. Extreme Environment Technologies for Future Space Science Missions. Technical Report JPL D-32832, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., August 2007.
3. Shin, H. B., J. G. Park, S. K. Chung, H. W. Lee and T. A. Lipo. Generalized Steady-state Analysis of Multiphase Interleaved Boost Converter with Coupled Inductors., IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 152, No. 3, May 2005.
4. Gupta, R.K.; Mohapatra, K.K.; Somani, A.; Mohan, N.; Direct-Matrix-Converter-Based Drive for a Three-Phase Open-End-Winding AC Machine With Advanced Features., Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.57, no.12, pp.4032-4042, Dec. 2010.
5. Zhang, W. Lee, F.C. Chen, D.Y.; Integrated EMI/thermal design for switching power supplies. 2000 IEEE PESC , Volume: 1, page(s): 47-51.
6. Tenca, P., A.A. Rockhill, T.A. Lipo., Low Voltage Ride-Through Capability for Wind Turbines based on Current Source Inverter Topologies. Seventh IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IEEE PEDS 2007) November 27-30, 2007, Bangkok, Thailand.
7. Mohapatra, K.K., Gupta, R., Thuta, S., Somani, A., Umarikar, A., Basu, K., Mohan, N., New research on AC-AC converters without intermediate storage and their applications in power-electronic transformers and AC drives (2009). IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 4 (5), pp. 591-601.
8. DoD 5000.2-R, Appendix 6, pg. 204., Technology Readiness Levels and Their Definitions. http://www.acq.osd.mil/ie/bei/pm/ref-library/dodi/p50002r.pdf
KEYWORDS: Power Electronics; Electrical Converter; Efficiency; Extreme Temperature Operation; Enhanced Performance; Thermal Performance
N151-066 TITLE: Soft Elastomeric Technology for Rapidly Deployable Manipulation Capability
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PMS 408 Explosive Ordnance Disposal & NAVFAC; Proposed POM-17 FNC ARMS
OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate technologies to fabricate cost-effective rapidly deployable lightweight actuated inflatable single or dual arm manipulation systems for integration onto underwater unmanned platforms.
DESCRIPTION: Recent advances make it feasible to use compliant (elastomeric) materials in the fabrication of lightweight actuated inflatable manipulation systems which are resilient to impact, can be compactly stowed and are safe to operate near humans. Such manipulation systems would avoid costly motors by replacing them with pump driven fluid-filled fabric membranes. Nature provides many examples of animals that have developed superior strategies for manipulation of their surroundings through the use of soft, robust and fast mechanisms. These abilities have proven difficult to emulate with traditional engineering approaches, but new developments in inflatable technology using pressurized membranes made of compliant (elastomeric) materials create new opportunities for affordable manipulation systems for a range of naval underwater missions. The technical challenges include the design of integrated actuation and fabric, distributed actuation to mimic effective bio-inspired energy efficiency, and dexterity to perform an array of underwater tasks. The manipulation system can be a single or dual-manipulator configuration. It should be able to perform elementary tasks such as precise positioning of objects or tools, removal or emplacement of objects (lifting at least 25 pounds), and pull or twist manipulations (eg. unscrewing a cap from a pipe), which are common tasks performed in explosive ordnance disposal. The target specifications include either two symmetric arms, each with 7 degrees of freedom, or two asymmetric arms, one having 7 and the other 5 degrees of freedom, each arm weighing less than 8 pounds. End effectors should have at least 3 fingers. Ideally, these arms would be capable of operating on land or underwater, to depths of 200 feet.
PHASE I: Determine technical feasibility and define approaches for using compliant (elastomeric) materials to develop a single or dual-arm manipulation system capable of being integrated onto an unmanned underwater platform. The Phase I report shall clearly explain the operational capabilities and limitations of the technology. The results shall include a preliminary design for Phase II consideration.
PHASE II: Finalize the design and demonstrate a working prototype of the single or dual-arm manipulation system. Demonstrate the ability to perform tasks such as the precise positioning of tools or small objects, attachment of lift bags or removal lines to remove objects, surface preparation for adhering tools, and operations like pull or twist. The mechanism of stowage and deployment should be developed and the space requirements specified. A design for an integrated system with a suitable platform, such a hovering autonomous underwater vehicle like the Bluefin HAUV, should be specified.
PHASE III: Prepare final production design for the manipulation system, build the initial production unit and integrate into the acquisition program for deployment into the Fleet.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Maritime technology, oil and gas industries, mining, oceanography
1. Siddharth Sanan, Peter S. Lynn and Saul T. Griffith. Pneumatic Torsional Actuators for Inflatable Robots. J. Mechanisms Robotics 6(3), 031003 (Apr 03, 2014) paper No. JMR-13-1081.
2. Naval Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC) Strategic Plan
3. iRobot's Inflatable Arm Could Be the Future of Grappling. http://gizmodo.com/5937046/irobots-inflatable-arm-could-be-the-future-of-grappling
4. Inflatable Robots by Otherlab: A Walking Robot (named Ant-Roach) and a Complete Arm (Plus Hand). http://www.hizook.com/blog/2011/11/21/inflatable-robots-otherlab-walking-robot-named-ant-roach-and-complete-arm-plus-hand
KEYWORDS: Elastomeric manipulators; Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV); compliant manipulators; soft robotics; explosive ordnance disposal (EOD)
N151-067 TITLE: Orthogonal Approach to Malware Detection and Classification
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
OBJECTIVE: Develop technologies and tools for detecting and classifying malwares using methods and techniques which are orthogonal to existing methods of binary/code analysis, binary and behavioral signatures.
DESCRIPTION: Today’s networked computer systems are continuously under attack. Large and complex systems of software are difficult to completely verify and secure. These systems are vulnerable to compromises which take advantage of their weaknesses and flaws. Adversaries use these flaws and force access into our systems. Exacerbating the problem is the brittleness of current computing systems as initial penetration may quickly escalate to complete system control/compromise, rendering a computing system non-operational or worse, leading to corrupted, leaky and misleading information systems.
Current state-of-the-art practice for defending the system is mostly based on scan and patch processes. To protect against exploits and attacks, the system often employs a perimeter defense which scan files and executables as they enter the system to detect (and sometime classify) potential exploits. The detection process relies on binary as well as behavioral signature filtering and heuristics which are slow to react to new threats and unable to keep up with novel attack vectors. The polymorphic and metamorphic obfuscation techniques for malware and exploits, along with availability of toolkits for generating the exploits, make malware/exploit production relatively inexpensive. The adversary can use the same obfuscation techniques and toolkits to continually produce seemingly new exploits and continually evade detections. A battle is being fought between cyber defender and attacker in the code analysis or binary and behavioral signature front.
While this binary/behavioral signatures battle front is being fought, it may be beneficial for defender to open several more cyber battle fronts to make it more expensive for the adversary to develop successful/undetected exploits. A new cyber battle front implies that it employs new detection vectors which is/are orthogonal (independent) to the current techniques of binary/behavioral signature based detections, such as [1,2,3,4]. We are hoping that these novel orthogonal detection techniques can raise the difficulty factor and cost for successfully developing and deploying an exploit or malware by requiring attackers to contend with many distinct and orthogonal detection vectors, multiplying their cost. Orthogonal detections can help reduce the sheer number of malwares and exploits targeted toward our military networked computing systems.
This topic solicits the development of technologies and tools for detecting and classifying malware using approaches which are independent or orthogonal to the current family of malware detection techniques. Current malware detection techniques rely on code or binary analysis and binary and behavioral signatures. If successful, the tools and techniques developed in this SBIR can significantly raise the cost for developing exploits by requiring the attackers to evade a large number of orthogonal detection techniques, and thus reduce the sheer number of the distinct exploits targeting our networked computing systems.
PHASE I: Investigate and develop a novel technique and tools for reliably detecting and classifying malware, orthogonal to current generation of malware detection techniques. Develop proof of concept prototype and identify the metrics that determine the prototype’s efficacy.
PHASE II: Develop and enhance the prototype into a fully functioning tool. Demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the tool on a large number of actual malware, constructed new malware variants and benign programs. Address potential deficiencies and enhance the performance and robustness of the technique and tool.
PHASE III: Upon successful completion of phase II, the small business will provide support in transitioning the technology for Navy use. The small business will develop a plan for integrating the product into the Navy’s information infrastructure and to determine the effectiveness of the novel orthogonal malware detection techniques in an operationally relevant environment. The small business will support the Navy with certifying and qualifying the system for Navy use.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: A novel orthogonal exploit detection tool can be independently marketed or integrated into current computer security product offerings, providing defense in malware detection area. If successful, the tool developed within this SBIR should find its market in the commercial sector as well as military sector.
1. K. Kancherla, S. Mukkamala, “Image Visualization based Malware Detection”, Proc. IEEE Symposium on CICS 2013 (2013), pp. 40-44.
2. L. Nataraj, S. Kartikeyan, G. Jacob, and B.S. Manjunath, “Malware images: visualization and automatic classification”, Proc. the ACM 8th International Symposium on Visualization for Cyber Security (VizSec ’11), pp. 4:1–4:7.
3. D. Kirat, L. Nataraj, G. Vigna, and B.S. Manjunath, “SigMal: A Static Signal Processing Based Malware Triage”, Proc. the 29th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC’13), pp. 89-98.
4. J. Hoffmann, S. Neumann, T. Holz, “Mobile Malware Detection Based on Energy Fingerprints—A Dead End?”, Proc. Research in Attacks, Intrusions and Defenses symposium (RAID ‘13), pp. 348-368.
KEYWORDS: malware similarity, malware detection, malware classification, malware signature, defense-in-depth, multi-vantage-point detection
N151-068 TITLE: Ultra-High Temperature Thermoelectrics
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Air Platform, Materials/Processes, Weapons
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Navy Conventional Prompt Global Strike, DARPA Tactical Boost Glide Demo
OBJECTIVE: Develop thermoelectric technology which converts aerodynamic heating into electricity via thermoelectric generators. Thermoelectrics could provide power for Hypersonic/Long Range vehicles which require significant electrical power while surviving temperatures greater than 1250 degrees C.
DESCRIPTION: Hypersonic vehicles need compact, high temperature capable power sources. Batteries are not sufficiently compact and require insulation. A thermoelectric (TE) energy-harvesting system takes advantage of the temperature difference between two surfaces converting thermal energy into electricity. The objective of this effort would be to push the temperature limits of current TE materials from approximately 600 degrees C to 1250 degrees C while achieving an effectiveness figure of merit (ZT) above 1. Currently, efficiencies are limited by the interdependence of thermal and electrical properties. Due to the lack of space available for coolant, TE concepts will need to be integrated with low thermal diffusivity insulators or with high temperature phase change materials. As the output of TE generators is a function of the temperature difference between hot and cold sides, the output will be dependent on the generators’ ability to separate the sides with insulating or phase change materials.
To date, thermoelectric generators have been designed for operation up to 600 degrees C. Many materials have an upper temperature limit of operation, above which the material is unstable. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that low-dimensional TE materials, such as super-lattices and nano-wires, can enhance the Thermoelectric Effectiveness (ZT).
Currently, material science include bulk materials, low-dimensional materials, nano-crystalline materials, doping, molecular rattling, multiphase nano-composites, silicon-germanium alloys, high temperature capable clathrates, homologous oxide compounds, Skutterudite materials, and Half Heusler alloys. This list refers to current approaches and is not prescriptive for proposed approach.
PHASE I: Develop thermoelectric generator concepts using high melt temperature materials. Develop thermoelectric material-to-insulation or phase change material integrated configurations. Perform measurements of candidate material electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature up to the expected maximum use temperature. Perform imaging of candidate material grain and lattice structure at temperatures spanning the range of interest. Develop predictions of expected TE figure of merit and thermoelectric efficiency. If awarded a Phase I Option, perform imaging of candidate material grain and lattice structure at temperatures spanning the range of interest. Develop morphology and structure of the TE devices from the imaging data.
PHASE II: Using the data developed in the Phase I option, identify material modifications to improve generator performance. A prototype thermoelectric generator will be fabricated and integrated with insulation. Laboratory tests will be conducted to measure the electrical output of the integrated thermoelectric generator-insulator circuit at temperatures spanning the range of interest. Sizing of 100 and 250 W devices based on the results of prototype test will be projected. Designs capable of meeting expected missile form factors and combined mechanical and thermal environments will be developed and demonstrated in relevant mechanical and thermal environments. Key cost, size and performance attributes will be developed for commercial application. Designs for commercial application will be developed and demonstrated.
PHASE III: Develop revisions to the single unit fabrication methods to meet quality requirements. Identify revisions to the prototype to meet quality requirements, leading to fabrication of additional 20 final prototypes which will be subjected to quality inspection, electrical performance testing over the temperature span, and combined thermal/mechanical loads testing. Identify large scale production alternatives. Develop a cost model of expected large scale production to provide estimates of non-recurring and recurring unit production costs. Production concept for commercial application will be developed addressing commercial cost and quality targets.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Commercial and dual applications of this technology include electrical power supplies for satellites, fuel cells and combustion driven engines such as for aircraft and ground transportation. By harvesting combustion engine waste heat, the overall efficiency of these engines is improved. A further use is to provide back up to solar photovoltaic cells.
1. Yang, Jihui and Caillat, Thierry, MRS Bulletin, Volume 31 March 2006. "Thermoelectric Materials for Space and Automotive Power Generation."
2. Snyder, G. Jeffrey, The Electrochemical Society Interface, Fall 2008. "Small Thermoelectric Generators."
3. Tritt, Terry M. and Subramanian, M. A., MRS Bulletin, Volume 31 March 2006. "Thermoelectric Materials, Phenomena, and Applications: A Bird's Eye View."
4. Nolas, George S., Poon, Joe, and Kanatzidis, Mercouri, MRS Bulletin, Volume 31 March 2006. "Recent Developments in Bulk Thermoelectric Materials."
5. Koumoto, Kunihito, Terasaki, Ichiro and Funahashi, Ryoji, MRS Bulletin, Volume 31 March 2006. "Complex Oxide Materials for Potential Thermoelectric Applications."
6. Rao, Apparao, M., Ji, Xiahua and Tritt, Terry, M., MRS Bulletin, Volume 31 March 2006. "Properties of Nanostructured One-Dimensional and Composite Thermoelectric Materials."
7. Bottner, Harald, Chen, Gang and Venkatasubramanian, Rama, MRS Bulletin, Volume 31 March 2006. "Aspects of Thin-Film Superlattice Thermoelectric Materials, Devices, and Applications."
KEYWORDS: thermoelectric efficiency; Seebeck effect; nanostructured materials; molecular rattling; multi-phase nano-composites; complex crystals; thin film superlattices; clathrates
N151-069 TITLE: Medical Informatics Decision Assistance and Support (MIDAS)
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems, Biomedical, Human Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: Defense Health Program (DHP) or Marine Corps Systems Command
OBJECTIVE: Develop and demonstrate a modeling and simulation-based technology, capable of running on a handheld device, which provides an unambiguous interpretation of health status, pre- and/or post- injury, to medical information consumers within and outside military medical channels.
DESCRIPTION: The continued conflict in Afghanistan and the aftermath of Iraq, combined with emerging challenges across multiple continents, has led to increased demands for medical treatment, both on the battlefield and across the whole continuum of care to the warfighter. These drivers have, in turn, led to greater demands on the medical community to assimilate increasing amounts of information across a range of patient care levels, across a spectrum of caregivers, and at a variety of locations. This explosion of information, and in the number of individuals who participate in generating and using this information, carries with it a greater risk for misinterpretation, miscoding and mishandling. To avoid these risks, there is a critical need to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of healthcare- related information for each patient in order to ensure consistent and timely care . The increasingly large data sets that represent an individual patient’s health status, coupled with the growing number of practitioners who may be assisting in the treatment, require decision support tools that support rapid and accurate pattern classification and hypothesis testing. As well, more effective ways of storing and retrieving patient histories are needed to ensure effective diagnosis and treatment. Modeling and simulation technologies provide the basis for aggregating, analyzing, representing, and making forecasts from large quantities of healthcare data, making them accessible in multiple ways to the many individuals supporting a patient’s care .
Handheld devices such as cell phones, smart phones, and personal data assistants (PDAs) provide an effective source for collecting, analyzing, and widely disseminating healthcare information, due in large part to their significantly expanded computational processing capability . The infrastructure for developing software applications that can exploit these advances is also rapidly maturing; the FDA estimates over 500 million individuals will be using a healthcare app by 2015 . Moreover, the types of information collectable by current mobile devices have expanded to include: high resolution pictures; video; text; geographic location; and, in most cases, text-based annotations. Combined, these developments should enable current mobile devices to perform complex analyses based on diverse, and often times incomplete, data sets enabling improved healthcare access, availability, and effectiveness for caregivers.
This topic is requesting development of Medical Informatics Decision Assistance and Support (MIDAS) technologies which, by merging advances in computer science, information technology, and information science, will provide:
• Data acquisition tools that capture and combine all relevant healthcare information (e.g., images, paper documents, proteomic/genomic data, etc.) into a common repository to allow access via searches and queries
• Visualization and analysis tools that allow users to integrate and interact with the data to generate and test new diagnoses and treatment methodologies
• Applications to detect novel patterns, predict adverse events and conditions, and to optimize treatment plans
• Platform independence to allow distribution, portability, and interoperability between different systems
• Data warehousing, archiving, and retrieval to support continuum of care and electronic health record data exchange
The output from MIDAS technologies should enable medical practitioners across the healthcare treatment continuum to better understand the medical status of a patient; to easily include treatment and diagnosis approaches while better understanding proximate and distal risk factors; and to develop effective courses of action.
PHASE I: Required Phase I deliverables will include determining technical feasibility for handheld applications that can provide simple, easy-to-use interfaces for aggregating, analyzing, representing, and making forecasts from large quantities of healthcare data that are input and used by multiple medical practitioners for use in the operational setting. Develop an initial concept design and model key elements as well as a detailed outline of success criteria. A final report will be generated including system performance metrics and plans for Phase II, if awarded. Ensuring an ‘open design’ to allow integration with other Military Health System’s information systems will be considered a critical performance metric. Phase II plans should include key component technological milestones and plans for at least one operational test and evaluation. Phase I should also include the processing and submission of all required human subjects use protocols should these be required. Due to the long review times involved, human subject research is strongly discouraged during Phase I.