2. United States Navy Fact File, “Mk 39 Expendable Mobile Anti-Submaring Warfare Training Target,” Office of Corporate Communication (SEA 00D), Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C. 3 Dec 2013. 3. C. H. Sherman and J. L. Butler, “Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound,” New York, New York: Springer, 14 Nov 2011.
4. O. Wilson, “Introduction to the Theory and Design of Sonar Transducers,” Los Altos, California: Peninsula Publishing, 1 June 1989.
KEYWORDS: Mk 30 Target; ASW training target; broadband underwater transducer; compact underwater transducer; broadband active sonar; high-efficiency sonar transducer
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Battlespace
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO IWS 1.0, Integrated Combat Systems, AEGIS
OBJECTIVE: Develop an automated analysis tool for combat systems software system change request databases.
DESCRIPTION: Modern naval combat systems are continually being operated, upgraded, and tested at-sea and ashore. At any given time, there are many requests to de-bug, change, or update the underlying Computer Programs (CP). These requests are called Change Requests (CR) and are tracked in combat system databases. The CRs are reviewed and evaluated by a board of experts to determine the relative necessity and priority of implementing these changes. This process involves classifying the type of change, assigning a relative priority to the change, and determining the impact to other systems if the change is implemented. It requires experts from different engineering communities possessing various knowledge backgrounds to understand the complexity, priority, and need of each CR. After various reviews by the board, the resulting prioritized lists often reflect subjective rankings rather than an objective engineered recommendation to implement certain CPCRs [Ref 1].
The Navy needs a way to objectively prioritize CRs for implementation into the combat system. This topic seeks an automated tool to cull through hundreds of candidate engineering changes to recommend which should be selected to invest in and incorporate into revisions of the Aegis system. The current method is subjective and manpower-intensive. It is fraught with uncertainty and prone to improper classification and overlooking high priority needs. The Navy has been unsuccessful in finding a solution to review, classify, and prioritize the CRs in a combat system database. A tool is needed that will replace the engineering experts, and has the capability to determine the relative importance and priority of all the CRs found within a combat system’s database.
The Navy is interested in exploring the field of knowledge engineering management as a mechanism for the design of a decision tool. Using an artificial intelligence (IA) system which can learn to replicate the “expert panels” decisions of the past and then see if the IA software is “teachable” for the future would effectively automate the process and provide a knowledge database. Modern models, such as Model-based and Incremental Knowledge Engineering (MIKE) and heuristic classification, [Ref 2] are commercially available and could be considered for use in developing a tool for screening CRs to assign a relative rank for each. The tool will need to evaluate a number of disparate criteria, including (1) the estimated amount of code de-bugging work required to implement the CR, (2) the reduction in watchstander workload resulting from CR implementation, and (3) the mission area impact if the CR is not implemented.
PHASE I: The company will define and develop a concept for an automated analysis tool that meet the requirements stated in the topic description. The company will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept in meeting Navy needs and will establish that the concept can be developed into a useful product for the Navy. Feasibility will be established by testing and analytical modeling.
PHASE II: Based on the results of Phase I, the small business will develop a prototype analysis tool for evaluation. The prototype will be evaluated to determine its capability in meeting Navy requirements for the automated analysis tool. System performance will be demonstrated through prototype evaluation and modeling or analytical methods. Evaluation results will be used to refine the prototype into a design that will meet Navy requirements. The company will prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy use.
PHASE III: The company will be expected to support the Navy in transitioning the automated analysis tool technology for Navy use. The company will develop the automated analysis tool according to the Phase III development plan for evaluation to determine its effectiveness in an operationally relevant environment. The company will support the Navy for test and validation to certify and qualify the system for Navy use.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Commercial software developers routinely test and upgrade their computer programs. How these companies determine which fixes to implement is normally proprietary information. However, a successful CR evaluation tool could be readily adopted in the commercial sector to prioritize fixes that have the greatest impact for their customers.
1. McConnell, David E., Sperry, Charles H. “AEGIS Software Engineering Process Document.” Defense Technical Information Center. 27 March 1995: NSWC Dahlgren Division. Accessed 4 April 2013. www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA295624
2. Studer, Rudi; Benjamins, V. Richard; Fensel, Dieter. “Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods.” CiteSeerX. 21 November 1997: University of Karlsruhe. Accessed 29 March 2013.
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Ground/Sea Vehicles
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: SEA21, PMS400F Surface Combatant Program Office
OBJECTIVE: Develop a novel temporary repair solution for both sensitized and stress-cracked aluminum ship structures that arrests/retards crack growth, restores watertight boundaries, and which can be performed by the ship’s force.
DESCRIPTION: There is a need for improved temporary repair technologies for United States (U.S.) Navy surface ships, available to the ship’s force or shipyard maintenance for immediate application to cracks identified on aluminum structures. Currently, permanent repairs of cracked and sensitized aluminum in naval ship structures requires damaged material to be cut out. Replacement material is then welded back into the cutout shape. Permanent repair can be too costly and time-consuming for the limited repair times available, or if damage is identified during a deployment. In these cases, temporary repair methods are often used. Current ship-force temporary repairs are designed to keep the interior dry, but do not prevent additional crack growth. Improved temporary repair technology would ideally help minimize permanent repairs by preventing additional crack growth.
Cracking in aluminum marine structures is often a result of fatigue or weld defects (Reference 1). Additionally, several classes of U.S. Navy ships use marine aluminum alloys for structures that are susceptible to sensitization. Sensitization can lead to stress-corrosion cracking (Reference 2). Permanent repairs of a cracked aluminum structure are expensive, and replacement of sensitized aluminum is even more expensive due to the additional quality controls implemented in fabrication, welding and inspection of repairs (Reference 3).
Several temporary repair methods approved for use include fiberglass composite patches, polysulfide, doubler plates, or compression bolts. Each of the current methods has drawbacks that limit the utility as a repair option. Fiberglass composite patches are costly due to installation and non-recurring engineering costs for each application. The current fiberglass resins cannot be stored shipboard nor are they feasible for ship’s force to apply properly. Polysulfide is usable by ship’s force but only re-establishes the watertight boundary. Doubler plates come in two varieties - welded or adhesive bonded. Welding adds residual stress that can start new cracks around the new weld joint, and adhesive bonded plates can be applied by ship’s force repair to reestablish water-tightness but does not arrest crack growth. Compression bolts have been proven effective when used on fatigue crack tips to prevent additional crack growth, but they cannot be implemented when the cracks end in non-planar areas and they do not restore watertightness.
Research is needed to develop a temporary repair technology that is deployable by ship’s force, not limited by geometry, and that can provide structural support to prevent crack growth and provide a watertight boundary for marine aluminum structures. The solution needs to be compatible with aluminum from a corrosion perspective.
PHASE I: The company will define and develop a temporary repair concept for cracked aluminum structures. The company will demonstrate the feasibility of the repair concept for applications in both primary hull and deckhouse structures. The company will also establish that the repair concept can be developed into a useful solution for the Navy. Material testing and modeling will be used to establish feasibility.
PHASE II: Based on results of Phase I, the company will develop a prototype repair concept for cracked aluminum structures for evaluation. The prototype will be evaluated to determine its capability in meeting the performance goals and Navy requirements for suitability as a structural repair method. Performance will be demonstrated through prototype testing over parameters relevant to end use. Performance results will be used to refine the repair concept prototype into a documented repair procedure that will meet Navy requirements. The company will prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy use.
PHASE III: Based on results of Phase I and Phase III development plan, the company will refine the repair concept for evaluation. The repair concept will be evaluated to determine its capability in meeting the performance goals defined in Phase III development plan and the Navy requirements for suitability as a structural repair method. The company will assist the Navy in transitioning the repair procedure for Navy use.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: Aluminum cracking and sensitization likely affect other marine vessels and structures using 5XXX series aluminum. This technology may be applicable for use in repair of these commercial items. Repairs employing elements of epoxy-based polymers will likely have immediate benefit in commercial hull applications.
1. Kramer, R.K.; Rampolla, B.; and Magnusson, A. SSC Report 410 “Fatigue of Aluminum Structural Weldments”. Ship Structures Committee. May 2000. Accessed 23 APRIL 2014. http://www.shipstructure.org/pdf/410.pdf
2. Cormack, Emily. “The effect of sensitizitation on the stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloy 5456.” Naval Postgraduate School Thesis. June 2012. Accessed 3 APRIL 2014. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a562767.pdf
3. Schwarting, R; Ebel, G, and Dorsch, TJ. “Manufacturing Techniques and Process Challenges with CG47 Class Ship Aluminum Superstructure Modernization and Repairs.” American Society of Naval Engineers. 2011. Accessed 3 APRIL 2014. https://www.navalengineers.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/2011%20Proceedings%20Documents/FMMS2011/Papers/Schwarting.pdf
KEYWORDS: Sensitization of aluminum structures; stress corrosion cracking of aluminum; structural repairs of ships; marine aluminum fatigue and stress cracking; crack growth prevention on ship structures; watertight repairs of aluminum structures while underway
N151-053 TITLE: Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) Multi-Spectral
Illuminator TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Sensors, Electronics, Battlespace
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PMS495, Mine Warfare Program Office, COBRA
OBJECTIVE: Develop a “Night Time” capability for Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) that will provide the necessary light source for the COBRA camera.
DESCRIPTION: The current COBRA sensor is only capable of daytime operation. The proposed effort will develop a light source which will allow for the use of multi-spectral imagers, such as those found in the COBRA system, during nighttime operations. To successfully get to this future system, the competing requirements of size, weight, power and thermal management will need to be overcome. This development effort will reduce costs for the COBRA program by continuing previous developmental efforts for an illumination source and by increasing availability to be used 24 hours a day which will reduce deployment time and overall operational costs.
Current electro-optic illuminators are single wavelength (band) sources that cannot illuminate the six band light spectrum required for the COBRA camera. Additionally, current single band illuminators that meet the derived size, weight, and power requirements for COBRA provide insufficient illumination power for the COBRA camera field of view. The innovation of the COBRA Multi-Spectral Illuminator will be to provide the broadband light that will provide sufficient illumination power for the COBRA camera to image mine lines and minefields at night.
The objective is to create a small form factor, light weight, low power, and medium repetition rate broadband illuminator that is robust enough to be integrated onto the Fire Scout MQ-8B (ref 1). Additionally, the illuminator would need to output the required light levels for a duration suitable for integration by the COBRA ( ref 3) camera, a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) ( ref 2), and with a relevant field of view. These competing requirements will need to be balanced to create an active light source. It will also need to match the solar illumination levels in each defined band (ref 4) for an equivalent of 5 Watts per square meter (W/m2), as measured on the ground with the sensor at 915 meters above ground level and a field of view of at least 2 by 2 degrees, across all bands.
Three illumination technologies– Red Green Blue/Infrared (RGB/IR) lasers, RGB/IR light emitting diodes, and small/lightweight strobe lighting, have been previously explored for potential multi-spectral illumination. However, none of these technologies are mature enough to meet the technical requirements for COBRA camera illumination without further technical development and innovation. However, any of these three technologies, as well as other approaches, could serve as the basis for meeting the objectives of this topic.
PHASE I: The small business will define and develop a concept for a COBRA Illuminator and assess the feasibility for COBRA insertion. The small business will demonstrate the feasibility of the COBRA Illuminator concept in meeting COBRA program needs, and will show that the concept can be developed into a useful product for the COBRA program capable of fitting within the Fire Scout size, weight and power constraints. Phase I awardees will be provided specific size, weight and power constraints for concept development.
PHASE II: Based on the results of Phase I, the small business will develop a COBRA Illuminator prototype for evaluation. The prototype will be evaluated in conjunction with the COBRA camera to determine whether it can meet COBRA requirements for Night Time Detection Performance. System performance will be demonstrated through prototype evaluation and ground test methods over the required range of landscapes and scenes. COBRA Illuminator evaluation results will be used to refine the prototype into a design that will meet the COBRA program requirements for Night Time Detection with the COBRA system and illuminator fitting within the Fire Scout size, weight and power constraints. The small business will prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy use.
PHASE III: If Phase II is successful, the company will provide support in transitioning the technology for Navy use. The small business will integrate and retrofit existing COBRA Systems with the COBRA Illuminator, according to the Phase III development plan, for evaluation to determine its effectiveness in an operationally relevant environment. The company will complete Flight Demonstration and Environmental Qualification for test and validation to certify and qualify the system for COBRA program use. The company will also support updates to the COBRA Technical Data Package (TDP) to support the Navy in transitioning the design and technology into the COBRA Production baseline for future Navy use.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: In addition to successfully transitioning multi-spectral illumination into the COBRA program, the technology can be multi-faceted for use in the private sector. Multi-spectral imaging capabilities and the associated illumination will be utilized to expand current terrestrial sensing to be operational 24 hours a day. The application includes farm and crop monitoring, geological mapping, terrestrial imaging, ocean sensing and research, as well as numerous law enforcement applications. Attention will be given to these multi-use applications as the program progresses to address potential commercial spin-off opportunities.
1. Holloway, John; Witherspoon, Ned; Miller, Richard; Davis, Kenn; Suiter, Harold; Hilton, Russell. “Navy/Marine Corps Innovative Science and Technology Developments for Future Enhanced Mine Detection Capabilities.” 22 Aug 2000 (reference will be posted in SITIS).
2. Holst, Gerald. CCD Arrays Cameras and Displays. Winter Park, FL: JCD Publishing and SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1996.
3. “The US Navy--Fact File: AN/DVS-1 Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA).” 9 December 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2100&tid=1237&ct=2
4. “The US Navy--Fact File: RQ-8A and MQ-8B Fire Scout Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).” 18 February 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=1100&tid=2150&ct=1
KEYWORDS: Broad Band Illumination; Multi-Spectral Imaging (MSI); Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA); Mine Countermeasures (MCM); Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR); Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) payload
N151-054 TITLE: Threat Suitability Tactical Decision Aid for Anti-Submarine Warfare
TECHNOLOGY AREAS: Information Systems
ACQUISITION PROGRAM: PEO IWS 5, Undersea Warfare Systems
OBJECTIVE: Develop an innovative tactical decision aid (TDA) for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) threat operations that evaluates the geospatial suitability requirements of an area of interest.
DESCRIPTION: The amount of information available to accomplish the Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) mission has been increasing significantly in the last 10 years, and there is a broad spectrum of information available for analysis to help in solving the ASW problem. When an ASW threat executes a mission against U.S. Navy forces, the opposing force (OPFOR) commander must consider the environment, tactical situation, ownship capabilities and mission objectives to develop a course of action. This process will involve trade-offs where one factor, such as required proximity to a high value target, is offset by another factor such as increased detection vulnerability.
The technology to explore and evaluate these types of trade-offs has been developed for wide ranging applications, to include location recommendation systems for business sites [ref 1], evaluation of animal habits [ref 2], and urban land use planning [ref 4]. Perhaps the most relevant to ASW application is to identify potential crime areas [ref 3] based on suitability for criminal intent. These technologies represent the state-of-the-art in geospatial suitability analysis. The basis of this project is to use whatever information technology is used today for predicting events – such as in high crime areas (among others) by melding historical and in situ data. We seek to adapt them and develop innovative new technologies applicable to ASW.
By understanding how information affects OPFOR mission planning trade-off and by developing possible OPFOR courses of action (often termed red teaming), insights in to the geospatial suitability for OPFOR operations can be developed in order to provide enhanced situational awareness and more effective ASW mission planning. For example, this technology could provide the understanding of what corridors are suitable for a covert transit, or determine where high speeds can be maintained for expedient transits, and determine a good location to pump waste. U.S. Navy ASW personnel have gained the ability to assess potential threat trade-offs through years of experience. Their expertise will be used to define trade-offs in the TDA and to assist the operators by providing rapid and comprehensive initial assessment of possible threat locations, enabling the operator to reduce the time to develop mission plans and maintain a higher level of situational awareness.
The desired TDA technologies will provide knowledge representations, geospatial models, and reasoning algorithms that capture this experience and apply it to the current tactical picture in order to understand the suitability of threat operations occurring across an area of interest. The TDA is required to operate with current tactical, environmental and operational data sources, and provide results in a concise format within the ASW mission systems. The small businesses will need to establish a baseline of current performance in particular scenarios provided by the Government to be used for comparison purposes. This understanding will provide ASW commanders with a sound expectation of where OPFOR assets may be operating, enhancing their ability to locate and counter those threats.
PHASE I: The company will define and develop a concept for an innovative Tactical Decision Aid that meets the requirements stated in the topic description. The company will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept in meeting Navy needs and will establish that the concept can be developed into a useful product for the Navy. Testing and analytical modeling will establish feasibility based upon performance in particular scenarios.
PHASE II: Based on the results of Phase I, the company will develop a Tactical Decision Aid prototype for evaluation. The prototype will be evaluated to determine its capability in meeting the performance goals and Navy requirements for an innovative Tactical Decision Aid. System performance will be demonstrated through prototype evaluation and modeling or analytical methods over the required range of parameters. Evaluation results will be used to refine the prototype into an initial design that will meet Navy requirements. The company will prepare a Phase III development plan to transition the technology to Navy use.
PHASE III: The company will support the Navy in transitioning the technology for Navy use. The company will develop an innovative Tactical Decision Aid according to the Phase III development plan for evaluation to determine its effectiveness in an operationally relevant environment. The company will support the Navy for test and validation to certify and qualify the system for Navy use.
PRIVATE SECTOR COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL/DUAL-USE APPLICATIONS: The resulting enhanced suitability analysis capability is widely applicable in commercial applications. The concept of suitability analysis has been widely used in other fields, including urban land use impact and planning, retail site selection, crime prevention, and agriculture site or crop recommendation. This technology would be most applicable for counter terrorism to predict likely targets or training areas and for criminal interdiction predicting high crime areas, smuggling routes or emerging criminal activities.