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Islamic Community seeks resignation of Minister of Religion


http://www.emportal.rs/en/news/serbia/89352.html

27. May 2009. | 11:08

Source: Beta

The Meshihat of the Islamic Community in Serbia on May 25 asked Serbian Religion Minister Bogoljub Sijakovic to resign over the announcement that Mustafa Ceric, the raisu-l-ulema of the Islamic Community of Bosnia-Herzegovina, was not welcome in Serbia.

The Meshihat of the Islamic Community in Serbia on May 25 asked Serbian Religion Minister Bogoljub Sijakovic to resign over the announcement that Mustafa Ceric, the raisu-l-ulema of the Islamic Community of Bosnia-Herzegovina, was not welcome in Serbia.

The Meshihat also asked Serbian President Boris Tadic and Prime Minister Mirko Cvetkovic to distance themselves from the position of the Ministry of Religion.

On May 22, the ministry announced that Ceric was not welcome in Serbia because of threats against Serbia he made during his stay in several cities in Sandzak.

The Islamic Community in Serbia, headed by chief mufti Muamer Zukorlic, which operates within the Riyasat in Bosnia-Herzegovina, has announced that, at an extraordinary session of the Meshihat, the ministry's position had been declared an insult and libel against the utmost authority of Muslims in the Balkans.

The Meshihat concluded that the ministry's view "clearly illustrated" the relationship of state agencies toward Muslims in Serbia, which has resulted in attacks on the autonomy and equality of the Islamic Community.

The religious community also asked Bosniak ministers and MPs to reconsider their participation in the government and parliament of Serbia.

"If the responsible state organs treat these demands irresponsibly, the Meshihat will end its cooperation with the Ministry of Religion," the Meshihat's conclusions state.

There are two Islamic communities in Serbia -- one that is a part of the Riyasat in Bosnia, and the Islamic Community of Serbia, which elected Adem Zilkic as its raisu-l-ulema.

http://acommonword.com/en/a-common-word/11-new-fruits-of-a-common-word/188-a-common-word-wins-the-eugen-biser-award-of-2008.html

A Common Word wins the Eugen Biser Award of 2008




The Eugen Biser Award was conferred on the essential contributors to that thought-provoking Open Letter "A Common Word Between Us and You" to the Christian Churches, dated October 13, 2007

H. R. H. Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad bin Talal


The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Shaykh Al-Habib Ali Zain Al-Abidin Al-Jifri


United Arab Emirates

Reisu-l-Ulema Dr. Mustafa Cerić


Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina

in recognition of their extraordinary contribution to Muslim-Christian dialogue and their consequent and blessed endeavours towards peace among the nations.

The Award was presented at a ceremony in Munich, Germany, on November 22, 2008.

The Council of the Foundation unanimously agreed to grant the Award on those here named. The foundation is conscious of the honour and recognition reflected on it by their willingness to receive the Eugen Biser Award.

Eugen Biser developed his life’s work in dialogue and argument with the original texts of Christianity, with Christianity’s history and not least with the spiritual situation of our own times, which are marked by secularism and atheism. At the core of his thinking is the understanding of God which Jesus transmitted to us – that God is the father of unconditional love. The love of God, which finds concrete expression as the love of one’s neighbour, is the indispensable basis for a Christian existence.

It is difficult to imagine a closer agreement in origin and aim, than that contained in the epochal Open Letter of Muslim Scholars "A Common Word Between Us and You". Inter-religious dialogue - without abandoning one’s own identity - is the duty of both responsible Christians and Muslims, above all since there can and will be no peace among people if there is not peace among the religions.


FrontPageMag.com Articles By Robert Spencer Articles By Hugh Fitzgerald Books Islam 101 Qur'an Commentary Robert Spencer Bio

« Ahmadinejad urges Muslims to unite against "the enemy" | Main | New York Times notices how jihadists echo Nazi Jew-hatred »

February 25, 2009



Jihad gaining ground in Bosnia
The genuine atrocities committed by the Milosevic regime have become an all-purpose excuse for many to ignore the growing influence of the jihad doctrine and Islamic supremacism in the Balkans, and to defame those who oppose the jihad in Bosnia, Kosovo, and the surrounding regions as supporters of fascism and genocide. This includes people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of the principles of non-establishment of religion and the equality of rights of all people before the law as cornerstones of a just society.
For evidence of just how irresponsible and stupid -- and, above all, jihad-abetting -- this is, see this article from today's Spiegel about the spread of jihadism in Sarajevo.
"Islamists Gain Ground in Sarajevo," by Walter Mayr in Spiegel, February 25 (thanks to all who sent this in):
Radical Muslim imams and nationalist politicians from all camps are threatening Sarajevo's multicultural legacy. With the help of Arab benefactors, the deeply devout are acquiring new recruits. In the "Jerusalem of the Balkans," Islamists are on the rise.
The obliteration of Israel is heralded in a torrent of words. "Zionist terrorists," the imam thunders from the glass-enclosed pulpit at the end of the mosque. "Animals in human form" have transformed the Gaza Strip into a "concentration camp," and this marks "the beginning of the end" for the Jewish pseudo-state.
Over 4,000 faithful are listening to the religious service in the King Fahd Mosque, named after the late Saudi Arabian monarch King Fahd Bin Abd al-Asis Al Saud. The women sit separately, screened off in the left wing of the building. It is the day of the Khutbah, the great Friday sermon, and the city where the imam has predicted Israel's demise lies some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) northwest of Gaza.
It is a city in the heart of Europe: Sarajevo.
"Tea or coffee?" Shortly after stepping down from the pulpit, Nezim Halilovic -- the imam and fiery speaker of the King Fahd Mosque -- reveals himself to be the perfect Bosnian host. He has fruits, nuts and sweetened gelatin served in his quarters behind the house of worship. A chastely-dressed wife and four children add themselves to the picture. It's a scene of domestic tranquility that stands in stark contrast to the railing sermon of the controversial Koran scholar.
Familiar Allegations
Sarajevo's King Fahd Mosque was built with millions of Saudi dollars as the largest house of worship for Muslims in the Balkans. The mosque has a reputation as a magnet for Muslim fundamentalists in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the imam is said to be the patron of the Wahhabites, although they call themselves Salafites, after an ultra-conservative movement in Sunni Islam.
Halilovic is familiar with the allegations and the usual accompanying thought patterns: Wahhabite equals al-Qaida, which equals a worldwide terror network. He says he has nothing to do with that, but he "cannot forbid a Muslim from worshiping in my mosque according to his own rites." He explains the general air of suspicion surrounding the King Fahd Mosque as follows: "The West is annoyed that many Muslims are returning to their faith, instead of sneaking by the mosque to the bar, as they used to do, to drink alcohol and eat pork."
Many Bosnians have despised "the West" since 1992, when the United Nations arms embargo seriously impeded the military resistance of the Muslims in their war against the Serb aggressors. It wasn't until four years later, and after 100,000 people had died, that the international community -- at the urging and under the leadership of the US -- finally put an end to the slaughter. Over 80 percent of the dead civilians in the Bosnian War were Muslims.
This traumatic experience left a deep mark on the traditionally cosmopolitan Muslim Bosnians -- and opened the door to the Islamists. Years later, the religious fundamentalists have declared the attacks by Christian Serbs and Croats a "crusade" by infidels -- and painted themselves as the steadfast protectors of Muslim Bosnians.
Imam Halilovic served during the war as commander of the Fourth Muslim Brigade. A photo shows him standing next to a 155 milimeter howitzer, dressed in black combat fatigues, a flowing beard and a scarf wrapped around his head. He witnessed the arrival of the first religious warriors from countries in the Middle East and northern Africa. These fighters brought ideological seeds that have now found fertile ground -- the beliefs of the Salafites, Islamic fundamentalists who orient themselves according to the alleged unique, pure origin of their religion and reject all newer Islamic traditions. [...]
Bosnia's capital city still remains a bustling town with well-stocked bars, concerts and garish advertisements for sexy lingerie. Men with billowing trousers and full beards and women with full-body veils are still a relatively rare sight on the streets. The last reports of sharia militias intervening against public kissing in parks on the outskirts of town date back two years ago.
According to a survey conducted in 2006, however, over 3 percent of all Muslim Bosnians -- over 60,000 men and women -- profess the Wahhabi creed, and an additional 10 percent say that they sympathize with the devout defenders of morals. But since the radicals and their Arab benefactors have been subject to heightened surveillance in the wake of 9/11, they tend to keep a low profile. [...]
The older generation of Muslims in Sarajevo's mosques now has to listen to lectures from bearded missionaries on what is "halal" and "haram" -- lawful and forbidden -- as if they and their ancestors had been living according to a misconception for over half a millennium. To protest this, the imam of the time-honored Emperor's Mosque has temporarily locked the doors of his house of worship -- for the first time in its nearly 450-year history.
This clash of civilizations also takes place in less prominent places, like the Internet forums of the Bosnian Web site Studio Din. Here the heirs of the officially godless, socialist Yugoslavia can learn about the Salafi doctrine. They ask questions that have to do with everyday life -- listening to music, smoking, earning money -- but also questions dealing with clothing and moral rules.
The answers from the preachers on the Web are unequivocal: "Music is forbidden in Islam, listening to instruments is a sin." "Smoking is forbidden in Islam." "Whoever works as a cleaning lady at a bank that charges its customers interest is an accessory to a sin. It's no different than having cleaning ladies in bars and brothels."
In October, 2008, the Baden-Württemberg state branch of the Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Germany's domestic intelligence agency, conducted a study on the Studio Din Web site, which is also regularly visited by Bosnians living in exile. Entries in the forum -- which include discussions on jihad, the holy war, as a direct way of reaching Allah -- indicate time and again visitors from the Wahhabi King Fahd Mosque in Sarajevo, Imam Halilovic's flock.
Could a radical, potentially violent parallel society be emerging in the Muslim dominated region of the war-torn republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, eight months after the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union?
Explosive Belts
There are indications of this. Resid Hafizovic, a professor at the Islamic University, was the first to speak of a "potentially deadly virus" in Bosnian society. The head of the Bosnian federal police has recently admitted that there is a growing threat of "terrorism with an Islamistic character" and has cited indications that suicide bombers have begun to equip themselves with explosive belts.
"They have everything to blow themselves up. Whether they do it depends on the orders from their leaders," says Esad Hecimovic, author of a standard work on the mujahedeen in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Last March, officials of the special anti-terror unit arrested five men, including four Salafites in Sarajevo.
The Bosnian leader of the group, a former fighter in the Al-Mujahedeen Brigade, reportedly has sponsors in Germany and Austria who helped him acquire explosives. In connection with the arrests, police conducted raids in remote mountain areas and seized caches of arms and military equipment that were used for combat training exercises.
After discovering that some of the masterminds behind 9/11, such as Khalid Scheikh Mohammed, had been active in Bosnia, international pressure increased on the government in Sarajevo in 2002. Foundations were closed and police searched the Sarajevo office of the Saudi High Commissioner for Aid to Bosnia, which had until then enjoyed the protection of the United States.
Al-Qaida veteran Ali Hamad from Bahrain and Syrian-born Abu Hamza are currently in custody on the outskirts of Sarajevo and awaiting deportation. Intelligence sources say that Hamza secretly channeled money between Arab sponsors and Bosnian Salafites. The amount of €500 -- an average monthly salary -- is reportedly rewarded for every woman who decides to wear a full-body veil.
The Islamists are slowly but surely permeating the firm ground upon which Sarajevo's society stands. They are influencing men like the quiet, bearded cab driver who waits for customers day after day at the bridge where the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated in June, 1914. On the evening of Sept. 24, 2008, the cabbie suddenly appeared at the front of a protest, right in the midst of those who shouted "Allahu akbar!" at the police line in front the Art Academy of Fine Arts and attacked visitors to Bosnia's first gay and lesbian festival.
Wahhabites scuffled alongside common hooligans. Eight people were injured and all subsequent events were canceled. Srdjan Dizdarevic, chairman of the Bosnian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights -- an independent, nonprofit organization for the protection, promotion and monitoring of human rights in Bosnia-Herzegovina -- spoke afterwards of a defeat for civil society, of "fascist rhetoric" leading up to the incident, and called it reminiscent of the "pogroms that happened in the times of Adolf Hitler."
'We Are only Interested in Opening Ourselves as an Islamic Society'
The fact of the matter is that politicians from all parties are playing the background music to a radicalization that threatens not just the secular character of Bosnia, but also the unity of this country comprised of Muslims, Serbs and Croats. This includes some local politicians who have demanded that school classes be strictly divided according to religious confessions -- and in December, 2008 obtained the first ban affecting state-run daycare centers in Sarajevo. The ban concerned the Christian Santa Claus who, until then, even Muslim children had revered as "Little Father Frost." [...]
[Bosnian Mufti Mustafa] Ceric has never left any doubts about his deep roots in the liberal Bosnian Islamic tradition. But the fact that he does not shy away from maintaining close contacts with the Salafit camp, including one-time Osama bin Laden mentor Sheikh Salman al-Auda from Saudi Arabia, has drawn criticism. "Totally unfounded," says Ceric: "We are only interested in opening ourselves as an Islamic society."
Sure enough, he recently even allowed a woman and her film crew to enter the King Fahd Mosque. The huge, Saudi monumental style building made of gray-brown sprinkled marble looks like a UFO -- complete with antennas shaped like minarets -- stranded among high-rise apartment buildings on the edge of Sarajevo. [...]
The film was about a man who became an "Islamist." Read it all.
Bosnian Serb analysts criticize Islamic head's mention of jihad during sermon

BBC Monitoring Europe (Political) - October 27, 2006, Friday

Text of report by D. Momic entitled "Old note of politics", published by Bosnian Serb newspaper Glas Srpske on 27 October - subheading as published

Reis-ul-Ulema Mustafa Ceric, Islamic Community leader in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in his address to the faithful on the first day of Bairam in Sarajevo's central mosque, sent a political message for an umpteenth time.

Ceric said that "the Muslims in B-H have experienced having to move, and jihad [holy war]". He asked them "to pay respect to those who died for their faith, that is, to shahids [martyrs]," thereby recognizing that the Muslims waged a religious war in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Sociologist Ivan Sijakovic believes that Ceric's words can be interpreted in two ways, but he emphasizes that, because of the general atmosphere in the world, one needs to be very cautious when mentioning the word jihad.

"The jihad for Muslims means a holy war for liberation, while for the civilized Western world, it is associated with terrorism and the imposition of faith by force," Sijakovic has said.

This is exactly the reason, in Professor Sijakovic's opinion, why religious leaders must be cautious, and they should not send such messages, particularly not during the week of the greatest Muslim holiday, because this is the day when there should be talk about peace, tolerance, and the importance of faith.

"Such messages are not of a religious nature and do not deal with the spiritual relationship between God and people. Once this line is crossed, one enters into political waters," Sijakovic said.

However, this is not surprising, he says, because there has been an evident aspiration recently expressed by the Islamic Community and its leader in Bosnia-Hercegovina to interfere in what is not their business.

"The Islamic Community wishes to play a dominant role in society and to impose its opinion, to behave as someone who sets up moral criteria. This will definitely not place B-H among secular and democratic countries, which is not good," Prof Sijakovic concludes.

Political analyst Tanja Topic agrees with Sijakovic, and says that jihad is "a loaded word, particularly in our situation".

"We know that there are still three truths in Bosnia-Hercegovina about the war, so any mention of jihad surely represents a step backward in establishing trust among the ethnic groups in Bosnia-Hercegovina," Topic says, adding that mentioning jihad is not in the spirit of the greatest Muslim holiday.

Besides, Topic notes, we should not forget that the religious institutions and their leaders are very influential in Bosnia-Hercegovina, and their words carry much more weight than those of the politicians.

She agrees with Sijakovic that the Islamic Community and Reis-ul-Ulema Ceric have tried for a long time to assume a dominant role in B-H social and political life.

"The best illustration of this is the recent election. By openly supporting Haris Silajdzic, Ceric ensured him a seat in the B-H Presidency, because Ceric's words have the strongest influence on the Bosniaks [Muslims]," Topic has said.

In her view, the state must solve this problem, because the religious institutions must be shown their place, and their political influence must be reduced.


http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a96ciareport#a96ciareport



International Islamic Relief Organization logo. [Source: International Islamic Relief Organization]The CIA creates a report for the State Department detailing support for terrorism from prominent Islamic charities. The report, completed just as the Bosnian war is winding down, focuses on charity fronts that have helped the mujaheddin in Bosnia. It concludes that of more than 50 Islamic nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in existence, “available information indicates that approximately one-third… support terrorist groups or employ individuals who are suspected of having terrorist connections.” The report notes that most of the offices of NGOs active in Bosnia are located in Zagreb, Sarajevo, Zenica, and Tuzla. There are coordination councils there organizing the work of the charity fronts. The report notes that some charities may be “backed by powerful interest groups,” including governments. “We continue to have evidence that even high ranking members of the collecting or monitoring agencies in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Pakistan - such as the Saudi High Commission - are involved in illicit activities, including support for terrorists.” The Wall Street Journal will later comment, “Disclosure of the report may raise new questions about whether enough was done to cut off support for terrorism before the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001… and about possible involvement in terrorism by Saudi Arabian officials.” [Central Intelligence Agency, 1/1996; Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2003] The below list of organizations paraphrases or quotes the report, except for informational asides in parentheses.
The International Islamic Relief Organization (IIRO). “The IIRO is affiliated with the Muslim World League, a major international organization largely financed by the government of Saudi Arabia.” The IIRO has funded Hamas, Algerian radicals, Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya (a.k.a. the Islamic Group, an Egyptian radical militant group led by Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman), Ramzi Yousef, and six militant training camps in Afghanistan. “The former head of the IIRO office in the Philippines, Mohammad Jamal Khalifa, has been linked to Manila-based plots to target the Pope and US airlines; his brother-in-law is Osama bin Laden.”
Al Haramain Islamic Foundation. It has connections to Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya and helps support the mujaheddin battalion in Zenica. Their offices have been connected to smuggling, drug running, and prostitution.
Human Concern International, headquartered in Canada. Its Swedish branch is said to be smuggling weapons to Bosnia. It is claimed “the entire Peshawar office is made up of [Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya] members.” The head of its Pakistan office (Ahmed Said Khadr) was arrested recently for a role in the bombing of the Egyptian embassy in Pakistan (see November 19, 1995). (It will later be discovered that Khadr is a founder and major leader of al-Qaeda (see Summer 2001 and January 1996-September 10, 2001).)
Third World Relief Agency (TWRA). Headquartered in Sudan, it has ties to Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya. “The regional director of the organization, Elfatih Hassanein, is the most influential [charity] official in Bosnia. He is a major arms supplier to the government, according to clandestine and press reporting, and was forced to relocate his office from Zagreb in 1994 after his weapons smuggling operations were exposed. According to a foreign government service, Hassanein supports US Muslim extremists in Bosnia.” One TWRA employee alleged to also be a member of Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya carried out a suicide car bombing in Rijeka, Croatia (see October 20, 1995).
The Islamic African Relief Agency (IARA). Based in Sudan, it has offices in 30 countries. It is said to be controlled by Sudan’s ruling party and gives weapons to the Bosnian military in concert with the TWRA. (The US government will give the IARA $4 million in aid in 1998 (see February 19, 2000).)
Benevolence International Foundation (BIF) (the report refers to it by an alternate name, Lajnat al-Birr al-Islamiyya (LBI)). It supports mujaheddin in Bosnia. It mentions “one Zagreb employee, identified as Syrian-born US citizen Abu Mahmud,” as involved in a kidnapping in Pakistan (see July 4, 1995). [Central Intelligence Agency, 1/1996] (This is a known alias (Abu Mahmoud al Suri) for Enaam Arnaout, the head of BIF’s US office.) [USA v. Enaam M. Arnaout, 10/6/2003, pp. 37 ] This person “matches the description… of a man who was allegedly involved in the kidnapping of six Westerners in Kashmir in July 1995, and who left Pakistan in early October for Bosnia via the United States.”
Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), a.k.a. Al-Kifah. This group has ties to Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden, Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, and possibly Hezbollah. Both the former director of its Zagreb office [Kamer Eddine Kherbane] and his deputy [Hassan Hakim] were senior members of Algerian extremist groups. Its main office in Peshawar, Pakistan, funds at least nine training camps in Afghanistan. “The press has reported that some employees of MAK’s New York branch were involved in the World Trade Center bombing [in 1993].” (Indeed, the New York branch, known as the Al-Kifah Refugee Center, is closely linked to the WTC bombing and the CIA used it as a conduit to send money to Afghanistan (see January 24, 1994).
Muwafaq Foundation. Registered in Britain but based in Sudan, it has many offices in Bosnia. It has ties to Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya and “helps fund the Egyptian Mujahedin Battalion in Bosnia” and “at least one training camp in Afghanistan” (see 1991-1995).
Qatar Charitable Society, based in Qatar. It has possible ties to Hamas and Algerian militants. A staff member in Qatar is known to be a Hamas operative who has been monitored discussing militant operations. (An al-Qaeda defector will later reveal that in 1993 he was told this was one of al-Qaeda’s three most important charity fronts (see 1993)).
Red Crescent (Iran branch). Linked to the Iranian government, it is “Often used by the Iranian [intelligence agency] as cover for intelligence officers, agents, and arms shipments.”
Saudi High Commission. “The official Saudi government organization for collecting and disbursing humanitarian aid.” Some members possibly have ties to Hamas and Algerian militants (see 1996 and After).
Other organizations mentioned are the Foundation for Human Rights, Liberties, and Humanitarian Relief (IHH) (a.k.a. the International Humanitarian Relief Organization), Kuwait Joint Relief Committee (KJRC), the Islamic World Committee, and Human Appeal International. [Central Intelligence Agency, 1/1996]
After 9/11, former National Security Council official Daniel Benjamin will say that the NSC repeatedly questioned the CIA with inquiries about charity fronts. “We knew there was a big problem between [charities] and militants. The CIA report “suggests they were on the job, and, frankly, they were on the job.” [Wall Street Journal, 5/9/2003] However, very little action is taken on the information before 9/11. None of the groups mentioned will be shut down or have their assets seized.


Letter From Sarajevo

By Brian Whitmore


This article appeared in the August 18, 2003 edition of The Nation.
http://www.thenation.com/doc/20030818/whitmore

July 31, 2003


Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina

The Rev. Franklin Graham ought to visit Sarajevo. So, for that matter, should anybody else who thinks Islam "is a very evil and wicked religion," as Graham said it was shortly after the September 11 attacks; or that it is extreme and violent, as the conservative Christian televangelist Pat Robertson said of the faith last year.



And while strolling the smooth cobblestone streets of the Bosnian capital's Old Town, anybody holding such views might do well to stop in the city's Central Mosque and listen to what Grand Mufti Mustafa Ceric, leader of the nation's 1.6 million Muslims, has to say. In his speeches, Ceric has been known to quote the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi as often as he cites the Koran. He has also led calls for an "Islamic avant-garde" to promote human rights and democracy; frequently celebrates the historic and spiritual links among Islam, Christianity and Judaism; and implores Muslims to be careful about using words like "jihad." To Muslims, Ceric says, the word "may mean many good things, but to non-Muslims it means only one thing: violent actions against their faith." For Bosnian Muslims to live among other religions in a small country, he says, is a sign of strength rather than weakness. "I believe neither the weak nor the aggressive will inherit the earth, but the cooperative," Ceric said in a 2001 speech in Vienna titled "Islam Against Terrorism."

Ceric is about as tolerant and ecumenical as religious leaders come. But his views are neither unique nor on the liberal fringe here. Rather, they tend to reflect and reinforce those of the vast majority of Bosnia's Muslims, who make up 44 percent of the country's 3.7 million people. Despite a genocidal war from 1992 to 1995, in which Muslims were the main victims, Islam in Bosnia remains an astonishingly broad-minded faith that has largely made its peace with other religions, the West, modernity, democracy and the separation of mosque and state. This has remained true despite an influx of fundamentalists during the war who--funded largely by the Saudis and preaching the strict Wahhabi form of Islam--have led efforts to radicalize the country.
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