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Wild Raspberry Rubus Rosifolius aka


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Wild Raspberry 
Rubus Rosifolius 
aka: Mauritius raspberry, roseleaf raspberry, thimbleberry

Family: ROSACEAE









This "weed" grows profusely on our land and we have heard tales of it "taking over" underutilised pasture very rapidly. The plant is listed by PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk) as a plant species which is “threatening Pacific island ecosystems”. 

However our experience is that after about 5 years in an area the plants seem to have accomplished what they came to do and they become sparse and weak, making way for other species to flourish. 

We enjoy early mornings gathering their wild fruit for breakfast. What a delight to enjoy these natural abundant nutritional gifts from Nature.







  Wild Raspberry, Mauritius raspberry, or thimbleberry at Middle Path  

A great help with childbirth



A friend came to our place 2 days before her baby was due and we made her up 2 large bottles of tea made from the leaves and she drank the tea often before and during her labour. With her first child she had a 16 hour labour and lots of pain during the delivery, with this one she had an hour and a half labour and experienced a drug-free labour and relatively pain-free delivery. 

Red Raspberry is well known for making birthing easier and safer. It strengthens the uterus and entire reproductive system therefore it is great to take throughout the entire pregnancy. 
and with cancer too!

The University of the West Indies Department of Chemistry in Jamaica carried out research [1] confirming that the Ursolic Acid in the fruit of the Red Raspberry (Rubus rosifolius) displayed inhibition of cancer cells in breast, lung and colon tumours and was also tested for anti-inflamatory activity. 

Red Raspberry fruit is the very best source of ellagic acid [2] a phenolic compound known for its very potent anticarcinogenic and anti-mutagenic properties tested on cervical cancer, skin cancer, liver, lung and esophygus cancer with great results. 






Wild Raspberry - a great help with childbirth
and now found to be excellent for cancers




 

The red raspberry leaf also contains many essential minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, and an easily assimilated form of calcium. An increased availability of calcium is necessary in controlling nerve response to pain during childbirth and in aiding bone development in the fetus. It also contains fragrine, an alkaloid which helps tone the muscles of the pelvic region including the uterus.

A study [3] at Clemson University (CU) in South Carolina found that raspberries are a powerful weapon against cancer. Researchers said in tests, raspberry extracts successfully destroyed about 90 percent of stomach, colon, and breast cancer cells.

Raspberries are rich in powerful antioxidants, which are known to be powerful cancer fighters. But the research team from the CU Department of Nursing believe that some other substance in raspberries is also responsible for their anti-cancer effect. 

In their study [3] they found the extract of Red Raspberries to be 8 times more effective than Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) solution with more antioxidants, clearly indicating that some other substance is responsible for the destruction of cancer cells. Looks like the Ellagic acid and Ursolic acid may be the contributors. 

Ursolic Acid in the fruit of the Red Raspberry (Rubus rosifolius) displayed inhibition of cancer cells in breast, lung and colon tumours




Wild Raspberry is well known to be useful for

 

  • Easing Childbirth

  • Painful Menstruation

  • Diarrhea

  • Flu

  • Morning Sickness

  • As an anti-inflamatory

Taken as a tea dried or fresh. The fruit is a rich source of Vitamin C. 

Other names for Wild Raspberry Rubus Rosifolius



 

  • Mauritius raspberry

  • Roseleaf raspberry

  • Thimbleberry

  • Roseleaf Bramble

  • West Indian raspberry




 






Wild Raspberries












Our Wild Raspberry is clearly related to the better-known and sweeter raspberry (Rubus idaeus) which can be found in season in fruiterers. 



from the Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism:

Rubus idaeus L ROSACEA
Raspberry 

Like so many wild fruits the Raspberry has been known and used since pre-history in Europe, fragments of the berry being found in archaeological excavations of Swiss villages. Cultivation began in the Middle Ages, and the many European raspberry cultivars are all developed from this wild species. Prior to 1866 (at which time over 4I varieties were known in the United States of America) all American types were also from R. idaeus. They are now also developed from R. ulmifolius Schott, R. ursinus Cham and Schlechtend, R, occidentalis L. Rubus is from the Latin for red, and idaeus means 'of Mount lea', after its abundance on Mount lda. 



Description Upright or bent perennial 90-I50 cm tall, with varying degrees of prickles or sometimes entirely lacking them. Leaves: glabrous above, grey tomentose beneath, comprising 3 or 5 ovate leaflets. Flowers small, 1 -6 in drooping panicles in terminal axils, appearing early to mid-summer, followed by aromatic fleshy cone-shaped red to yellow fruit. 

Distribution Eurasian native, introduced and widespread. In woodland clearings and edges, especially deciduous woodlands. On light soil, moist and rich in nutrients, to 2000 m in altitude. 

Cultivation Wild. Numerous cultivars propagated by suckers or root cuttings. Canes should be removed after fruiting to allow new ones (primocanes) to develop. Tolerates most soils. 

Constituents (leaves) Fragarine and other substances, acting in isolation as both uterine muscle stimulants and relaxants. (fruit) Citric acid; vitamin C; pectin. 

Uses (fresh or dried leaves, fruit) Astringent; oxytocie; nutritive; laxative. The leaf is of proven value during confinement, if taken regularly and in small doses as an infusion - it eases and speeds parturition. In larger doses the leaf is of benefit in painful menstruation and also in diarrhoea. In large amounts the fruit is mildly laxative. The fruit was formerly employed in a variety of pharmaceutical and herbal products as a flavouring and colouring. Edible fruit is of economic importance. 

Used in wines, liqueurs, vinegars, syrups, and for other confectionery, culinary and some cosmetic purposes.




External links:



 

  • Wikipedia

  • PlantNET

  • Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

References

#

 

Source

 

Title

[1]

ScienceDirect

Ursolic acid analogues: non-phenolic functional food components in Jamaican raspberry fruits

[2]

Nutrition Health Review

Ellagic acid in red raspberries found to prevent cancer

[3]

naturalnews.com

Discover the cancer-fighting power of raspberries

Source : http://middlepath.com.au/plant/Wild-raspberry_Rubus-rosifolius_Rosaceae.php


      

Taxonomic name: Rubus rosifolius Sm
Synonyms: Rubus commersonnii Poir., Rubus coronariusRubus eustephanos var. coronariusRubus rosaefolius Smith, Rubus rosifolius Smith var. coronarius Sims, Rubus rosifolius var. commersoniiRubus rosifolius var. rosifolius
Common names: akala (Hawai'i), akalakala (Hawai'i), forest bramble (English), framboisier (French), frambueso de Africa (Spanish), Mauritius raspberry (English), native bramble (English-Australia), native raspberry (English-Australia), ola'a (Hawaii), roseleaf raspberry (English), thimbleberry (English)
Organism type: tree, shrub

Rubus rosifolius is a prickly shrub that produces edible red berries. It is valued for a number of culinary and medicinal purposes. This species has become invasive in Hawai‘i and French Polynesia, where it is capable of intruding into the understory of rainforests. Prickly stems and an ability to form dense thickets make R. rosifolius undesirable in many areas.

Description
Rubus rosifolius is a pinnate leaved species. Erect to trailing shrub up to 2m or more in height. Stems are sparsely covered with prickles 1-4mm long. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, 7-18cm long, with 3-7 leaflets. Inflorescence mostly of solitary, terminal or axillary flowers. Calyx of 5 lanceolate sepals 1.4 - 2.5cm long, tomentose. Corolla of 5 white, obovate petals 1 - 2cm long. Stamens many, free. Ovaries many. Fruit a subglobose, red, multiple fruit 2 - 3.5cm long, easily detaching from the receptacle. The red fruits are somewhat conical in shape, longer than they are wide. 

There are two varieties of R. rosifolius that differ only in the number of petals. Rubus rosifolius var. commersonii has 9-13 petals, while Rubus rosifolius var. rosifolius has five (Bean, 2001).



Occurs in:
natural forests, ruderal/disturbed, scrub/shrublands

Habitat description
Occurs naturally in forest margins, clearings and gullies. Invades understory of moist forests. Grows to over 2000m elevation in Tahiti, and to 1730m in Hawai'i (PIER, 2002). Prefers light soil that is moist and nutrient-rich. In Australia where it is native it is found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest from Tasmania to Qld

General impacts
Threatens many native plants on the Hawai‘ian Islands through overcrowding and competition (US EPA, 2002). Is able to form dense thickets when adequate sunlight is available. Can climb using hooks on the stems and prickles on the leaves (BRAIN, 2002).

Uses
Fruit is edible and sweet-tasting. Can be made into jams, pies and preserves. Leaves can be made into tea, which can be helpful for painful menstruation, childbirth, flu, and morning sickness. Aboriginal people in Australia used a decoction of the leaves as a traditional treatment for diarrhea (Notman, 2000). The fruit is a mild laxative if eaten in large quantities.
Can be used for regeneration of disturbed sites within its native range in Australia (Greening Australia NSW, 2003). Seen as a good native species to use for the replacement of invasive blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) in Australia.
Used as an ornamental plant (NCCPG, 2001).

Notes
Rubus rosifolius is susceptible to strawberry mild yellow edge-associated potexvirus it is transmitted by a vector; an insect; Chaetosiphon fragaraefolii belonging to family Aphididae. It is transmitted in a non-persistent manner. The virus possibly requires, for vector transmission, a helper virus (strawberry mild yellow edge luteovirus); transmitted by mechanical inoculation and by grafting (Brunt et al., 1996).

Geographical range
Native range: Asia, Australia, China, Taiwan.
Known introduced range: New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Indonesia, Malaysia, La Réunion, Mauritius, Rapa, Hawai‘i, French Polynesia.

Introduction pathways to new locations
For ornamental purposes: In some countries it is grown for its flowers (NCCPG, 2001).

Local dispersal methods
Consumption/excretion: Seeds are dispersed by birds and rodents that eat the fruit (PIER, 2002).
For ornamental purposes (local): In some countries it is grown for its flowers (NCCPG, 2001).

Management information
There is no specific management information for Rubus rosifolius, but techniques used for the control of blackberry Rubus fruticosus agg which is a related species, may be applicable. These are outlined below.

Preventative measures: Maintenance of soil fertility and pasture may reduce infestations.

Physical: Tractor and rotary slasher, hand cutting.

Chemical: there are a range of herbicides that can be used for the control of blackberry, including those that are glyphosate-based, such as Roundup®. These are usually applied by spraying, using a knapsack or mistblower for smaller infestations, or handgun and hose for larger ones (EBOP, 2002).

Biological: Goats (Capra hircus) are able to control infestations through grazing. Care must be taken with this approach however, as goats are a known invasive species as well.

Reproduction
Seeds spread by birds and rodents that have ingested fruit (PIER, 2002). Can also spread via suckers that develop from arching canes (MPAS, 2002).

Lifecycle stages
Seeds have germination successs of about 90% after 12 weeks (Greening Australia NSW, 2003).

Reviewed by: Robyn Barker, Honorary Research Associate Plant Biodiversity Centre Dept for Environment & Heritage. Australia.

Principal sources: PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems At Risk), 2003. Rubus rosifolious

Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group 
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment




To contribute information, please contact Shyama Pagad.

Last Modified: Monday, October 04, 2010
Source : http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?fr=1&si=500
Distribution
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Rubus rosifolius in the Global Invasive Species Database.

Click a country or multicountry feature for distribution records:



   Alien Range



French Polynesia (Polynésie Française)
Guadeloupe
Martinique
Mayotte
New Caledonia (Nouvelle Calédonie)
Reunion (La Réunion)
Saint Helena
Swaziland
United States (USA)

   Biostatus not specified



Australia
Thailand

   Native Range


Australia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Mauritius
Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islands
Vanuatu
Source : http://www.issg.org/database/species/distribution.asp?si=500&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN
Management info
Management Information 

There is no specific management information for Rubus rosifolius, but techniques used for the control of blackberry Rubus fruticosus agg which is a related species, may be applicable. These are outlined below.



Preventative measures: Maintenance of soil fertility and pasture may reduce infestations.

Physical: Tractor and rotary slasher, hand cutting.

Chemical: there are a range of herbicides that can be used for the control of blackberry, including those that are glyphosate-based, such as Roundup®. These are usually applied by spraying, using a knapsack or mistblower for smaller infestations, or handgun and hose for larger ones (EBOP, 2002).

Biological: Goats (Capra hircus) are able to control infestations through grazing. Care must be taken with this approach however, as goats are a known invasive species as well.      

         Location Specific Management Information



French Polynesia (Polynésie Française)  
Decree No. 65 CM of January 23, 2006 presents a list of 35 invasive plants declared to be "Species that threaten biodiversity", one of which is Rubus rosifolius. These plants are subject to a ban on new imports, propagation and planting, and prohibition of transfer from one island to another of any whole plant, fragment of plant, cutting, fruit or seed. Their destruction is permitted.


         Management Resources/Links 

1. Environment (B.O.P) Bay of Plenty.


        Summary: An excellent source of information on the control of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.). Methods outlined may be applicable for control of invasive populations of Rubus rosifolius. Outlines methods and equipment for mechanical control, pasture & stock management, and herbicide use. 
Found at: http://www.envbop.govt.nz/weeds/weed26.asp [Accessed 02 December 2002].

2. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.


        Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.

3. PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk) 2005. Rubus rosifolius


        Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information. Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 9 November 2005]

4. PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Rubus rosifolius


        Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 3 June 2003]

5. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database., Undated. Rubus rosifolius


        Summary: A database of Swaziland's alien plant species.

6. Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.


        Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]

         Results Page: 1  

Source : http://www.issg.org/database/species/management_info.asp?si=500&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN

28 references found for Rubus rosifolius:

Management information

1. Environment (B.O.P) Bay of Plenty.



Summary: An excellent source of information on the control of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.). Methods outlined may be applicable for control of invasive populations of Rubus rosifolius. Outlines methods and equipment for mechanical control, pasture & stock management, and herbicide use. 
Found at: http://www.envbop.govt.nz/weeds/weed26.asp [Accessed 02 December 2002].

2. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.



Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.

3. PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk) 2005. Rubus rosifolius



Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information. Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 9 November 2005]

4. PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Rubus rosifolius



Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 3 June 2003]

5. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database., Undated. Rubus rosifolius



Summary: A database of Swaziland's alien plant species.

6. Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.



Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General references

7. Baret, S., Rouget, M., Richardson, D. M., Lavergne, C., Egoh, B., Dupont, J., & Strasberg, D. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology, 31, 747-758.



Summary: L'objectif de ce papier est d'identifier les zones prioritaires en matière de gestion des invasions biologiques à La Réunion en modélisant la distribution actuelle et potentiellle d'une sélection de plantes parmi les plus envahissantes.

8. Bean, Tony. 2001. Queensland Raspberries. Australian Plants Online, Copyright © Farrer Centre, Charles Sturt University.



Summary: Good information on the Rubus species native to Queensland, Australia.
Available from: http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/APOL22/jun01-1.html [Accessed 02 December 2002].

9. Binggeli, P. 2003. The human dimensions of invasive woody plants. Woody plant Ecology.



Summary: One piece of distribution information. 
Available from: http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/docs/gisp-iwp.rtf [Accessed 10 June, 2003].

10. BRAIN, 2002. Brisbane Rainforest Action & Information Network.



Summary: A small amount of general information . 
Available from: http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au/vines/vines13.html [Accessed 13 June, 2003].

11. Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). `Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996.



Summary: Has information on a virus that R. rosifolius is susceptible to. .' 
Available from: http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ [Accessed 28 November 2002].

12. Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Rubus rosifolius Index de la flore vasculaire de la Réunion (Trachéophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1



Summary: Base de données sur la flore de la Réunion. De nombreuses informations très utiles. 
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=5cd7edbe7a1a668fdc63c138002cc43a [Accessed 9 April 2008]

13. Flora of Thailand, 2003.



Summary: Has two synonyms. 
Available from: http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/Flora/species%20list/volume2/Rosaceae.htm [Accessed 13 June, 2003].

14. Florence J., Chevillotte H., Ollier C. & Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Rubus rosifolius Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie française (PAP).



Summary: Available from: http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=3225 [Accessed 9 April 2008]

15. Fournet, J. 2002. Flore illustrée des phanérogames de guadeloupe et de Martinique. CIRAD-Gondwana editions.


16. Gargominy, O., Bouchet, P., Pascal, M., Jaffre, T. and Tourneu, J. C. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie.. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51: 375-401.



Summary: Consequences to the biodiversity of New Caledonia of the introduction of plant and animal species.

17. Greening Australia NSW, 2003.



Summary: Small amount of information on how to grow R. rosifolius.

18. ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Rubus rosifolius



Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Rubus+rosifolius&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]

19. Macdonald, I.A.W., Thébaud, C., Strahm, W.A., & Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects on alien plant invasions on native végétation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation, 18, 51-61.



Summary: Cet article est le premier à proposer une hiérarchisation des plantes les plus envahissantes de La Réunion. 33 plantes ont été ainsi classées en utilisant une méthode développée en Afrique du Sud. Les bases d'une stratégie de lutte contre les plantes exotiques envahissantes sont également formulées.

20. MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.



Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (espèces, sous espèces et variétés) introduits en Nouvelle-Calédonie. L'auteur précise dans la majorité des cas si l'espèce est cultivée ou naturalisée.

21. Meyer, J.-Y. 2000. Invasive plants in the Pacific Islands. In: The Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. Sherley, G. (tech. ed). Published in June 2000 by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP).



Summary: Resource that includes the distribution of invasive species throughout the Pacific Islands.

22. Meyer, J.-Y. 2004. Threat of invasive alien plants to native flora and forest vegetation of eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science, 58, 357-375



Summary: Dans cet article, la menace croissante des plantes exotiques envahissantes est discutée et les espèces les plus envahissantes sont décrites. Des hypothèses sur l'invasibilité des îles sont présentées à la lumière des observations et des données récoltées.

23. Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l'archipel néo-calédonien : première évaluation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les espèces envahissantes dans l’archipel néo-calédonien, Paris, IRD Éditions, 260 p.+ cédérom.


24. MPSA (Middle Path Awareness Sanctuary), 2002. Wild Raspberry - Rubus rosifolius, L. Rosaceae.



Summary: Has information on homeopathic uses for R. rosifolius Available from: http://middlepath.com.au/plant/raspberry.html [Accessed 28 November 2002]

25. NCCPG, 2001. National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens.



Summary: Minimal information on a cultivated variety of R. rosifolius
Available from: http://www.manntaylor.com/plantweek9c.html [Accessed 13 June, 2003]

26. Notman, A. 2000. Roseleaf Raspberry. Rumbalara Environmental Education Centre.



Summary: Distribution information, uses, and history of the plant.
Available from: http://www.rumbalara-e.schools.nsw.edu.au/bushtucker/Rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 13 June, 2003].

27. US EPA, 2002. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determinations of Prudency and Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe, Hawaii.



Summary: Information on Hawaiian species that are endangered by R. rosifolius
Available from: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-SPECIES/2000/December/Day-18/e31078.htm [Accessed 13 June, 2003].

28. Whistler, W.A. 1995. Wayside Plants of the Islands: a guide to the lowland flora of the Pacific Islands. Isle Botanica, Hawaii.



Summary: Has useful descriptions and very good photos of a wide range of plant species found in the Pacific Islands.
Source : http://www.issg.org/database/species/references.asp?si=500&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN
Contact
     The followings  3 contacts offer information and advice on Rubus rosifolius: 
1. Baret, Stéphane (Parc national de La Réunion, Chargé de mission flore)

Geographic region: Indian Ocean 
Ecosystem: Terrestrial


Email: stephane.baret@reunion-parcnational.fr

Address: 112 rue Ste Marie - 97400 St Denis

Phone: 02 62 90 79 06

Fax: 02 62 90 11 39

2. Lavergne, Christophe (Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin)

Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial


Email: clavergne@cbnm.org

Address: 2 rue du Père Georges Domaine des Colimaçons 97436 SAINT LEU

Phone: (33) 02 62 24 92 27

3. Meyer, Jean-Yves (Délégation à la Recherche)

Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial 
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.


Email: jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf

Address: Délégation à la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polynésie française. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française

Phone: 689 47 25 60
Source : http://www.issg.org/database/species/contacts.asp?si=500&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN


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