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Vertebrates- have a backbone


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  1. Vertebrates- have a backbone

    1. Mammalia

      1. General characteristics

        1. Body hair

        2. Nurse their young with milk

      2. Three subclasses

        1. Marsupials

        2. Monotremes

        3. Placental Mammals

      3. Question: What is the difference between a marsupial and placental mammals?

    2. Amphibia

      1. General characteristics

        1. large bony endoskeleton

        2. split time between land and water

        3. four legs

      2. Three subclasses

        1. Caudata- Newts and salamanders (urodeles)

        2. Salientia- Frogs and toads (anurans)

        3. Gymnophiona- Caecilians

      3. Question: What determines when an amphibian reaches adulthood?

    3. Reptilia

      1. General characteristics

        1. They usually lay eggs but some can actually give birth to their young

        2. They are cold blooded

      2. Question: What types of animals did reptiles descend from?

    4. Aves

      1. General characteristics

        1. They have horney beaks and no teeth

        2. They are feathered

        3. They lay large yolked, hard-shelled eggs, and the parents take care of thier offspring until they are grown

      2. Question: Why do birds have different beak shapes?

    5. Pisces

      1. General characteristics

        1. Breathe through gills

      2. Three subclasses

        1. Agnantha- lack of jaw and paired fins

        2. Chondrichthyes- lack true bone but have skeleton made of cartilage

        3. Osteichthyes- bony fish with a stiffer skeleton reinforced by calcium salts

      3. Question: How do some fish remain buoyant in water?

  2. Invertebrates- do not have a backbone

    1. Arthropods

      1. General characteristics

        1. Exoskeleton

        2. Bilaterally symmetrical

        3. Segmented bodies (head, thorax, and abdomen)

      2. Question: What are three common arthropods?

    2. Echinoderms

      1. General characteristics

        1. Radial symmetry

        2. All sea dwelling

        3. Larva are free swimming bilaterally symmetrical but adults live on the sea floor and have radial symmetry

        4. Endoskeleton

      2. Question: How do echinoderms move?

    3. Lophophorata

      1. General characteristics

        1. Aquatic invertebrates

        2. U-shaped digestive tract

        3. Posess a ring of ciliated, hollow tenticles called a lophophore

      2. Three subphyla

        1. Phoronida

        2. Ectoprocta

        3. Brachiopoda

      3. Question: What is the lophophore used for?

    4. Worm Phyla

      1. General characteristics

        1. Bilaterally symmetrical

      2. Three phyla

        1. Nematoda - round worms (microscopic soil worms)

        2. Annelida - segmented worms (earthworms, leaches)

        3. Platyhelminthes - flat worms (parasitic worms)

      3. Question: How many round worms can there be in a cubic meter?

    5. Molluscus

      1. General characteristics

        1. Unsegmented soft body

        2. Most have internal or external shell

        3. Have a mantle (fold in the body wall that lines the shell)

        4. Muscular foot and/or tentacles

      2. Question: How do all mollusks appear similar?

  3. Ecology

    1. Animals interact in a variety of ways

      1. Food web, trophic structure, energy pyramids

    2. Primary consumers, secondary consumers, top predators all interact with one another

    3. Question: What will happen to the top predators if a species of primary consumers dies off?

  4. Evolution

    1. All animals evolved from an ancient common ancestor

    2. Cladograms

      1. Used to divide animals

      2. Each level of the cladogram divides the animals into the major phyla

    3. Question: Draw a cladogram with at least six animals and write the characteristics that divide each level.


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