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Tossups round 1 center of the known universe open/rollapalooza 1999


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TOSSUPS -- ROUND 1 CENTER OF THE KNOWN UNIVERSE OPEN/ROLLAPALOOZA 1999

1. The 20 men in it must have been in for 8 florins apiece, for they had to chip in to pay the 160- florin commission. Seems like the musketeer in red on the left side should have paid more than the one guy whose face is blocked by the black-suited captain in the center. FTP give either the proper name of this depiction of a company at arms at the moment they march off, or the common nickname inaccurately given after years of dirt and neglect to this masterpiece by Rembrandt.

Answer: The Company of Captain Franz Banning-Cocq, or The Night Watch
2. He was heavily influenced by Max Scheler, a former disciple of Edmund Husserl, and you can clearly see phenomenology used as his philosophical method in his major treatise, The Acting Person. But his thesis was on the concept of faith in St. John of the Cross, and his intellectual conservatism was evident in his rebuking of Hans Kung. FTP name this former quarry worker, actor, poet, and playwright who since late 1978 has had access to the exclusive vacation retreat of Castel Gandolfo and the protection of Swiss Guards.
Answer: John Paul II (or Karol Wojtyla; prompt on “the pope”)
3. His son, Michael, was the producer of Two Girls and a Guy and The Money Shot, and figures to be the next Mr. Marla Maples. He himself has been in several films, with notable appearances as Stanford White in Ragtime and as himself in When We Were Kings. Of course, his most noteworthy contribution to filmdom are his novels that have been filmed, such as An American Dream (1966) and Tough Guys Don’t Dance (1987), which he directed. For 10 points, name this American author, winner of the 1969 non-fiction and 1980 fiction Pulitzers, the latter for The Executioner’s Song.

Answer: Norman Mailer



EDITOR’S NOTE: Marla Maples is one of the two famous “killer blonds” from Dalton, GA, a stone’s throw from Chattanooga.
4. Celgene Corporation reports that this drug may be able to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha, an immune system compound that, if overproduced, can lead to severe inflammation in autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis. It is already in use against complications of leprosy, and can have tranquilizing effects. For 10 points, identify this drug with chemical formula C13H10N2O4, which became notorious when pregnant women used it for those tranquilizing effects in the 1950s and 60s, leading to severe birth defects.

Answer: thalidomide


5. . Ancient astronomers wrote of Phosphorus, which appeared in the morning, and Hesperus, which was visible in the evening. Then they realized that they were one and the same. The object in question has a nearly circular retrograde orbit and an atmosphere composed mostly of carbon dioxide but covered with sulfuric acid clouds. FTP name this planet, with a diameter only 400 miles smaller than the earth's.

Answer: Venus


6. Excluding the smaller Red River cession and the Gadsden Purchase, the U.S. acquired its territory west of the Mississippi in four big chunks: the Louisiana Purchase, the annexation of Texas, the Oregon Country cession, and the Mexican cession. Only one state includes land acquired in all four deals. FTP name this sparsely populated state, home to Devil's Tower National Monument and Grand Tetons National Park as well as most of Yellowstone.

Answer: Wyoming


7. Malik Shah appointed him one of a commision of eight to revise the calendar. His astronomical tables and his book on algebra were very influential, but his other work was never all that popular in his homeland. Only fragmentary manuscripts survived, but Edward Fitgerald was able to take 101 of his poems and translate and enhance them FTP name this Persian poet whose specialty was short quattrains, or rubais
Answer: Omar Khayyam
8. From 1920-1924, he served as Governor-General of New Zealand. In 1914, he was given command of the Grand Fleet of Britain. In 1916, he commanded the British forces at the WWI Battle of Jutland. FTP, name this admiral.

Answer: John Rushworth Jellicoe (Earl Jellicoe)


9. After his death of cancer in 1925, former rivals fought to claim his legacy; in fact, in 1950 his widow was made a vice-chairman of the Peoples’ Republic of China. He became an American citizen in Hawaii, trained as a physician in British schools in Hong Kong, and spent some time in exile in Canada before espousing his “Three Principles” and forming the Kuomintang. FTP name this Chinese nationalist leader, briefly President of China.
Answer: Sun Yat-Sen
10. A prolific writer in the fields of hysteria and the medical and legal ramifications of hypnotism, his account of Soeur Jeanne des Agnes’ hysteria over an unrequited love of a Loudon priest may have inspired Aldous Huxley’s The Devils of Loudon. Ironically, he was shot by a former patient, who claimed he had hypnotized her against her will, causing her loss of sanity. For 10 points, identify this 19th century French neuroscientist, today best remembered for the condition he identified in 1885, which is characterized by motor and phonic tics.

Answer: Georges Gilles de la Tourette


11. Her first name is Margaret, but she goes by her real middle and last names. Most observers agree she deftly outmaneuvered the other killer blond from Dalton, GA, Deborah Norville, even though Norville would up taking her job; she wound up instead with an Emmy in 1995 and her current duties as host of MSNBC’s Time and Again and cohost of Dateline NBC. FTP name this Indianapolis native, still best remembered for her 13-year stint as co-anchor on The Today Show.
Answer: Jane Pauley
12. His best friend was Dain Waris, son of the old chief Doramin. He served as a trading post agent at Patusan, an isolated East Indian trading post. In facing Doramin’s justice he regains the honor he lost when he and his crewmates had abandoned the sinking ship Patna. FTP I’ve described the guilt-ridden title character of what novel, published in 1900, by Joseph Conrad?
Answer: Lord Jim
13. He appears in Eliot’s The Waste Land. Even in the underworld he retained his prophetic gifts, according to the Odyssey. Later legend said he lived for seven or nine generations, dying after the expedition of the Seven Against Thebes. FTP name this blind seer, who had once killed the female of two coupling snakes and had briefly been turned into a woman.
Answer: Tiresias
14. A native of Bombay, he studied in Vienna and held his first major post in Montreal. Noted for forceful interpretations of large-scale romantic compositions, he is considered the greatest modern interpreter of Berlioz. FTP name this conductor, who still serves as director of the Israel Philharmonic and spent 13 years as conductor of the New York Philharmonic.

Answer: Zubin Mehta


15. His efforts to extend his doctrine of caesaropapism to dogma as well as governance were largely unsuccessful; instead of reconciling the Monophysites to the church he wound up lapsing into heresy himself. His efforts to fight the Persians and subdue the marauding Slavs and Bulgars also bombed, and his efforts to increase state revenues led to the Nika riot that almost overthrew him despite the quality of his generals, Narses and Bellisarius. FTP name this Byzantine emperor, who had better luck with his efforts to codify Roman law.

Answer: Justinian I or the Great


16. In Second Stage she stressed the importance of fathers in the family, and in The Fountain of Age she tackled the effect of aging on women. She recounted her years as a leader of the women’s movement in Roe v. Wade: It Changed My Life. FTP name the author of the seminal 1963 work The Feminine Mystique.
Answer: Betty Friedan

EDITOR’S NOTE: In the last sentence, pun very much intended.
17. Lesser known versions of the legend include Moliere’s The Stone Feast, Prosper Merimee’s Les Ames du Purgatoire, and Thomas Shadwell’s The Libertine. Jose Zorrilla y Moral borrowed extensively from the French sources for his 1844 version, which is still performed annually on Halloween in Spain. For 10 points, identify this legendary figure, created in 1630 by Tirso de Molina, and namesake of a Mozart opera.

Answer: Don Juan


18, The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were responses at the state level to this, or more accurately these. Thomas Cooper, William Duane, and Matthew Lyon were among those tried under the only one ever enforced by the Adams administration. FTP name these four laws enacted in 1798, allegedly to halt French influence but really more to halt the rise of Thomas Jefferson.

Answer: the Alien and Sedition Acts


19. For quarks they're such things as baryon number, strangeness, charge, hypercharge and t3. For electrons they're such things as orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum. FTP, what are these numbers that no two fermions can share a unique set of?

Answer: quantum numbers


20. As a noun, the OED defines it as a low-stunted tree, or a cancellation of an appointment, or the itch, or a particular breed of cattle, or a prostitute, or, in athletics, a player of lesser ability. However, it was more recently defined, by Lisa Left-Eye Lopez et al., as “a guy who can’t get no love from me, hanging out the passenger side of his best friend’s ride, trying to holler at me.” For 10 points, what’s the common word, which as a verb might involve the use of Brillo?

Answer: scrub


21. By land area, it's the largest city in Tennessee. It's the home of three plants of some fame throughout the world as X-10, Y-12, and K-25, dating back to the original army map grid from 1942. Some of the historic landmarks include the graphite reactor, finished within a matter of weeks after Chicago Pile 1, the Tower Shielding Facility, the Health Physics Research reactor and the High Flux Isotope Reactor. FTP, what is this city of about 27,000 people located 25 miles west of Knoxville and home to the largest of the Department of Energy's 5 multipurpose laboratories?

Answer: Oak Ridge




TOSSUPS -- ROUND 2 CENTER OF THE KNOWN UNIVERSE OPEN/ROLLAPALOOZA 1999

1. Jacob. Enos. Mosiah. Alma. Jarom. Ether. Helaman. Omni. FTP name the compilation which includes these books as well as 1st through 4th Nephi and the concluding Book of Moroni.


Answer: The Book of Mormon
2. Legend has it the noted painter Cimabue discovered him as a shepherd boy sketching a goat’s head on a rock . We do know that before relenting and allowing Cimabue to teach him, his father wanted him to become a woolweaver (which explains Girl Carding Wool). FTP name the pioneering painter of The Homage of a Simple Man, The Saint Preaches to the Birds, and other frescoes in Assisi at the Upper Church of St. Francis.
Answer: Giotto di Bondone

EDITOR’S NOTE: The irony is that St. Francis preached the ungodliness of art and advocated plain buildings in accordance with Holy Poverty.
3. Peter, Martin, and Jack are triplets, who are bequeathed by their father a simple and durable coat to be worn carefully and never altered. However, as each becomes more and more of a dandy, they alter their coats, adding lace, shoulder knots, and embroidery. For 10 points, identify this 1704 satiric work, in which the triplets are actually St. Peter, Martin Luther, and John Calvin, the coat the New Testament, and the author Jonathan Swift.

Answer: A Tale of a Tub


4. He saw as society as a realm of unique social facts and considered those facts the object of sociological research. Social cohesion and stability was an important theme in his works, such as The Elementary Forms of Religious Life and The Division of Labor in Society. FTP name the pioneering French sociologist who introduced the concept of anomie and wrote Suicide: A Study in Sociology.

Answer: Emile Durkheim


5. They were originally Circassian, Mongol, and Turkish slaves brought to North Africa. Trained as soldiers, they rose to high posts before staging a successful revolt around A.D. 1250. A few remnants escaped to Nubia and disappeared after their massacre was ordered by Muhammad Ali in 1811. FTP name this military group that ruled Egypt for 300 years and stayed on the fringes of power for another 300.

Answer: Mamelukes


6. Two versions of this cartoon began airing in the U.S. in 1984. World Events Productions bought the cartoon shows Golion and Dairugger XV from Toei Animation, dubbed them, trimmed the violence, and linked unrelated characters between the two shows. Dairugger was a robot composed of many vehicles. Golion was more famous, being composed of five lions. FTP, name the show, whose Defenders of the Universe were frequently prone to utter "Form blazing sword!"

Answer: Voltron: Defender of the Universe


7. It experiences high winds and heavy rains throughout the year. 350 miles long, its width varies from 2 to 20 miles. It separates Tierra del Fuego from the South American mainland. FTP name this strait just north of Cape Horn, named for its Portuguese discoverer.

Answer: Strait of Magellan


8. Capt. Thomas Preston and six of his men were acquitted; two others were found guilty of manslaughter, punished, and discharged from the army. That followed an able defense by Josiah Quincy and John Adams -- yes, that John Adams, who was an apt choice since his political sympathies would rest with the other side. Five men were killed, the first and best known being Crispus Attucks. FTP name this response to a riot in 1770.

Answer: Boston Massacre


9. Form a thermocouple by joining two wires of different metals -- for example, copper and iron -- at the end to form a closed circuit with two junctions. If the junctions are different temperatures, an electric current flows through the circuit. FTP what’s the effect I just named, named for the German physicist who discovered it in the 1820’s?

Answer: Seebeck effect


10. In New Orleans, the Chateau Sonesta Hotel occupies the site of the former D. H. Holmes Department Store. In front of the store is an bronze statue of Ignatius J. Reilly , commemorating a minor run-in on that spot with a policeman. What makes it unusual is that Reilly (a) spoke ill of New Orleans and (b) is a fictional character. FTP name the 1981 novel centered around Reilly, published twelve years after the author’s death, which won a Pulitzer for John Kennedy Toole.
Answer: A Confederacy of Dunces
11. “Adoration of the Earth,” “Dance of the Adolescents,” “Game of Abduction,” and “Sacrificial Dance of the Chosen Virgin”. Do these sound like tunes that belong in a Disney film? Well, in Fantasia the rise and fall of the dinosaurs is set to a composition subtitled, “Scenes of Pagan Russia.” featuring these four movements. FTP name this 1913 Igor Stravinsky work.
Answer: The Rite of Spring, or Le Sacre du Printemps
12. He fell overboard and drowned in the English Channel under mysterious circumstances in 1913. Widely considered eccentric, if not actually insane, he was ridiculed for his insistence that a fuel-air mixture would ignite spontaneously if compressed sufficiently. He was right, but the resulting combustion process produced so much noise and soot that most American drivers refuse to drive an automobile powered by one of his engines. FTP name this German tinkerer.

Answer: Rudolf Diesel


13. He was foreign secretary under Neville Chamberlain, but resigned in protest over the appeasement of Hitler. He didn’t re-enter government service until the eve of WWII; during the war, he served again as foreign secretary from December 1940 to July 1945. Ten years later, yet again as foreign secretary, he helped establish SEATO. For 10 points, identify this British political figure, whose fall as Prime Minister began when Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956.

Answer: Anthony Eden


14. St. Louis meets New York this year. Not in any athletic contest, but in a particularly virulent strain of a disease, which hit New York in August. Carried by mosquitoes or ticks, it may cause fever, headache, drowsiness, lethargy, coma, tremors, and a stiff neck and back. For 10 points, identify this disease, one form of which is called sleeping sickness, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain.

Answer: encephalitis


15. Before 1990, he published Green House, The Time of the Hero, The War at the End of the World, The Conversation in the Cathedral, The Real Life of Alejandro Mayta, The City and the Dogs, and The Storyteller. In 1990, he was a little bit too busy to write. Since 1990, he’s published Death in the Andes, A Fish in the Water, In Praise of the Stepmother, The Notebooks of Don Rigoberto, and Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter. For 10 points, name this author, who took time out from his writing to run for President of Peru in 1990.

Answer: Mario Vargas Llosa [pronounced “Yosa” but “Losa” OK; prompt for more on Vargas or Llosa]


16. Born in Pittsburgh of Lithuanian ancestry, he attended Louisville after poor academics kept him out of Notre Dame. Drafted and cut by the Steelers, he was playing semipro ball when another NFL team's backup QB opted to go to law school instead. When an injury sidelined starter George Shaw, he made the most of his freak opportunity, setting a mark that still stands by throwing a TD pass in 47 straight games. FTP name this Hall of Fame quarterback, who revolutionized the passing game while leading the Baltimore Colts to three NFL championships.

Answer: Johnny Unitas


17. Under Ramirez and Farrell during World War II he was both Minister of War and Secretary of Labor and Social Welfare. His meteoric rise was viewed with suspicion by the U.S. and others who thought him pro-Axis and fascist. He was briefly arrested in 1945, but by then he'd unionized almost 2/3 of the workforce, and massive demonstrations forced his release. FTP name this man, who from 1946 to his ouster in 1955 and again from 1973 to his death in 1974 was President of Argentina.

Answer: Juan Peron


18. This nobleman's son from Brittany studied under Johannes Roscellinus and William of Champeaux. Condemned by a synod in Soissons for his Nominalist doctrines on the Trinity, he took to a hermit's hut at Nogent-sur-Seine, where he founded a monastic school, the Paraclete. His works included Historia Calamitum Meum, or "The History of My Troubles", and Sic et Non. FTP name this philosopher, whose troubles mainly stemmed from his affair with a student named Heloise.

Answer: Peter Abelard


19. The first technical paper by this native of Vik, Sweden, was "The Disappearance of Galvanic Polarization in a Polarization Vessel, the Plates of Which Are Connected by Means of a Metallic Conductor", published in 1883. During the previous winter he had worked out the electrolytic conduction theory that would make him famous. FTP, name this man whose Doctoral Dissertation was probably the most influential to ever get a 4th rank degree.

Answer: Svante August Arrhenius


20. Subtitled “The Parish Boy’s Progress,” it was published serially over a 3-year span in Bentley’s Miscellany. Memorable characters include the kindhearted and therefore doomed Nancy, the evil Monks (who turns out to be the protagonist’s half-brother), the wealthy Mr. Brownlow, and young rogues Charley Bates and Jack Dawkins (better known as the Artful Dodger.) FTP name this Dickens novel tracing the short road from poverty to crime via the hero’s journey from the workhouse to Fagin’s gang.
Answer: Oliver Twist
21. Name’s the same: A 1928 Emil Jannings film; a 1986 Leslie Nielsen film; the nom-du-ring of professional wrestler Del Wilkes; the 1998 Steven Seagal epic, in which he portrays the government’s foremost immunologist/aikido expert; and the forthcoming Revolutionary War drama starring Mel Gibson. For 10 points, what’s the common word, which also denotes a guided missile whose exaggerated accuracy made it a media darling in Operation Desert Storm?

Answer: Patriot


TOSSUPS -- ROUND 3 CENTER OF THE KNOWN UNIVERSE OPEN/ROLLAPALOOZA 1999

1. Maurice Garin won the first, in 1903. Lucien Petit Breton was the first back to back winner, in 1907 08, Philippe Thijs the first three time winner, and Jacques Anquetil the first four  and five time winner. In fact, Anquetil's run of four in a row from 61 64 was tied by Eddy Mercxx from 69 72 and bested by Miguel Indurain's five time dominance from 91 95. For 10 points, name this event, won this year by Lance Armstrong.

Answer: Tour de France
2. The work recounts a story as told in the Old Testament Book of Judges. The hero’s father brings him news that the Philistines are having a feast to thank the idol Dagon for delivering him into their hands. Then Harapha, a Philistine giant, comes to gloat over his misfortune, whereupon our hero re-assumes his role as Jehovah’s champion, ultimately pulling down the pillars that support the temple of the Philistine god Dagon, crushing himself along with his captors. For 10 points, identify this 1671 tragedy about a blinded hero by the blinded John Milton.

Answer: Samson Agonistes


3. One of the objectives of the most recent Shuttle mission was to deploy an X-ray telescope named for this man. He did important work on energy transfer by radiation in stellar atmospheres and convection on the solar surface, and attempted to develop a mathematical theory of black holes. But, his most lasting contribution to science was the determination that stars of more than 1.44 solar masses become neutron stars and black holes upon decay, while smaller stars become white dwarves. For 10 points, identify this co-winner of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Answer: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar


4. It has only two cities with over 15,000 people, and its capital has only 8,200. The first state to forbid involuntary slavery, it was an independent republic so independent that George Washington believed he would have to send troops to overthrow its government. Famous natives include both Joseph Smith and Brigham Young as well as Presidents Arthur and Coolidge. FTP name this state, the 14th admitted to the union.

Answer: Vermont


5. We know almost nothing about him. His time period can be established by his mention of the ravaging of the Edomite kingdom and of devotion to temple worship; he probably wrote between 500 and 450 B.C. Some have suggested his book was really more writings by Ezra or Zechariah. FTP name this minor prophet, whose best-known passages cover tithing and the imminent coming of the Messiah, namesake of the last book of the Old Testament.

Answer: Malachi


6. The “no quarter” generalship and slaughter of the routed rebels here earned the nickname “the Butcher” for William Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland. On the other hand, Cumberland wiped out his foes with losses of only 300 at this showdown northeast of Inverness. FTP name this 1746 battle which ended the last chance of a Stuart restoration in Scotland.
Answer: Culloden Moor
7. New York state health officials found this in well number six at the Washington County Fairgrounds in Greenwich, N.Y., which led to the deaths of two people as of this writing. Officials fear that this outbreak will be worse than the 1993 Jack-in-the-Box outbreak in Washington state, which killed 4 and infected 700. For 10 points, identify this bacterium, common in the digestive tract.

Answer: Escherichia coli

8. The direct election of senators, the introduction of the secret ballot, restriction of immigration, term limits for president and vice-president, a ban on federal subsidies for industry, and an expression of support for the Knights of Labor in their struggle against the "tyrannical combine of clothing manufacturers in Rochester" were among the supplemental resolutions, while their main platform emphasized economic issues such as a graduated income tax, government regulation of railroads, telephone and telegraph lines, government loans direct to farmers, and the free and unlimited coinage of silver. FTP name this rural political party of the 1890s, which nominated James B. Weaver for president in 1892.

Answer: People's Party or Populist Party

9. A metalworker by trade, he was captured by the Russians in World War I and became a Communist. While the Western press gave much more ink to the other anti-Nazi rebels led by Draza Mihailovic, most historians agree that this man’s partisans formed a much more effective resistance movement. FTP name this man, born Josep Broz, who despite his postwar defiance of Moscow became a surprisingly durable President of Yugoslavia.

Answer: Tito


10. The mother in this family was the idealized, sweet-natured Ellen; her death was a blow from which her husband, the fiery Irish immigrant Gerald, never recovered. The siblings included the affable but spoiled Carreen and the bitchy Suellen. FTP name this family of Jonesboro, Georgia, whose antebellum family estate was Tara.
Answer: O’Hara
11. The concept must always have been in the minds of buyers and sellers, but the term and the definition come from Alfred Marshall’s 1890 classic Principles of Economics. It can be determined for substitution and supply, but more commonly is used with respect for demand, where formulas for its coefficient have been established for income and price. FTP give the economic term defined as the ratio of the relative change in a dependent variable to the relative change in an independent variable.
Answer: elasticity
12. Probably the largest group of all the fishes, they have barbed dorsal and pectoral fins, and almost all have a mucous film coating and no scales. There are saltwater varieties, such as the one nicknamed Oscar the Terrible, and freshwater ones such as the Gafftopsail. FTP name this group of fish, virtually all of which are scavengers, now among the most important agricultural products of Mississippi.
Answer: catfish
13. A failed playwright, this Kentucky native turned without enthusiasm to the cinema, where he directed over 400 one-reel films for Biograph. His method of continual improvisation prevented him from the smooth, polished editing of some of his lesser contemporaries, but he compensated in such films as Broken Blossoms and Way Down East with his vision and his command of visual narrative. FTP name the pioneering director of Intolerance and The Birth of a Nation.
Answer: D.W. (David Wark) Griffith
14. Bemoaning the quality of Greek drama after the death of Euripides, Dionysus disguises himself as Heracles and goes to retrieve Euripies from Hades. However, a competition there between Euripides and Aeschylus convinces Dionysus to rescue the latter instead. FTP name this 405 B.C. comedy by Aristophanes.

Answer: The Frogs, or Batrachoi


15. It was decided by a 7-0 vote. The majority opinion asserted that the Federal government proceeds directly from the people and that there was nothing that limited it to the powers enumerated in the Constitution. This included the 10th Amendment because unlike a predecessor provision in the Articles of Confederation, it did not include "expressly" and thus allowed "incidental or implied powers." FTP name this landmark 1819 Supreme Court decision over a state's right to tax an instrument of the Federal government.

Answer: McCulloch v. Maryland


16. In their golden era they were portrayed by Amy Jo Johnson, Walter Jones, David Yost, Austin St. John, & Thuy Trang. They hung out in a combination gym and juice bar, waiting for an evil witch named Rita to unleash such monsters as a giant pig designed to consume all of Earth's food supply. FTP name this hideous surprise hit children's show which spawned 1993’s hottest Christmas toys.
Answer: the Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers [prompt on Power Rangers]
17. He was born in Washington D.C. in 1899, but moved to New York City in 1923 and soon after his ten-piece band was playing "jungle music" at the Cotton Club. Songs like "The Mooche," "Mood Indigo," and "Rockin' in Rhythm," made his band famous. However, it was Billy Strayhorn's classic "Take the 'A' Train" which became this bandleader's signature song. FTP, name this jazz pioneer whose real first name was Edward but whose stage name had a more dignified appeal.

Answer: Duke Ellington


18. Over the years its admission standards were apparently lowered. In Hesiod’s time it was open to the blessed in general, and by Pindar’s time entrance was gained by merely having led a righteous life. But in Homer’s time only those specially favored by the gods got in. FTP name the dwelling place of happy souls after death in Greco-Roman mythology.
Answer: the Elysian Fields, or Elysium, or the Elysian Plain; accept Isles of the Blessed
19. While he taught and lectured extensively, his volume of work is small: the essay collections Shadow and Act and Going to the Territory, some short stories and reviews, and an unfinished second novel. FTP name this author, who won a National Book Award for his tale of a nameless black man’s search for identity, Invisble Man.
Answer: Ralph Waldo Ellison
20. This transuranic element is in almost every home in America because, well, it’s usually the law. OK, it isn't that law that this particular element be there, but since its 241 isotope is usually the operating part of a smoke detector, it often ends up in homes. As is typical of transuranic elements it’s an alpha emitter, so aside from smoke detectors it’s also used in AmBe (pronounced Am-Be, like it looks) neutron sources. Its -241 isotope has a half-life of about 432 years, and is the result of a beta decay from plutonium. FTP, what is this element with atomic number 95?

Answer: Americium


21. The newest color for Crayola replaces “Indian red” and appeared in September, 1999. In addition to its use as a color, the word may also apply to the hard knob in the skin of the horse at the inner side of the fore-legs, or a story that has been told too many times before. For 10 points, identify this term, also used to refer to such trees as Castanea vesca, Calodendron capense, and Aesculus Hippocastanum, the last usually referred to as "Horse".

Answer: chestnut


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