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There are seven main modes and three auxiliary modes in Azerbaijan Mugam Main modes Rast


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Mugams


There are seven main modes and three auxiliary modes in Azerbaijan Mugam

Main modes

Rast

Rast mode is the first mode of main modes which kept its base and root, unchanged its function during the historical period of development. So, rast mugam based on this mode is called “mother of mugams”. Rast mode consists of 1+1+0.5 tone, which is created in three tetra-chords in the result of amalgamation of reach method of the first main tetra-chord

Relay membranes in Rast are:


IV membrane-Maye
VI membrane-Huseyni
VII membrane-Vilayati
VIII membrane-Shikasteyi-fars
IX membrane-Erag

Departments of Rast are: Bardasht (with Novruzu-Ravanda), Maye, Ushshag, Huseyni, Vilayati, Dilkesh, Kurdu, Shikasteyi-fars (Khojasta), Erag, Penjgah, Rak-Khorasani, Gerai, space for Rast. Literaryly, Rast creates courage and cheerfulness at listener. Other mugams relating to the Rast are: Mahur, Mahur-Hindi, Orta Mahur, Bayaty-Gajar, Gatar.


Shur

Shur is the second mode and consists of 1-0.5-1 tone, which is created in the result of amalgamation of three tetra-chords with reach method of the first tetra-chord.

Relay membranes in Shur are:


III membrane-Main background
IV membrane-Maye
VI membrane-Zaminkhara

Shur mode is the most used mode in Ashyg art.

Departments of Shur are: Bardasht, Maye, Salmak, Shur-Shahnaz, Busalik, Bayaty-Turk, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriga, Ashiran, Semai-Shams, Hijaz, Shakh Khatai, Sarenj, Gemengiz, Nishibi-Feraz, space for Shur.
Shur creates merry feelings at listener.
Mugams relating to the Shur are: Shahnaz, Sarenj, Arazbary, Osmani, Rahab, Neva.
Segah

Segah is the third mode and consists of 0.5-1-1 tone which is created in amalgamation of three tetra-chords with the reach method.


  • Relay membranes in Segah are:
    II membrane-Main background
    IV membrane-Maye
    VI membrane-Shikasteyi-fars

Departments of Segah are: Zabul-Segah-Bardasht, Maye, Muya, Manandi-Mukhalif, Segah, high-pitched tone Zabul, Manandi-Hisar (in high-pitched tone), Manandi-Mukhalif (in high-pitched tone), Ashig-Kush, Mubarriga, Zabul, space for Segah.
Kharij Segah-Bardasht, Maye, Takhtigah, Mubarriga, Manandi-Hisar, Manandi-Mukhalif, high-pitched tone Segah, space for Kharij Segah.
Segah mugam creates love, lyrical feelings at listener.

Mugams relating to Segah are:


Hashym Segah-sol
Kharij Segah-si
Mirza-Huseyn-lya
Orta Segah-mi
Zabul Segah
Shushtar

Shushtar is the fourth and the smallest mode according to its amount of sounds. Sound line is created in amalgamation of two tetra-chords with different method. It has eight membranes and consists of 0.5-1-0.5 tone. In Shushtar mode the third membrane is the completive tone, the fourth membrane is Maye. It creates deeply sad feelings at listener.

Departments of Shushtar are: Amiri, Shushtar, Masnavi, Movlavi, Tarkib, space for Shushtar.


Relating mugams to the Shushtar are: Ovshary, Heydari.
Chahargah

Chahargah is the fifth and the longest mode according to the amount of sounds. It consists of eleven membranes. Three tetra-chords are amalgamated with two methods. The first and the second tetra-chords are amalgamated with the first method. The second and the third tetra-chords are amalgamated with different method. Tetra-chords are 0.5+1.5+0.5 tone structural.

Chahargah mode is represented in two kinds in Uzeyir Hajibeyov’s composition.

Relay membranes in Chahargah are:
IV membrane-Maye
VI membrane-is the relay membrane of Basta-Nigar department
IX membrane-Hisar

It creates at listener excitement and passion. Departments of Chahargah are: Bardasht, Maye, Bali-Kabutar, Djovhari, Basta-Nigar, Hisar, Mualif, Garra, Mukhalif, Ouj Mukhalif, Maghlub, Mansuriyya, Uzzal, space for Chahargah.


Bayaty-Shiraz

Bayaty-Shiraz is the sixth mode and consists of 1-1-0.5 tone, which is created in amalgamation of two tetra-chords with the third method. It consists of nine membranes. There passes membrane among the tetra-chords.

Relay membranes in Bayaty-Shiraz are:


II membrane-Bayaty-Isfahan
IV membrane-expresses Maye

It creates sad feelings at listener. Departments of Bayaty-Shiraz are: Bardasht, Isfahanak, Maye, Gardaniyye, Nishibi-Faraz, Bayaty-Isfahan, Khums-Ravan, high-ptched tone Bayaty-Shiraz, Abulchap, Khaveran, Uzzal, Shikasteyi-Fars, Dilruba, space.



Humayun

Humayun is the seventh mode and consists of 0.5+1.5+0.5 tone, which is created in amalgamation of two tetra-chords with the fourth method.

It is able to get sound line of Shushtar mode by changing the tetra-chords’ places in Humayun mode. So, these two modes’ structures are close to each other. It creates deeply sad feelings at listener. Departments of Humayun are: Bardasht, Humayun, Baxtiyari, Feili, Boyuk Masnavi, Movlavi, Shushtar, Tarkib, Uzzal or Bidad, Kichik Masnavi, space.


Auxiliary modes

There are three additional modes in Azerbaijan music except the main modes. These are: Shahnaz, Sarenj and the II class Chahargah.



The II class Chahargah

It is created when 0.5+1.5+0.5 tone structural tetra-chord is amalgamated with 1+1+0.5 tone structural tetra-chord with different method



Shahnaz

It is created in amalgamation of 1+1+0.5 tone structural tetra-chord with 0.5+1.5+0.5 tone structural tetra-chord with different method.



Sarenj

It is created in amalgamation of 0.5+1.5+0.5 tone structural tetra-chord with 1+1+0.5 tone structural tetra-chord with different method. Unlike Chahargah in Sarenj 0.5 tone appears between two tetra-chords.



There are also small sized and zarbi mugams in Azerbaijan

Small sized Mugams



Bayaty-Kurd

Bayaty-Kurd, Kerkuki, Bayaty-Ajem, space (ayag).



Mahur-Hindi

Bardasht (with Novruzu-Ajem), Maye, Buzurk, space for Ushshag, Huseyni, Vilayeti, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriga, Erag, Gerai or Rar-Abdulla, space (ayag).



Bayaty-Gajar

Bardasht, Maye, Huseyni, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriga, high-pitched tone Bayaty-Gajar, Dugah, Ruhul-Ervah, Zaminkhara, Maverennahr, Shah-Khatai, space (ayag).



Shahnaz

Shahnaz, Dilkesh (Shahnaz-Khara), Kurdu, high-pitched tone Shahnaz, Azerbaijan



Rahab

Bardasht, Amiri, Rahab, Boyuk Masihi, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriga, Erag, Gerai, Kichik Masihi, space (ayag).



Gatar

Gatar, low-pitched tone Gatar, high-pitched tone Gatar, space (ayag).



Orta Mahur

Bardasht (Rizan), Huseyni, low-pitched tone Maye, Mahur, space for Ushshag, high-pitched tone Huseyni, Vilayeti, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriga, Ashiran, space (ayag).



Zarbi mugams

1.Osmani-Shur


2.Ovshary-Shushtar
3.Heydari-Shushtar
4.Kesme Shikasta-Segah
5.Simai-Shams-Shur
6.Mansuriyya-Chahargah
7.Garabagh shikastasi-Segah
8.Arazbary-Shur

Mugam terms

*Tasnif-national rhythmic melody


*Dastgah-logistic development under organized totality of all departments, branches, corners, rangs and tasnifs concerned to mugam
*Rang-rhythmical music



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