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Table Medical uses of six different plants in the regions of Siby and Dioila; Mali


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Table 1. Medical uses of six different plants in the regions of Siby and Dioila; Mali.
Consensus, as percentages and number of citations, is written in parenthesis for the medicinal indications for each plant (including the Loranthus spp.).


Indications

Plants parts used

Mode of preparation

Added substances

Mode of administration

Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch. (Oxalidaceae)

Cerebral malaria (58.1 % =18 )

Plant (15)

Powder (9)

Mixed with shea-butter / water / oil (8).

The mixture is applied onto the body.













Water and shea-butter (1)

Split into 2 parts. Infusion in water, body wash and mix with shea-butter, apply onto the body.










Decoction and powder (4)

Mixed with shea-butter / water / oil.

Oral and/or body bath and the mixture is applied onto the body.







 

Decoction (2)

Combretum glutinosum Hochst. ex A.Rich. (optionally).

Oral and body bath.







Leaves and Plant (2)

Decoction and powder

Shea-butter / oil.

Body bath. The mixture is applied onto the body.

 

 

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath. If infants are ill, wash the mother’s breasts.

Pain (9.7 % = 3):
















-Pain when urinating

Plant

Decoction

 

Oral




-Stomachache (children)

Plant

Decoction

 

Oral

 

-Muscle pain

Unknown

-

-

-

Bite (6.5 % = 2):
















-Snakebite (wound healing)

Plant

Decoction

 

Oral, wash of bite

 

-Insect- / Snakebite

Plant

Powder

Oil

Wash of bite

Scared children / sleeplessness (6.5 % = 2)

Plant

Decoction

 

Oral, eye wash

Aphrodisiac

(3.2 % =1)



Plant

Powder

Salt and water (optionally).

Oral

Diarrhoea / weakness (3.2 % =1)

Plant

Infusion

 

Oral

Increase appetite (3.2 % =1)

Plant

Decoction

 

Oral and body wash

Measles (3.2 % =1)

Plant

Powder

 

Oral and body wash

Teething (3.2 % =1)

Plant

Powder

Water

Oral

Tonic (children) (3.2 % =1)

Plant

Decoction

 

Oral and body wash (large amounts are needed).

Cola cordifolia Sim. (Sterculiaceae)

Pain (35.1 % = 13):
















-Headache (6):
















*Severe headache (4)

Leaves and Loranthus spp.(2)

Decoction Powder

 

Inhale steam, wash head and throw powder into fire, inhale smoke.







Leaves and stem bark

Decoction

 

Oral




 

Stem bark and Loranthus spp.

Powder

 

Thrown into fire, inhale smoke.




*Headache (2)

Stem bark (from N-, E-, S-, W-side of the tree)

Decoction

Sea salt (optionally)

Wash head or steam bath of head




-General pain (3)

Stem bark (from E- and W-side of the tree)

Decoction

 

Oral and/or body bath




-Chest pain (2)

Stem bark (from N-, E-, S-, W-side of the tree)

Decoction




Body bath and apply a piece of stem bark to the chest.




 

Branches

Burned

Butter from Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy.

Mixture of ash and butter is applied.




-Backache

Stem bark

Powder

Butter from Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy.

Mixture is massaged into the painful areas.

 

-Stomachache

Stem bark (from E- and W-side of the tree)

Decoction

Sea salt

Oral

Fever (adults and children) (13.5 % = 5)

Stem bark (2)

Decoction




Oral and/or body bath







Leaves and stem bark (E-side of the tree)

Decoction




Oral and body bath







Leaves, roots and stem bark

Decoction




Oral and body bath

 

 

Leaves and stem bark

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

Diarrhoea

(10.8 % = 4):


















-Diarrhoea (and coughing ) (3)

Stem bark (2)

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath




 

Leaves and stem bark

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

 

-Diarrhoea (children)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

Malaria (2.7 % = 1)

Stem bark

Decoction

 

Body bath

Old wounds

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

2 parts: 1) soaked in water 2) burned

 

Wound is washed with water and then covered with ash.

Asthma (2.7 % = 1)

Leaves

Soaked in water for 7 days

 

Oral and body bath

Prevention of death of children

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Decoction

(Is used to prevent that another child dies if a child have died when it was carried at the mothers back).

Body wash

Prevention of death of premature children (2.7 % = 1)

Stem bark

Powder

Stem bark from the Baba tree and water. Food.

Body wash, consume

Low semen production

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark (E- and W-side of tree)

Powder

Sea salt and water.

Oral

Oedema (2.7 % = 1)

Stem bark

Powder

Water, patient should not eat sugar, salt or milk during the treatment.

Oral

Schistosomiasis

(2.7 % = 1)



Roots (E- and W-side of tree)

Decoction

 

Oral and body wash

Swelling of the testis (2.7 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction

Leaves from an unknown plant.

Steam bath of the testis

Quicker recovery after childbirth

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark (E- and W-side of tree)

Decoction




Steam bath, oral and body bath.

Loranthus spp. of Cola cordifolia

Weight loss and malnutrition or patient sleeps a lot

(5.4 % = 2)



Loranthus spp.

Decoction

 

Oral or steam bath and body bath

Cerebral malaria

(2.7 % = 1)



Loranthus spp.

Powder

Water

Oral and body bath.

Old wounds

(2.7 % = 1)



Loranthus spp.

Powder

Mud.

The wound is washed and the mixture is applied onto the wound.

Female infertility

(2.7 % = 1)



Loranthus spp.

Powder

Drink

Oral

Combretum molle R.Br. ex G.Don. (Combretaceae)

Malaria

(62.5 % = 25):


















Malaria (23)

Leaves

Decoction (18)




Oral and/or body bath and/or steam bath









Decoction (2)

Leaves from Nauclea latifolia Blanco. (optionally).

Oral and body bath










Decoction

Leaves from Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill.

Oral and body bath










Decoction

4 sliced lemons.

Oral




 

 

Decoction

Leaves from Combretum micranthum G.Don. and stem bark from Khaya senegalensis A.Juss.

Oral




Malaria in children (2)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

 

 

Leaves and stem bark

Decoction

 

Oral

Pain (12.5 % = 5):
















Chest pain

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath




Chest pain in malaria

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath




Generalized pain

Leaves

Decoction

 

Steam bath, oral and body bath




Headache

Leaves

Decoction

 

Steam bath and body bath.

 

Stomachache

Leaves

Powder

Root from Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill.

Oral

Impotence

(2.5 % = 1)



Root bark and root

Powder

Sea salt, drink.

Oral

Madness / Aggressive behavior

(2.5 % = 1)



Leaves and roots

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

Schistosomiasis

(2.5 % = 1)



Root

Soaked in water

 

Oral

Vomiting (2.5 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction




Oral. If the patient has joint pains, body bath.

Loranthus spp. of Combretum molle

Headache

(7.5 % = 3)



Loranthus spp.

Powder

 

The powder is thrown into the fire before bedtime and the smoke is inhaled

Malaria (2.5 % = 1)

Loranthus spp.

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

Infertility (2.5 % = 1)

Loranthus spp.

Powder

Water (optionally)

The powder is either thrown into the fire and the smoke inhaled or used in body bath.

Nightmare

(2.5 % = 1)



Loranthus spp.

Powder

Water (optionally)

The powder is either thrown into the fire and the smoke inhaled or used in body bath.

Opilia celtidifolia Endl. ex Walp (Opiliaceae)

Dermatitis:

(51.6 % = 16)


















-Dermatitis (10)

Leaves

Decoction (7)




Body wash










Decoction

Roots / leaves / flowers from an unknown plant

Oral and body bath




 

 

Powder (2)

Oil

The mixture is applied onto the body.




-Dermatitis with small wounds (6)

Leaves

Decoction (3)




Body wash (and oral)

 

 

 

Decoction and powder (3)

 

Body wash (and oral) and apply powder to wounds.

Flatulence

(6.5 % = 2)



Roots

Powder

Water

Oral. Side effect: Diarrhoea.

 

Leaves and roots

Decoction or powder

Food.

Oral and body wash or consume. Side effect: Diarrhoea and vomiting.

Internal worm

(6.5 % = 2)



Plant

Decoction

 

Oral. Overdose => Diarrhoea

 

Leaves

Decoction or powder

Milk or bananas

Oral

Malaria (6.5 % = 2)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral

Pain (6.5 % = 2):
















-Muscle pain

Leaves

Decoction

 

Body wash

 

-Stomachache / constipation

Roots

Powder

 

Oral

Anorexia (3.2 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body wash

Fever (3.2 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Body wash. Do not drink => side effect: Diarrhoea.

Icterus (3.2 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral

Oedema (3.2 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction or powder

Water

Steam bath and body bath or body bath

Rheumatism

(3.2 % = 1)



Leaves

Decoction




-Body wash with a traditional soap before body wash with decoction.

Tonic (3.2 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction




Oral and body wash.

Wound healing

(3.2 % = 1)



Leaves

Decoction and powder




Body wash and apply powder to wounds.

Parkia biglobosa Benth. (Leguminosae)

Wounds

(16.2 % = 6):


















-Gastric ulcer (2)

Stem bark

Powder

Water (optionally)

Oral




-Wound healing (2)

Stem bark

Decoction

 

Wash the wounds




-Internal wounds

Stem bark

Powder

 

Oral

 

-Cold sore

Unknown

-

-

-

Pain (10.8 % = 4):
















Backache (2)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Steam bath of sore area.




 

Stem bark

Decoction

Root of Entada africana Guill. & Perr.

Oral and body bath.




Chest pain (children)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath.

 

Muscle pain

Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and massage onto the sore area.

Fungal infection

(8.1 % = 3)



Stem bark (E- and W-side from tree)

Decoction

Stem bark from Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy. (E- and W-side from both trees) (Optionally)

Oral or Oral and wash of anus or Oral and wash of infected area.

Throat infection

(5.4 % = 2)



Leaves

Decoction

Sea salt

Sea salt is placed on the back of the tongue. Steam bath of mouth.

 

 

 

Powder

Water

Gargle

Liver infection

(5.4 % = 2)



Stem bark (and root)

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

Malaria (5.4 % = 2)

Fruit

Powder

Water

A paste is made

 

 

Stem bark

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

Polymenorrhea

(5.4 % = 2)



Sap

Burned, powder

 

Oral

 

 

Stem bark (from E- and W-side of tree)

Decoction

White cola nut.

Oral

Amenorrhea

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark and old fruits

Decoction

 

Oral and body bath

Caries (2.7 % = 1)

Stem bark

Decoction

 

Mouthwash

Chronic constipation

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Decoction

3-4 pieces of lemon (squeezed)

Oral

Cough / short of breath after work

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Powder

Stem bark from Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy. Sea salt, water.

Oral

Dysentery

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Decoction

Sea salt.

Oral

Headache

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Powder

 

Powder is thrown into fire and smoke inhaled.

Hemorrhoids

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Powder

Hot water

Drink 1 part and fill en enema with the other part.

Hiccups (2.7 % = 1)

Stem bark

Powder

 

Oral

Malnutrition (children)

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Decoction

 

Body wash

Prevent epidemic (children)

(2.7 % = 1)



Leaves

Decoction

 

Oral and body wash

Prophylaxis against infection / diseases (2.7 % = 1)

Stem bark

Decoction

 

Body bath

Protection against airborne diseases (children)

(2.7 % = 1)



Leaves (from a young tree)

Decoction

 

Body bath

Sexual infection

(2.7 % = 1)



Stem bark

Powder

Stem bark from Alternanthera repens (L.) Link. Water and butter (optionally).

Oral and genital wash. If itch mix some powder with butter and apply.

Swelling of genitals (2.7 % = 1)

Sap

Burned, powder

Butter from Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy.

The mixture is applied to the swollen parts.

Unknown disease (2.7 % = 1)

Leaves

Decoction




Steam bath and body bath

Loranthus spp. of Parkia biglobosa

Gastric ulcer

(2.7 % = 1)



Loranthus spp.

Powder

Root from Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K.Krause. Water.

Oral

Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae)

Throat infection (12.8 % = 5)

Leaves

Decoction

Sea salt (optionally), Chilli-powder (optionally).

Sea salt and chilli are placed on the back of the tongue. Steam bath of mouth (and oral)

Malaria

(12.8 % = 5):


















-Malaria (2)

Root bark

Powder

 

Oral




 

Root

Powder

 

Oral




-Cerebral malaria (3)

Leaves

Decoction

Leaves from Sida spp.

Oral and body bath







Leaves and stem bark

Decoction

 

Wash head and oral

 

 

Leaves and roots

Decoction

 

Steam bath and oral

Dysmenorrhoea (10.3 % = 4)

Roots

Powder (2)

Water

Oral













Fruit from Aframomum melegueta K.Schum. Sea salt.

Add to drink










Decoction (2)

Roots from Bridelia ferruginea Benth., Cassia sieberiana DC., Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. and Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill. Sea salt and rice.

Oral

Oral and body bath





 

 

 

 







Anxiety (7.8 % = 3)
















-Anxiety / nervousness (2)

Leaves

Decoction

Sea salt

Oral or sea salt is placed on the back of the tongue. Inhale steam

 

-Nightmare / anxiety in children

Root or the Loranthus spp.

Powder

 

Body bath

Caries (5.1 % = 2)

Leaves

Decoction

 

Steam bath of mouth and mouth wash.

Schistosomiasis

Root

Powder

Water

Oral

 

(5.1 % = 2)

Root bark

Powder

Water

Oral

Stomachache

Root

Decoction

 

Oral

 

(5.1 % = 2)

 

Powder

Water

Oral

Amenorrhoea

(5.1 % = 2)



Root

Mashed, divided into 2. Sundry one part – decoction. Shadow-dry one part - powder

Part 2 in drink

Oral

Constipation

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Powder

Water

Oral

Diarrhoea

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Powder

Cultured milk.

Oral

Dysentery

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Powder

Drink

Oral

Eye infection

(2.6 % = 1)



Leaves

Decoction

 

Face wash

Flatulence

(2.6 % = 1)



Root bark

Powder

Sea salt

Oral

Gastric ulcer

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Powder

 

Oral

Genital-itching

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Powder

Fruit from Aframomum melegueta K.Schum. Sea salt.

Oral

Hemorrhoids

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Burned, ash

Butter

1 part oral and 1 part is mixed with butter and applied on/around rectum.

Hiccups

(2.6 % = 1)



Leaves

Decoction

 

Inhalation of steam and oral

Incontinence

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Powder

Fruit from Aframomum melegueta K.Schum. Sea salt.

Oral

Female infertility

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Decoction

 

Oral

Liver infection

(2.6 % = 1)



Root

Powder

 

Oral

Swelling of head and legs (2.6 % = 1)

Root

Sundried, powder

Butter from Butyrospermum parkii Kotschy.

Mixture is massaged onto the swollen areas. If wounds, cover the wounds with mixture.

Loranthus spp. of Ximenia americana

Night fever

(2.6 % = 1)



Loranthus spp.

2 ways: 1) Powder 2) Decoction

 

1) Powder in fire, fill room with smoke and inhale smoke. 2) Oral and body bath.

Unknown disease

(2.6 % = 1)



Loranthus spp.

Decoction

The Loranthus spp. of Cola cordifolia.

Body bath



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