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Social Evaluation Study

for the

Milne Bay Community-Based Coastal and Marine Conservation Program
PNG/99/G41


Jeff Kinch
April 2001
UNOPS Contract for Services

Ref: C00-1076



Contents
Maps and Tables

Acronyms

Time Line

Recommendations
Chapter 1 The Milne Bay Community-Based Coastal and Marine Conservation Program (MBP) and the Social Evaluation Study (SES)
Introduction

Methodology

Limitations of the SES

The Proposed Conservation Strategy

The CBMMCAs
Chapter 2 The Natural Environment
The Marine Environment of Papua New Guinea (PNG)

The Marine Environment of Milne Bay Province

The Marine Biodiversity of Milne Bay Province

Zone 1

CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Zone 2

Zone 3

Climate


Rainfall

Winds

Geology


Soils
Chapter 3 History
Prehistory

History of Contact

History of Ethnographic Study

Raiding in the Early Colonial Period

Divine Intervention

Millenarism and Cargo Cults

World War II

Government History


Chapter 4 The Social Environment
Language

Clans and Social Structure

Matrilineages

Division of Labour and Work Effort

Landownership

Feasting


Status of Women

Leadership



Electing Leaders

Conflict Avoidance

Summary and Conclusion
Chapter 5 Population and Demography
Migration in Prehistory

Migration Today

Population

The Human Development Index



The Rural Domestic Factor Income

Current Population in the CBMMCAs



CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Population Control

Population Densities

Population Growth



Implications for the MBP

Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 6 Services and Infrastructure
Education and Delivery

Health Services



Malnutrition

Family Planning and Family Health

Disease

Communications and Infrastructure

Service Centres

Transport

Police

The Village Court System



Government Capacity

Ward Development Committees

Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 7 The Subsistence Economy
Land Pressure and Food Security

Agriculture



CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Plant Use



Housing

Faunal Use: Animal Husbandry and Hunting and Collecting



Domesticated Animals: Pigs and Chickens

Birds and Other Wild Animals

Subsistence Fishing



CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Fish Consumption

Non-Commercial Fisheries

Turtles

Dugong

Shellfish

Trading in Zone 1



CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Canoes

Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 8 The Cash Economy
Income Sources

CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Cash Crop Agriculture



Copra

Copra Marketing Board

Other Cash Crops

Potential Cash Crops

Tradestores and Cooperatives

Business Groups within Zone 1

Misima Associations

The Deboyne Islands Development Association

Problems of Business Development

Tourism

CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Other Tourism Activities

Misima Mines Limited



Effects of MML Closure

Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 9 The Fisheries Sector
Summary History of Commercialisation

The Milne Bay Fisheries Authority

Coral Sea Fisheries

Nako Fisheries and Kiwali Exports

Asiapac and Coral Sea Delights

Other Interests

Live Reef Fish Trade

The Long Liner Issue



Other Shipping Threats

Commercial Fisheries



Beche-de-mer Fishery

Shark Fishery

Trochus Fishery

Clam Fishery

Blacklip Fishery

Fish Fishery

Crayfish Fishery

Areas of Exploitation

Milne Bay Exports

Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 10 Tenure and Rights to Resources
Rights to Resources

Property Rights and the Commons Debate

Community-Based Co-Management

Enforcement

Current Tenure Disputes

CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 11 Conservation
Conservation Dichotomies

The Case for Local Ecological Knowledge

The Current Status of Local Knowledge and Cultural Loss

Tradition and Place

Community-Based Marine Management and Conservation Sites

Wildlife Management Areas

Traditional Practices: Reef Closures, Tabus and Monsters



Summary and Conclusion
Chapter 12 Conclusion
Best Opportunities for Conservation

CBMMCA 1

CBMMCA 2

CBMMCA 3

Appendix 1: Activities to Date for the MBP.

Appendix 2: Population by age groups in Zone 1.

Appendix 3: All Schools in or Near Zone 1.

Appendix 4: Aidposts in Zone 1.

Appendix 5: 1999 Family Planning Rates in Zone 1.

Appendix 6: Cash Earnings from Sale of Marine Resources at Brooker (CBMMCA 3): July 1998-June 1999.

Appendix 7: Household Production for CBMMCAs 2 and 3.

Appendix 8: Brooker (CBMMCA 3) Names of Geographical Features and their Meanings.

Appendix 9: Indicators for Community Conservation and Resource Management.

References

Map and Tables
Map 1: The CBMMCAs in the Zones
Table 1: Regional Comparison of the Estimated Total Number of Fish and Coral Species.

Table 2: Religious Affiliation in Milne Bay Province: 2000.

Table 3: Milne Bay Electorates and Local Level Governments.

Table 4: The CBMMCAs and their Associated Ward and Local Level Government

Table 5: Major Language Groups of Milne Bay.

Table 6: Languages within the CBMMCAs of Zone 1.

Table 7: Clan Names Found at Panaeati (CBMMCA 2) and Brooker (CBMMCA 3) and Associated Totems.

Table 8: Major Clans of the CBMMCAs.

Table 9: Sequence of Mortuary Feasts with Sponsors and Recipients at Panaeati (CBMMCA 2) and Brooker (CBMMCA 3).

Table 10: Milne Bay Provincial Population Figures 1966 - 2020.

Table 11: Milne Bay Province Mortality Indicators.

Table 12: Milne Bay Province: Natural Increase Indicators.

Table 13: Milne Bay Province: Age and Sex Composition in 1990.

Table 14: Population of CBMMCA 1.

Table 15: Population of CBMMCA 2, The Engineer Group.

Table 16: Population of CBMMCA 2, The Deboyne Islands.

Table 17: Population of CBMMCA 3.

Table 18: CBMMCA Population, Households and Population Increase Between 1980 and 2000.

Table 19: Brooker Island (CBMMCA 3) Census Data: 1944-1999.

Table 20: Provincial Population and Growth Rates.

Table 21: Number of Small Islands in Milne Bay and Estimated 2000 Population.

Table 22: CBMMCAs by Land and Reef Area and Persons Per Km².

Table 23: Cost of Education.

Table 24: Educational Level by Grade and by Sex for All People Living in CBMMCAs 2 and 3.

Table 25: Total number of Continuing Students and Costs for CBMMCAs 2.

Table 26: Schools by Agency in Milne Bay.

Table 27: Health Staff per 100,000 Population for Milne Bay Province, and for the Samarai Murua District (which includes most of Zones 1 and 2).

Table 28: Health Services for total Population of Milne Bay Province and the Samarai Murua District (which includes most of Zones 1 and 2).

Table 29: Brooker (CBMMCA 3) Health Problems and Priorities.

Table 30: Aidposts in Zone 1 as of June 2000.

Table 31: Provinces with Highest Malnutrition Rates in 1994.

Table 32: Brooker Island (CBMMCA 1) Number of children Under and Over 80% Weight for Age: March1999.

Table 33: Percent Deliveries of Low Birth Weight.

Table 34: Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality in the Samarai Murua District, Which Encompasses Most of Zones 1 and 2.

Table 35: Presence of Filarial Antigeamia (%) in the Samarai Murua District, Which Encompasses Most of Zones 1 and 2.

Table 36: 1999 Immunisation Levels of Total Population in Milne Bay Province and the Samarai-Murua District and Health Centres in Zone 1.

Table 37: CBMMCA Community Infrastructure: 2000.

Table 38: Brooker (CBMMCA 3) Community Problems and Priorities.

Table 39: Number of Gardens by Island for Brooker (CBMMCA 3): 1999.

Table 40: Plant Use on Brooker (CBMMCA 3).

Table 41: Types of Fishing Techniques Used at Brooker (CBCMMA 3).

Table 42: Fishing Equipment Used at Brooker (CBCMMA 3).

Table 43: Turtle Species Found in the Deboyne Islands (CBMMCA 2) and Brooker (CBMMCA 3) Waters.

Table 44: Monthly Catch Rates for Turtles at Brooker (CBMMCA 3): 1998-1999 Season.

Table 45: Location at Which Turtles Were Harvested by Brooker Islanders (CBMMCA 3): 1998-1999 Season.

Table 46: Trading Places for Turtles by Brooker (CBMMCA 3): 1998-1999 Season.

Table 47: CBMMCA Water Craft: 2000.

Table 48: Produce Sold at Alotau by Nuakata in 1999-2000 (CBMMCA 1).

Table 49: Cash Earnings from Sale of Marine Resources at Brooker (CBMMCA 3): July 1998-June 1999.

Table 50: CBMMCA Tradestores: 2000.

Table 51: Stores from the Deboyne Islands (CBMMCA 2) and Their StockValue: January to September 2000.

Table 52: Tradestore Price List (CBMMCAs 2 and 3): January 1998 to October 2000.

Table 53: Yearly Value Breakup of MML Tax Credit Scheme Projects by LLG.

Table 54: MBFA Fish Collection (kg) by Outstations: 1984-1990.

Table 55: Coral Sea Fisheries Export.

Table 56: Exports (kgs) from Milne Bay by Kiwali: 1994-1998.

Table 57: Exports (kgs) from Milne Bay by Asiapac: 1994-1998.

Table 58: Areas of Exploitation Recorded by Brooker (CBMMCA 3) Tradestore Purchases in Kgs: January-September 1999.

Table 59: Milne Bay Marine Product Export: 1998.

Table 60: Freehold Status of the Conflict Group (CBMMCA 2).

Table 61: Islands Around Brooker (CBMMCA 3) and Their Clan Ownership.

Table 62: Marine Resources Subject to Customary Taboos on Brooker Island.
Acronyms
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

CBMMCA Community-Based Marine Management Area

CBMMCS Community-Based Marine Management Site

Zone Community-Based Marine Management Zone

CDT Community Development Team

CI Conservation International

CODE College of Distant Education

CSF Coral Sea Fisheries

CWO Co-operative Wholesale Organisation

DIDA Deboyne Islands Development Association

GEF Global Environment Facility

HDI Human Development Index

ICAD Integrated Conservation and Development

LEK Local Ecological Knowledge

LGC Local Government Council

LLG Local Level Government

MBP Milne Bay Community-Based Coastal and Marine Conservation Program

MBFA Milne Bay Fisheries Authority

MML Misima Mines Limited

NDOE National Department of Education

PhD Doctor of Philosophy

PMV Public Motor Vehicle

PNG Papua New Guinea

PNGAS PNG Agricultural Systems

PNGRIS PNG Resource Information System

RAP Rapid Appraisal Program

SES Social Evaluation Study

SFS Social Feasibility Studies

SMART Samarai-Murua Agriculture, Research and Training Centre

STD Sexually Transmitted Disease

TB Tuberculosis

UNDP United Nations Development Program

UNESCO United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organisation

VBA Village Birth Attendant

VIG Village Interest Group

VTT Village Training Team

WDC Ward Development Committee

WHO World Health Organisation



Milne Bay Time Line with Emphasis on the Community-Based Marine Management Conservation Zone 1
Year Activity


  1. Louis Vaez de Torres traverses the Louisiade Archipelago.

1699 Dampier makes geological observations in the northern islands.

1768 Louis Antoine de Bougainville names the area Golfe de la Louisiade.

1771 Capt. Edwards sails through in Her Majesty's Ship Pandora.

1793 Bruny D’Entrecasteaux arrives searching for the lost La Perouse.

1793 John Hayes sails through the Louisiade Archipelago.


  1. Coutance Bristow visits the area.

  1. D’Urville goes to Ware and begins surveying the Calvados Chain.

1847 Marist station started on Woodlark.

1849 Owen Stanley surveys Sudest and Rossel.

1873 Captain Moresby explores the China Straits and the Samarai Islands.

1877 London Missionary Society mission started at Suau and Ware Island.

1878 Massive mortality in Milne Bay and the outer islands. John McOrt and William Ingham killed at Brooker.

1879 Europeans start moving from Suau to Samarai.

1884 Declaration of a protectorate over Suau, Samarai, Milne Bay, Killerton and Ware.

1885 Captain Friar murdered on Basilaki and Reed murdered at the Engineer Group.



  1. Government agent posted to Samarai.

  2. Britain Appendixes the protectorate and the Eastern Division formed.

  3. Colonial administration buys land at Misima and establishes station at Sudest. Nivani (in the Deboyne Islands) is chosen as the centre of Southeastern Division. The whole of the Louisiade Archipelago declared a gold field. Mining starts at Misima.

1890 Reverend George Brown selects Dobu as the centre for the Methodists to begin work.

1891 Start of Methodists expansion, they arrive at Ware and Bromilow replaces the London Missionary Society teachers with Samoan teachers. Reverend Samuel Fellows begins missionary work at Panaeati and an outstation is built at Tubetube. Large depopulation at Tubetube. Kwato mission set up by missionary Charles Abel.



  1. Part of the Eastern Division becomes the Louisiade (Southeastern) Division.

  2. Nivani Island planted by prisoners for copra.

  1. Panasesa Island in the Conflict Group is leased by Henry Alexander Wickham

1901 Trobriand Islands are included in the Southeastern Division.

1902 The Southeastern Division’s headquarters are moved from Nivani to Woodlark as the Louisiade goldfields wind down.

1909 J. G. Munt takes over plantations at Nivani.


  1. Resident magistrate and Government Headquarters return to Bwagaioa from Woodlark. Panasesa in the Conflicts granted freehold status.

  1. United Church starts work at Rossel Island. Cargo Cult begins at Misima.

1932 Catholics begin work at Sidea.

  1. First motor vessel arrives in Milne Bay.

  2. Translation of New Testament into the Misima language is completed.

1940 Panapompom plantations are taken over by F. Palisbo.

  1. Japanese bomb Samarai.

  2. People evacuated from Samarai and Misima and Civil Administration ends. A Japanese floatplane is based in Deboyne Lagoon.

  3. Lieutenant Mader is murdered at Motorina as part of a cargo cult at Misima.

  1. United States Armed Forces withdraw. Hanging of those responsible for Lieutenant Mader's murder.

  1. Catholic Church starts work at Nimoa.

  2. Catholic Church starts work at Rossel Island. Polio epidemic at Misima.

  3. Primary school is opened at Misima.

  4. Samarai overseas wharf rebuilt.

  5. Cyclone damages Misima and all villages on outer islands. Local Government Councils system formed.

  1. Louisiade Local Government Council established at Misima. Cargo Cult at Panaeati.

1962 Motor Vessel Karu is wrecked at Jomard.

1965 Yeleamba Local Government Council established at Sudest.



  1. Bwanabwana Local Government Council established at Samarai.

  1. Movement of Government Administration from Samarai to Alotau.

1970 Summer Institute of Linguistics arrives in Milne Bay and start literacy and translation work.

  1. Aerodrome built at Sudest.

  1. Masurina begins business.

  2. PNG Independence.

  1. Milne Bay Provincial Government set up.

  2. Milne Bay Fisheries Authority starts with assistance from the International Food and Development Program.

  3. Milne Bay Fisheries Authority opens outstation at Brooker.

  1. National Executive Council approval given for Misima Mines Limited development. Final Environmental Plan approved by Department of Environment and Conservation.

  2. Construction of Misima Mines Limited begins. State of Papua New Guinea acquires 20% ownership in Misima Mines Limited.

1989 Misima Mines Limited starts operations.

1990 Milne Bay Fisheries Authority wound up after costing US $12 million.



  1. Initiation of Educational Reforms. Formal Elementary Schools introduced. Tuna vessel runs aground at Liak on Misima.

  2. Nako Fisheries is started. Coral Sea Fisheries is also started at Misima.

1996 Coral Sea Fisheries is wound up.

  1. Political reform begins with introduction of the Organic Law. Cyclone Justin devastates the Louisiade Archipelago. CI begins work in Milne Bay.

  2. Worst drought on record. Author begins fieldwork at Brooker into marine resource management. Misima Hospital opened. Ware people confiscate beche-de-mer from Brooker at Nabaina escalating their dispute.

  1. New Testament re-translated into Misima.

  2. Three longliners run aground at Bramble Haven and the Long/Kosman Reef area. Container Vessel runs aground at Sariba Island. Milne Bay Beche-de-mer Management Committee formally set up.

(Sources: National Statistical Office, 2000; Roe, 1961, McIntyre and Allen 1990; Berde, 1976; Whiting, 1975; Brass, 1959; Lewis, 1996; Nelson, 1976; Kinch, 1999)



Recommendations
1. Establish a good communications strategy between the MBP and targeted communities. Fully inform stakeholders of the MBP’s objectives and activities.
2. The MBP must identify opportunities for community participation to develop capacity, systems and processes in strategic management and planning for sustainable resource management and conservation.
3. The design of the MBP should take a long-term view to conservation and resource management, and should be based on the Community Entry Approach utilising PRA tools to allow communities to facilitate and implement activities in accordance with their own wishes, needs and desires.


  1. Consider and/or cultivate more active involvement with other NGOs with experience and expertise in community development.


5. Recognise the role and importance of local institutions such as churches, women's fellowships and youth groups. Church leaders will play an important role. They will provide a potent and innovative vehicle for reaching large constituencies on conservation resource management issues.
6. Conservation, awareness and other materials should be produced in Dobu for the Nuakata and East Cape areas (CBMMCA 1); in Tubetube for the Engineers (CBMMCA 2) and Ware (CBMMCA 3); and in Misima for the Deboynes (CBMMCA 2) and Brooker (CBMMCA 3).
7. Recognise that forming new organisations and the relationships embedded within them requires significant time, effort, and resources. The design of program interventions should acknowledge the economic, cultural and institutional needs of various allied and culturally related groups.
8. Thoroughly analyse the Census 2000 to more accurately forecast future population levels. Information is also needed on maximum sustainable threshold population for islands in the CBMMCAs.
9. Continue and support the Village Census Books and regularly monitor and analyse the data collected. The Provincial Data System is trying to re-establish this process as this information is useful to the LLG and District Planning processes. The MBP needs to support these efforts.
10. Conduct research on garden yields to more accurately understand the relationships between agricultural productivity and dependency on marine resources.
11. Continue supporting environmental education program activities. Environmental literacy is important to communities and should be encouraged by the MBP as it has the potential of providing an important means to create awareness of options for conservation, development and resource management.
12. Build the capacity of Village Recorders, Magistrates and District Court systems to actively enforce community rules and regulations related to resource use and management.
13. Recognize and address the need for institutional strengthening and capacity building at all government levels.
14. Incorporate land use surveys into the MBP since land availability for subsistence productivity is one of the most important future constraints to sustainable livelihoods. Investigate the impact of the introduced African snail and other exotic species.


  1. Support research on rehabilitating existing cash crops and developing alternative cash crops such as low volume/high weight spices.


16. Produce awareness materials on sound business practices for communities to encourage improved management.
17. Continue to facilitate rates of payment between resource owners in CBMMCA 1 and Zone 3 and dive operators.
18. Recognise the impact of the Misima Mine closure and the consequences that this will have on the capacity of Local Level Government and portions of CBMMCAs 2 and 3. Support any plans by MML that contribute to LLG strengthening, food security and general welfare of communities and the environment.
19. Recognise problems encountered in previous fisheries development projects to avoid unrealistic expectations in business development and adopt a go-slow approach.
20. Investigate a cooperative relationship with marine resource exporters and buyers, who could be involved in extension work delivering management and quality control messages to remote communities.
21. Address the need for a strong surveillance component to be built at all levels of government and at the community level.
22. Conduct a thorough stock assessment, biogeographical survey and community resource-mapping program.
23. Contract a fisheries-modeller to quantitatively describe the potential biological performance of CBMMCSs and other alternative approaches to managing marine resources.
24. Conduct research to determine the level of dependency on marine resources and community cash requirements.
25. Provide recognition and support to all levels of government for community developed regulations and CBMMCSs.
26. Conduct in-depth study of property relations for the CBMMCAs. Data on marine tenure needs updating with the implementation of a social mapping program. With each grouping of peoples having its own myths, legends and migration stories, it is important that an attempt is made by the MBP to gain at least some understanding of these and how they may (or may not) relate to claims to or ownership of marine resources.
27. Support Milne Bay Provincial Government programs in conflict resolution and mediation, either through informal/formal court systems and/or demarcation and registration of claims to traditional fishing rights. This would benefit villagers, particularly from Ware and Brooker, in CBMMCA 3.
28. Given the lack of a conservation ethic among communities in the CBMMCAs, the MBP will have to link conservation to issues which local people find important and which move them to think about resource management, planning and conservation.
29. Appropriate marine resource management systems should be designed, implemented and monitored. Construct an appropriate feedback mechanism from top to bottom and vice versa.
30. Investigate the suitability of closed seasons for different species and the problems of multi-species fisheries at different spatial and temporal scales.
31. Western and local scientific knowledge of marine systems management are jointly employed to reinforce the interdependency between humans and nature, and to provide a platform for the introduction of more Western concepts of conservation.
32. Encourage, train and equip communities to participate in the monitoring and surveillance of their own marine resources.
33. Design activities to create a mechanism for recognising the value, role, and importance of Local Ecological Knowledge.
34. Involve LLGs in future demarcation of conservation and management areas and the provision of services that would offset these conservation and management areas costs. There is a need to establish linkages with the LLGs and assist in giving advice on the formulation of LLG laws that are useful to the MBP.
Chapter 1 The Milne Bay Community-Based Coastal and Marine

Conservation Program (MBP) and the Social Evaluation Study (SES)
Introduction

Before making a commitment to a given area, programs such as the Milne Bay Community-based Coastal and Marine Conservation Program (MBP) must collect information on local institutions, community history, social and political structures, and opportunities for, and constraints to conservation, development and management. In some areas, the combination of social, economic, institutional and political factors may make conservation simply unworkable. Social Assessments or Social Feasibility Studies (SFS) can be useful in designing activities to deal with specific local issues and may serve to alert conservation proponents to unmanageable local problems. The role of a Social Feasibility Study is to ascertain whether communities in a proposed conservation area have an interest in, and the ability to participate in biodiversity conservation initiatives. In the Milne Bay Community-Based Coastal and Marine Conservation Program (MBP) the term SFS has been changed to Social Evaluation Study (SES) because communities were already targeted as a result of the Site Selection Workshop held in July 2000. Consequently all work for this study has involved communities located in Community-Based Marine Management Conservation Zone (Zone) 1.


The rationale for this current SES is based on the lessons learned from previous Integrated Conservation and Development (ICAD) work at Lak and Bismarck-Ramu where there was insufficient understanding of the local socio-economic situation, which later led to difficulties with resource owners (see McCallum and Sekhran 1997). Following these experiences, it was decided that the collection of social and economic data was to be an integral part of future United Nations Development Program (UNDP) sponsored conservation programs.
The SES aims at collecting the necessary economic and socio-cultural information to assist in the design of biodiversity conservation and resource management initiatives by: (i) describing livelihood strategies; (ii) identifying groups with an interest and willingness to participate; (iii) providing information needed to facilitate participation; (iv) defining relevant socio-economic, political, and cultural factors that should be taken into account; and (v) describing activities which threaten biodiversity (adapted from World Bank, 1994).
Methodology

Background data collection for the SES began with a Province-Wide Assessment that culminated in a presentation on Social Aspects for the Milne Bay Program (see Kinch, 2000a) at the Site Selection Workshop (see Mitchell, 2000a). The Site Selection Workshop was conducted in July 2000, in Alotau, Milne Bay Province. Stakeholders from local communities and NGOs, churches, Departments of the Provincial and National governments, UNDP and Conservation International (CI) were asked to provide input on a wide range of biological, social and economic issues in Milne Bay and to determine which areas in the Province required improved management and conservation measures. Through that process, three Community-based Marine Management and Conservation Zones (Zones) were selected to secure a representative sample of globally significant biodiversity, where such management and conservation measures were both socially and economically feasible.



This Site Selection Workshop set the stage for initial community entry. Community Entry Patrols were conducted after a two-day Community Entry Workshop, which was held in August 2000, again in Alotau. The aim of the workshop was to discuss issues on the Community Entry/Approaches processes that are appropriate and relevant for the MBP. Consensus amongst participants at the end of this two-day workshop was that for long-term sustainability and for a successful exit strategy, Ward Development Committees (WDCs) are to be used throughout the MBP at differing degrees of intensity. This approach was viewed as a good way of building interest, involvement and confidence in the program (see Kinch, 2000b, c; 2001).


In the next stage, community entry patrols were conducted in October and November to build community awareness on the MBP and the results of the Marine RAP (see Kinch, 2000d; Mitchell, 2000b,c). Discussions with targeted communities and villagers were initiated in the identified sites to assess their resource management needs and receptivity to conservation, and to guage the likelihood of success in securing conservation outcomes. Some of these targeted communities are now recognising that marine resources can be exhausted, and some are seeking assistance to monitor and manage these changes to ensure sustainability of the species for food security and income sources.
These discussions provided a large quantity of data for the SES and systematic information was also collected on the availability of services in the CBMMCAs, the characteristics of community stakeholders, their agricultural and fishing practices and income generating activities available to people in the CBMMCAs. Field data for the SES were collected using a combination of mapping techniques, observation, and semi-structured interviews with a range of different respondents.
A literature search and review was contracted to Robin Hide and completed by HSM Associates (HSM Associates, 2000). This literature study was supplemented with data gleaned from government and patrol reports and the author's Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) study on marine resource use at Brooker (CBMMCA 3) (see Kinch, 1999). Throughout the SES, the most in-depth and accurate data for examples, tables, etc. will be those using information concerning Brooker and the Misima District. A fisheries survey at Nuakata (located in CBMMCA 1) also was conducted by CI in conjunction with the Provincial Fisheries Division in December 1999 and July 2000 (see Kelokelo, 2000; Kelokelo and Kinch, 2000). See Appendix 1 for work to date. By combining the information taken from the literature, pre- and post-Independence patrol reports, the author's PhD research, field observations and interviews, it is hoped that this study provides a reasonably objective overview of the issues at stake for the MBP. The multifaceted work carried out and published by Bourke et al (1995) as part of the PNG Agricultural Systems program (PNGAS) has proved to be also of immense value.
Recommendations:
1. Establish a good communications strategy between the MBP and targeted communities. Fully inform stakeholders of the MBP’s objectives and activities.
2. The MBP must identify opportunities for community participation to develop capacity, systems and processes in strategic management and planning for sustainable resource management and conservation.
3. The design of the MBP should take a long-term view to conservation and resource management, and should be based on the Community Entry Approach utilising PRA tools to allow communities to facilitate and implement activities in accordance with their own wishes, needs and desires.
4. Consider and/or cultivate more active involvement with other NGOs with experience and expertise in community development.
Limitations of the SES

Limitations of the SES lie with the timeframe allowed to research and write it and with the information collated in the literature review by HSM Associates. All the ethnographic data on many island communities in the ZONE 1 dates from at least 20 years ago. This could have presented some difficulties in attributing customs, behaviour, and motivations etc. from that time to current populations living in the CBMMCAs, and care and sensitivity have been exercised in relation to using this information. Fortunately for the MBP, the previous PhD research by the author and the work done by the staff of CI in Milne Bay make up some of these shortfalls that have been largely addressed.


The other limitation for the SES is that, this report is based on one Province-Wide Assessment patrol to some of the targeted areas and only one Community Entry patrol. Subsequently the SES is heavily dependent on the judgements of the author who was based in one of the targeted areas and the knowledge of the Program Manager (who is a National from Milne Bay) and the Sustainable Development Officer, an expatriate with 16 years experience in local communities and conditions.
The Proposed Conservation Strategy

Within the large Community-based Marine Management Conservation Zones (Zones), several small-scale Community-based Marine Management and Conservation Sites (CBMMCSs) will be established in high biodiversity priority locations for which community-based management and different degrees of protection are socially and economically feasible.


These community-based management and conservation efforts will be complemented and supported by appropriate marine resource use policy changes covering all of Milne Bay Province, and targeting institutional capacity building of the Local Level Governments (LLGs) and WDCs with jurisdiction over the three prioritised CBMMCAs (see Kinch, 2001). The development of stronger community-based management and local government capacities hopefully will lead to the recovery and long-term sustainability of currently over-harvested species (such as trochus, beche-de-mer and giant clam) and ensuing long-term livelihood strategies for local communities. The incentives for communities to manage and protect these high biodiversity priority areas will depend to a large degree on the performance of these management and conservation measures in securing fisheries benefits.
To accomplish this the following will be implemented as part of the MBP strategy (i) training and empowerment of WDCs and Village Interest Groups (VIGs) to serve as key village-based awareness and outreach contacts; (ii) conducting education and awareness; (iii) conducting in-depth biological and social inventories; (iv) improving conservation values and raising stakeholders' awareness; (v) mobilising communities to improve local management of marine resources by building capacity of local stakeholders and providing supporting resource materials; (vi) ensuring government is commited to community empowerment and provides valid legislative support for community action; (vii) creating economic incentives for marine conservation and sustainable use of marine resources; (vii) utilising exchange programs; (ix) creating a network of community-based management and conservation areas by developing a sustainable CBMMCSs approach with appropriate checks, benefits, monitoring, surveillance and support; and (x) evaluating activities success in Zone 1 and replicating CBMMCSs in selected Zones 2 and 3 communities.
The CBMMCAs

The three CBMMCAs in Zone 1 are: (i) CBMMCA 1: Nuakata, Iabam/Pahilele and East Cape; (ii) CBMMCA 2: The Engineer Group including Tubetube, Kwairawa, Skelton and Tewatewa, the Conflict Group and the Deboyne Islands Group including Panaeati, Panapompom and Nivani; and (iii) CBMMCA 3: Ware, Anagusa, Long/Kosman Reef, Bramble Haven and Brooker. Throughout the report, their CBMMCA number will indentify these areas.


Chapter 2 The Natural Environment
The Marine Environment of Papua New Guinea (PNG)

The country of PNG comprises the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the world’s largest tropical island) and over 600 offshore islands. It has an extensive coastline that stretches over 17,110 km and an immense area of sea encompassing 3,120,000 km² (of which 40,000 km² is coral reef). PNG’s marine ecosystems are generally in excellent environmental condition and have some of the best remaining examples of the world’s most biologically rich coral reefs.


Table 1: Regional Comparison of the Estimated Total Number of Fish and Coral Species (Source: Seeto, 2000)

Type

PNG

Milne Bay Province

Indonesia

Philippines

Reef Fish


1419

1109

1656

1525

Corals

500

429

427

411
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