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S national Park Service U. S. Department of the Interior Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Management Directive No. 038 Preventing Introduction and Spread of Invasive Non-Native Plants August 18, 2004 contents


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APPENDIX A: DEFINITIONS



Alien species: (see non-native species).
Control: as appropriate, eradicating, suppressing, reducing, or managing invasive species populations, preventing spread of invasive species from areas where they are present, and taking steps such as restoration of native species and habitats to reduce the effects of invasive species and to prevent further invasions (Executive Order 13112).
Ecosystem: the complex of a community of organisms and its environment (Executive Order 13112).
Exotic species: (see non-native species).
Highly invasive non-native species: for the purpose of this directive, these are species given a USGS C1 or CDFA rating in the prohibited plant list at the end of this document.
Introduction: the intentional or unintentional escape, release, dissemination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of human activity (Executive Order 13112).
Invasive species: a non-native species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Invasive species display rapid growth and spread, establish over large areas, and persist (Executive Order 13112).
Local genetic stock: for the purpose of this directive, plants of local genetic stock are those grown from seed or cuttings collected from the same drainage/sub-watershed and within a similar elevational range (500 feet) of where they will later be planted.
Native species: with respect to a particular ecosystem, a species that, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently occurs in that ecosystem (Executive Order 13112).
Non-native species: with respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not native to that ecosystem (Executive Order 13112).
Noxious weed: a weed specified by law as being especially undesirable, troublesome, and difficult to control. In California, a noxious weed is legally defined as “any species of plant which is, or is liable to be, detrimental or destructive and difficult to control or eradicate, which the director, by regulation, designates to be a noxious weed” (California Food and Agriculture Code).
Species: a group of organisms all of which have a high degree of physical and genetic similarity, generally interbreed only among themselves, and show persistent differences from members of allied groups of organisms (Executive Order 13112).
Weed: a plant growing where it is not desired (Weed Science Society of America). For the purposes of this directive, a weed is a non-native species that interferes with management objectives for a particular site. In this document, “weed” is synonymous with “invasive species.”
Wilderness: in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man and where man himself is a visitor who does not remain. Wilderness retains its primeval character and influence and is protected and managed in such a way that it appears to have been affected primarily by the force of nature (Wilderness Act).

APPENDIX B: PROHIBITED PLANT LIST

The plants listed below are prohibited in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. They are easily available through the horticultural industry and pose an extreme risk for escape into natural areas of SEKI and DEPO. The list, based on research and recommendations, has been compiled from the following sources: California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), United States Geological Survey-Biological Resources Division (USGS), California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council (PNW-EPPC). A USDA listing is a nationally designated threat, a CalIPC or CDFA listing is a serious statewide risk, and a USGS designation is a specific threat to Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks. The Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council (PNW-EPPC), addresses non-native plant concerns of the states of Washington and Oregon, both of which contain climates and vegetation types similar to Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. This list will be updated periodically.



Plants listed under a starred column heading (CDFA and USGS “C1” only) are known to be highly invasive, and established plantings will be removed as soon as is feasible. Residents will be notified before plants are removed.


Scientific name

Common Name

Currently in Park

USGS*

USDA

CDFA*

Cal-IPC

PNW-EPPC

Annuals:






















Arctotheca calendula

Capeweed







USDA

CDFA

Cal-IPC




Calendula officinalis

Calendula



















Centaurea cyaneus

Cornflower, Bachelor Buttons
















Cosmos bipinnatus

Cosmos



















Dimorphotheca sinuata

African Daisy













Cal-IPC




Linaria maroccana

Toadflax



















Linum grandiflorum rubrum

Scarlet Flax



















Egeria densa

Aquarium Elodea
















PNW-EPPC

























Bulbs:






















Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora

Crocosmia













Cal-IPC




Iris sp.

Iris

X

USGS C2

USDA

CDFA







Leucojum aestivum

Summer Snowflake

X

USGS C2





































Herbaceous Perennials






















Althaea rosea

Hollyhocks



















Aptenia cordifolia

Red Apple Iceplant













Cal-IPC




Carpobrotus chilensis

Sea Fig













Cal-IPC




Carpobrotus edulis

Hottentot Fig













Cal-IPC




Centranthus ruber

Valerian













Cal-IPC




Coreopsis lanceolata

Coreopsis

X

USGS C1













Daucus carota

Queen Anne’s Lace
















PNW-EPPC

Digitalis purpurea

Foxglove

X

USGS C1







Cal-IPC

PNW-EPPC

Euphorbia lathyris

Gopher Spurge













Cal-IPC




Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel

X

USGS C1







Cal-IPC

PNW-EPPC

Gazania linearis

Gazania













Cal-IPC




Gypsophila paniculata

Baby’s Breath







USDA

CDFA







Helichrysum petiolare

Licorice Plant













Cal-IPC




Hypericum perforatum

Creeping St. Johnswort

X

USGS C1

USDA




Cal-IPC

PNW-EPPC

Iris sp.

Iris

X

USGS C2

USDA

CDFA







Lathyrus latifolius

Perennial Sweet Pea

X

USGS C1













Leucanthemum maximum

Shasta Daisy




USGS C1













Leucanthemum vulgare

Ox-eye Daisy




USGS C1










PNW-EPPC

Limonium ramosissimum ssp provinciale

Sea Lavender













Cal-IPC




Linaria genistifolia ssp. dalmatica

Dalmation toadflax










CDFA







Lythrum salicaria

Purple Loosestrife







USDA

CDFA

Cal-IPC




Mentha pulegium

Pennyroyal

X

USGS C1













Mentha spicata

Spearmint

X

USGS C1













Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

Crystalline Iceplant













Cal-IPC




Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum

Slender-leaved Iceplant













Cal-IPC




Oxalis pes-caprae

Bermuda Buttercup

X

USGS C1







Cal-IPC




Polygonum cuspidatum

Japanese Knotweed







USDA







PNW-EPPC

Rudbeckia hirta

Black-eyed Susan




USGS C1













Salvia aethiopia

Mediterranean Sage










CDFA

Cal-IPC

PNW-EPPC

Tanacetum vulgare

Common Tansy













Cal-IPC

PNW-EPPC

Tropaeolum majus

Nasturtium



















Verbascum thapsus

Woolly Mullein

X

USGS C3







Cal-IPC

PNW-EPPC

Verbena bonariensis

Vervain













Cal-IPC




Zantedeschia aethiopica

Calla Lily













Cal-IPC




























Perennial Grasses:






















Arundo donax

Giant Reed

X

USGS C1

USDA

CDFA

Cal-IPC




Cortaderia jubata

Pampas Grass







USDA

CDFA

Cal-IPC




Cortaderia selloana

Pampas Grass













Cal-IPC




Cynodon dactylon

Bermudagrass

X




USDA

CDFA







Festuca arundinacea

Tall Fescue

X

USGS C1







Cal-IPC




Lolium spp.

Ryegrass

X

USGS C2

USDA










Miscanthus floridulus

Miscanthus







USDA










Pennisetum setaceaum & cultivars

Fountain Grass







USDA




Cal-IPC




Phalaris arundinacea

Reed Canary Grass

X

USGS C1










PNW-EPPC

Phyllostachys aurea

Golden Bamboo

X
















Poa pratensis

Kentucky Bluegrass

X

USGS C3

USDA









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