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Review of the species of New World Erythroneurini


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Plate 11. Habitus of Eratoneura species. a – E. vittata (Knull & Auten); b – E. biramosa (Beamer); c – E. smithi (Ross), paratype; d – E. prolixa (Knull); e – E. teres (Beamer); f – E. amethica (Ross), paratype; g – E. tenuitas (Knull); h – E. haysensis (Hepner); i – E. geronimoi (Knull), holotype; j – E. macra (Beamer); k – E. socia (Knull), holotype; l – E. accola (McAtee).
Fig. 1. E. dira (Beamer). a – pygofer lobe, lateral view; b – same, dorsal view; c – style; d – aedeagus, lateral view; e – same, ventral view; f – genital plate, ventral view; g – connective; h – forewing; i – hind wing; j ­– sternal abdominal apodemes (2S apodemes). Abbreviations: ac1–ac4 – apical cells; bl – basolateral macrochaetae; bm – brochosome field; cl – clavus; da – dorsal apodeme; dap – appendage; gd – gonoduct; ir – interradial crossvein; ms – basal macrosetae; pa – preatrium; pl – preapical lobe.

Fig. 2. E. gillettei (Beamer). c – holotype; a, b, d, e – paratype.

Fig. 3. E. imbricariae (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 4. E. lamucata (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 5. E. maculata (Gillette). a – from Dietrich & Dmitriev (2006a).

Fig. 6. E. eversi (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 7. E. noncuspidis (Beamer).

Fig. 8. E. teshi (Hepner). a, c–e – paratype; b – from Hepner (1972c).

Fig. 9. E. osborni (DeLong). e1–e2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus basal processes; e2 – unusual form.

Fig. 10. E. sandersoni (Ross). a1–b2, – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; d1–e2 – variation of shape of aedeagus; a2, d1 – from Ross (1956a); e2 – holotype.

Fig. 11. E. crinita (Beamer). c – holotype; d – paratype.

Fig. 12. E. andersoni (Beamer). c – paratype.

Fig. 13. E. paraesculi (Knull). a, c–e – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 14. E. tammina (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 15. E. texana (Beamer). d – holotype.

Fig. 16. E. separata (Beamer). a, c – paratype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 17. E. curvata (Beamer). c, d – holotype; a, b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 18. E. restricta (Beamer). a1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a2 – holotype; a1, b2, c – holotype of E. pallida Knull & Auten; b1–b2 – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 19. E. impar (Beamer). a1–a3 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage, c – holotype.

Fig. 20. E. carmini (Beamer). a, b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 21. E. forfex (Beamer). a, c – holotype.

Fig. 22. E. linea (Beamer). a1–a2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage.

Fig. 23. E. rangifer (Ross & DeLong). a1–a2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a2–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 24. E. dimidiata (Knull). a, b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 25. E. sanctaerosae (Hepner). a, c–e – holotype; b – from Hepner (1967a).

Fig. 26. E. betulae sp.n.. a – e – paratype.

Fig. 27. E. concisa (Beamer). a1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a1, b1 – var. concisa Beamer; a2, b2 – var. consueta Beamer; a3 – var. lucora Hepner; a2, b1, b2 – from Hepner (unpublished); c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 28. E. spala (Ross & DeLong). b – holotype; d – paratype; a, c, e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 29. E. harpola (Ross). c – paratype; a, d, e – from Ross (1956a).

Fig. 30. E. minor (Beamer). c, d – holotype; a, b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 31. E. aesculi (Beamer). c – holotype; a, b, d, e – paratype.

Fig. 32. E. bifida (Beamer). a, b – paratype; c – holotype.

Fig. 33. E. aculeata (Beamer). c – holotype.

Fig. 34. E. lusoria (Van Duzee).

Fig. 35. E. pyra (McAtee).

Fig. 36. E. millsi (Ross & DeLong). a1–a2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a2 – var. schista Knull; a2–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 37. E. longifurca (Hepner). a, b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 38. E. manus (Beamer). e1–e2 – variation of shape of the aedeagal shaft; e2 – var. tenilla Ross & DeLong; a–d, e2 – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 39. E. staffordi (Hepner). c–e – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 40. E. ardens (McAtee). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 41. E. uvaldeana (Knull). a2, c, d – holotype; a1 – paratype.

Fig. 42. E. inepta (Beamer). a1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a2, b2 – var. hutchinsi Hepner; c – holotype; a1, b1, b2 – from Hepner (unpublished); a2 – from Hepner (1966c).

Fig. 43. E. firma (Beamer). a1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a1 – holotype; a2 – holotype of E. velox Ross; b1 – paratype of E. thaxtoni Hepner; d1–d2 – variation in shape of the aedeagus; d1 – holotype; d2 – paratype of E. thaxtoni Hepner; b2, c – from Ross (1953b).

Fig. 44. E. bispinosa (Beamer). a, b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 45. E. hyalina (Knull & Auten). a–d – holotype.

Fig. 46. E. harnedi (Hepner).

Fig. 47. E. unica (Beamer). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 48. E. mira (Beamer). a, c – paratype.

Fig. 49. E. facota (Beamer). a, c – holotype; d – paratype.

Fig. 50. E. cristata (Knull). a, c, d – holotype; b, e – holotype of E. spiniterma Hepner.

Fig. 51. E. mcateei sp.n..

Fig. 52. E. ungulata (Beamer). c – holotype.

Fig. 53. E. distincta (Knull & Auten). c – holotype; a, b, d, e – holotype of E. priniquera Hepner.

Fig. 54. E. spinea (Knull). a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 55. E. rotunda (Beamer). b1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 56. E. nigriventer (Beamer). c – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 57. E. stupkaorum (Knull). a – e – paratype.

Fig. 58. E. usitata (Beamer). b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 59. E. incondita (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished); c – e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 60. E. ingrata (Beamer). c – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 61. E. arenosa (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 62. E. uncinata (Beamer). c – holotype.

Fig. 63. E. arpegia (Ross). a–e – from Ross (1957a).

Fig. 64. E. propria (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 65. E. brevipes (Beamer). a – from Hepner (unpublished); b–c – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 66. E. turgida (Beamer). c – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 67. E. delongi (Knull & Auten). a, c – from Ross (1953b); b – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 68. E. immota (Beamer). c – holotype; a–b – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 69. E. tantilla (Beamer). c1–c2 – variation of shape of the style; c1, d – holotype; c2 – paratype of E. freytagi Hepner; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 70. E. sorota (Hepner). a–e – holotype.

Fig. 71. E. solita (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished); c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 72. E. knullae (Ross). e1–e2 – varitation of shape of the aedeagus; e1 – holotype; a–d – from Ross (1953b).

Fig. 73. E. omani (Beamer).

Fig. 74. E. mimica (Ross). a, c, d – from Ross (1957a); b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 75. E. sancta (Beamer). e1–e2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus; e1 – var. acericola Ross & DeLong; e2 – holotype; a–e1 – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 76. E. inksana (Knull).

Fig. 77. E. alloplana (Ross). e – holotype, a–d – from Ross (1956a).

Fig. 78. E. parva (Beamer). c – holotype.

Fig. 79. E. mirifica (Beamer). c – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 80. E. abjecta (Beamer). c – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 81. E. hartii (Gillette). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 82. E. misera (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 83. E. nevadensis (Beamer). a – holotype; b–e – paratype.

Fig. 84. E. lata (Beamer). c – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 85. E. levecki (Hepner). c–e – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 86. E. tantula (Knull).

Fig. 87. E. beeri (Hepner). c–e – paratype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 88. E. accita (Knull). a – paratype; c–d – holotype.

Fig. 89. E. cera (Hepner). a–b – paratype; c–d – holotype.

Fig. 90. E. rubraza (Robinson).

Fig. 91. E. affinis (Fitch). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 92. E. stephensoni (Beamer). c – holotype.

Fig. 93. E. clavipes (Beamer). c – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 94. E. retusa (Beamer). c – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 95. E. hymac (Robinson).

Fig. 96. E. externa (Beamer). c – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 97. E. brooki (Hepner). c–d – holotype; e – paratype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 98. E. longa (Knull). c–e – paratype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 99. E. sebringensis (Hepner). c–e – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 100. E. parvipes (Beamer). c – holotype.

Fig. 101. E. calamitosa (Beamer). c – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 102. E. richardsi (Ross). e – paratype; a–d – from Ross (1953b).

Fig. 103. E. marilandicae (Ross). c, e – holotype; a, b, d – from Ross (1957a).

Fig. 104. E. opulenta (Beamer). a, c, e – holotype.

Fig. 105. E. era (McAtee). c1–c2 – variation of shape of the style; d1–d2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus; c1, d1 – holotype; c2 – holotype of E. univittata Robinson.

Fig. 106. E. fergersoni (Hepner). e1–e2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus; c, e1 – paratype; b, d, e2 – holotype of E. johnsoni Hepner; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 107. E. ellisi (Hepner). a – from Hepner (unpublished); b – from Hepner (1969a).

Fig. 108. E. acantha (Ross & DeLong). b – holotype; c1–c2 – variation of shape of the style; c2 – paratype of E. sethi Hepner; a – from Hepner (unpublished); c1, d, e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 109. E. interna (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 110. E. robusta (Knull). c1–c2 – variation of shape of the style; a–c1, d, e – paratype; c2 – paratype of E. sadleri Hepner.

Fig. 111. E. metopia (Ross). a, b, d, e – from Ross (1957a); c – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 112. E. patris (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 113. E. econa (Ross). c, e – holotype; a, b, d – from Ross (1957a).

Fig. 114. E. alicia (Ross). e – holotype; a, b, d – from Ross (1957a); c – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 115. E. zioni (Beamer). a–d – holotype; e – paratype.

Fig. 116. E. greeni (Hepner). a, d, e – paratype; c – holotype.

Fig. 117. E. lenta (Beamer). c – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 118. E. gilesi (Hepner). a1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; e1–e2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus; a1, b2, c, d, e2 – holotype; a2, b2 – var. colvardi Hepner.

Fig. 119. E. maga (Knull). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished); c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 120. E. igella (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 121. E. stannardi (Hepner). a–e – holotype.

Fig. 122. E. trautmanae (Knull). c – holotype.

Fig. 123. E. knighti (Beamer). c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 124. E. triangulata (Beamer). b – from Hepner (unpublished); c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 125. E. corylorubra (Knull). c – paratype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 126. E. fulleri (Hepner). a, c–e – holotype; b – from Hepner (1967a).

Fig. 127. E. rubranotata (Beamer).

Fig. 128. E. citrosa (Ross). b–c – holotype; a, d, e – from Ross (1956a).

Fig. 129. E. clara (Beamer). c – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 130. E. nimia (Knull). c – holotype; d1–d2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus; a, d2, e – from Ross (1956a).

Fig. 131. E. flexibilis (Knull). a1–a2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; c – holotype; a2 – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 132. E. certa (Beamer). a1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; c – holotype; b2 – from Hepner (unpubrished).

Fig. 133. E. direpta (Knull). a – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a–b – from Ross (1956a); c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 134. E. tersa (Knull). c – holotype.

Fig. 135. E. luculenta (Knull). a1, c–e – holotype; a2 – paratype.

Fig. 136. E. fausta (Knull). c – holotype.

Fig. 137. E. bella (McAtee). c – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 138. E. coxi (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 139. E. torella (Robinson).

Fig. 140. E. tumida (Knull). c – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 141. E. glicilla (Ross). c – holotype; a, d, e – from Ross (1956a); b – from Hepner (1967b).

Fig. 142. E. morgani (DeLong). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 143. E. arta (Beamer). c – holotype.

Fig. 144. E. hymettana (Knull). a–e – paratype.

Fig. 145. E. lawsoni (Robinson). b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 146. E. continua (Knull & Auten).

Fig. 147. E. valida (Knull). c – holotype.

Fig. 148. E. pamelae (Hepner). b – from Hepner (1967b).

Fig. 149. E. protuma (Ross). e – holotype; a, c, d – from Ross (1957a).

Fig. 150. E. havana (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 151. E. gemoides (Ross). e – paratype; a–d – from Ross (1953b).

Fig. 152. E. gemina (McAtee). a1–a2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; a1 – holotype of E. nigriquera Hepner; a2 – holotype of E. reedi Hepner; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 153. E. malaca (Knull).

Fig. 154. E. penesica (Beamer). c – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 155. E. parallela (McAtee). b–e – paratype.

Fig. 156. E. severini (Knull).

Fig. 157. E. claroides (Hepner). e – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished); b – from Hepner (1967a).

Fig. 158. E. lunata (McAtee). e – holotype of E. septima Beamer; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 159. E. adunca (Beamer). c1–c2 – variation of shape of the style; c1 – holotype; c2 – holotype of E. perplexa Knull; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 160. E. curta (Beamer). c–d – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 161. E. ballista (Beamer). c – holotype; a, b, e – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 162. E. rostrata (Beamer). c–d – paratype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 163. E. penerostrata (Beamer). c–d – holotype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 164. E. emquu (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 165. E. trivittata (Robinson). a, c, d – from Ross (1958a); b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 166. E. anseri (Hepner). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 167. E. stoveri (Ross & DeLong). a–e – from Ross & DeLong (1950a).

Fig. 168. E. campora (Robinson). c1–c2 – variation of shape of the style; d1–e2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus; c1 – holotype; c2, d2, e2 – holotype of E. accicurta Hepner.

Fig. 169. E. spinifera (Beamer). c – paratype; a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 170. E. comoides (Ross & DeLong). from Ross & DeLong (1953a).

Fig. 171. E. confirmata (McAtee). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 172. E. phellos (Ross & DeLong). a – paratype; d1–d2 – variation of shape of the aedeagus; b, c, d2, e – from Ross & Delong (1953a).

Fig. 173. E. bigemina (McAtee). d1–e3 – variation fo shape of the aedeagus; d2, – holotype; e2 – holotype of E. billi Hepner; e3 – var. youngi Hepner.

Fig. 174. E. mensa (Beamer). a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 175. E. basilaris (Say).

Fig. 176. E. micheneri (Hepner). c – holotype; d–e – paratype.

Fig. 177. E. lucyae (Hepner). b – paratype; c–e – holotype of E. bainteri Hepner; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 178. E. guicei (Hepner).

Fig. 179. E. lundi (Hepner). c–e – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished); b – from Hepner (1967a).

Fig. 180. E. marra (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 181. E. staminea (Knull). a – paratype; c – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 182. E. unca (Knull). a1–b2 – variation of shape of the pygofer appendage; c – holotype.

Fig. 183. E. dumosa (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 184. E. ligata (McAtee). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 185. E. contracta (Beamer). c – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 186. E. vittata (Knull & Auten). c – holotype; a – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 187. E. biramosa (Beamer). a–e – paratype.

Fig. 188. E. smithi (Ross). e – holotype; a–d – from Ross (1956a).

Fig. 189. E. prolixa (Knull). c – holotype; b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 190. E. teres (Beamer). c – from Ross (1956a).

Fig. 191. E. amethica (Ross). a–d – from Ross (1957a); e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 192. E. tenuitas (Knull). e – holotype of E. norica Ross; a, c, d – from Ross (1956a); b – from Hepner (unpublished).

Fig. 193. E. haysensis (Hepner). b – paratype.

Fig. 194. E. geronimoi (Knull). a–e – paratype.

Fig. 195. E. macra (Beamer). a–b – from Hepner (unpublished); c–e – from Ross (1958a).

Fig. 196. E. socia (Knull). a1–a2 – variation of shape of pygofer appendage; a1 – holotype; c–d – paratype.



Fig. 197. E. accola (McAtee).



1 An interactive key for species of Eratoneura is available at: http://ctap.inhs.uiuc.edu/dmitriev/

2 The table shows the number of studied specimens from each collection. See Material and Methods for the museum abbreviations.
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