Ana səhifə

Review for building knowledge database and consensus report on recommendation on wlaw


Yüklə 0.64 Mb.
səhifə1/25
tarix27.06.2016
ölçüsü0.64 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   25





MEDITERRANEAN WATER POLICIES
Abstract of research review for building knowledge database and consensus report on recommendation on WLAW
D 37 & D 38


MELIA PROJECT

WP5

CNIDE

INTERNATIONAL OFFICE FOR WATER

October 2009


GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Water is a major stake for the Mediterranean countries : this area concentrates only 3% of the fresh water resources for more than half of the population lacking in water in the world. More than 100 million Mediterranean have less than 1000m3/hab/an. 45 million people are in shortage and have currently less than 500 m3/hab/an. In the Mediterranean zone, the problem of scarcity is old with an irregularity of the resources in space and time, irregularity which could worsen with the climate change.
Mediterranean area water resources are very unequally distributed, the countries of the south having only less than 15% of the total resource.

Unequally distributed in time, the rains are concentrated on 50 to 100 days per year and the Mediterranean basin is subjected to summer dryness, period corresponding to the strongest requirements of water for tourism and irrigation.


Water demand in the Mediterranean basin represents approximately 200 km3/year (65% for the irrigation, 15% for the domestic needs and the remainder for tourism). By the year 2025, the demand for water could support an increase closed to 25% in the South and the East of the Mediterranean Sea, with particularly strong increases in Turkey and Syria.
Policies form the bases for laws and regulations that need to be enforced in order to reach a specific goal. The implementation process is set through strategies that are determined a priori. In other words, water policy is a set of decision variables regulating the fixed amount of each input variable of water that enters in the water system.
To satisfy an increasing demand, two principal strategies were approved: investment in infrastructures and production of non conventional sources.

More than 500 dams were built during the twentieth century and many projects are in construction or planned in Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Turkey, Cyprus, Spain and Greece.

The valorisation of the non conventional resources is under development with the use of drainage agricultural water, the waste water re-use, the desalination of brackish water or sea water.
However, these actions have limited impacts and the control of demand will have to be developed to avoid the shortages.
In the following document (D37), we will present the different policy strategies of anticipation and adaptation to the Mediterranean water resources availability of the Mediterranean countries.

These strategies are analysed in the document called “Synthesis of Water Policies in the Mediterranean area” as good examples or practices by principal issue, regarding to the WFD principles.

Note: The following document integrates the research review, the analysis of water policies in each Mediterranean country and the recommendations on WLAW. For this reason, it is regarded as the deliverables 37 and 38.


1 1 WATER POLITICAL CONCEPT IN TUNISIA: OPTIONS FOR WATER SECTOR DEVELOPMENT 6

1.1 Water supply/demand and perspectives 6

1.1.1 Water supply 6

1.1.2 Waters demand perspective 7

1.2 Water resources management 8

1.2.1 Institutional aspects 8

1.2.2 Economic aspects 9

1.2.3 Water supply facilities 9

1.2.4 Non-conventional water development options: 11

2 WATER POLICIES IN EGYPT 12

2.1 Water Policy History in Egypt 13

15


2.2 Water Policies from 1997 - 2017 15

2.3 Categories of water policies 17

2.4 The development of Water Policy 17

2.5 Annex 20

3 WATER MANAGEMENT, POLICIES AND LEGISLATION RELATED TO WATER USE IN LEBANESE AGRICULTURE 31

3.1 Institutions 31

3.2 Water management 32

3.3 Finances 32

3.4 Policies and legislation 33

3.5 Water pricing 33

3.6 Environment and health 34

3.7 Perspectives for agricultural water management 34

4 INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT IN MOROCCO 36

4.1 General context of water resources in Morocco: 36

4.2.1 Domestic Pollution: 37

4.2.2. Agricultural Pollution: 37

4.2.3. Industrial Pollution: 37

4.2 The use and water mobilization: 38

4.3 Hydraulic infrastructure: 38

4.4 Stakeholders in the water domain: 39

4.5 The water management in Morocco: 40

4.6.1. History of organizational aspects 40

4.6.2. Problems and constraints linked to water management: 40

4.6.3. Principal projects of management of water: 43

4.6.4. Some concrete projects: 43

5 WATER POLICIES IN JORDAN 47

5.1 Historical Water Laws 47

5.2 Water Management and Policy 48

6 REGULATORY AND LEGAL BACKGROUND IN THE FIELD OF WATER RESOURCES IN CYPRUS 51

6.1 General description of the national legislation on water resources: 51

6.2 List of main national laws: 51

7 WATER POLICy IN SPAIN: A PORTRAIT 54

7.1 Approach to the Spanish landscape 54

7.2 The Institutional framework. 55

7.3 Existing problems: hydrological resources. 55

7.4 Foundations for a new water policy. 56

7.5 Key elements of the new water policy. 57

7.5.1. The WFD (2000/60/EC) 57

7.5.2. Reform of the Basin Organizations. 58

7.5.3. Agriculture: modernization of irrigation. 58

7.5.4. Optimization of the urban distribution networks. 59

7.5.5. Sanitation, purification and reuse. 59

7.5.6. Natural risks management: droughts, flooding and water courses. 59

7.5.7. Environmental key elements: National Plan of River Restoration. 60

8 WATER POLICY AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN FRANCE 62

8.1 From 1964 to 2007, towards integrated water management 63

8.1.1. 1964 – 1992: The basis for the water policy in France 63

8.1.2. 1992 – 2000: Water is the common heritage of the Nation 63

8.1.3. 2000 – 2006: The law for transposition of the WFD 64

8.1.4. 2006: The law on water and the aquatic environments 65

8.1.5. Summary of the main texts 67

8.2 Organization of the authorities 67

8.2.1. Six basic principles 67

8.2.2. Partnership management associating all the users 67

8.3.3. The polluter-pays principle and the Water agencies: A twenty-five-year experience 70

8.3.4. The authorizations for abstractions and discharges: the water police, a State competency 72

8.3 Knowing and monitoring the water resources and the ecosystems 73

8.3.1. The SEW Quality: System for Evaluation of the Water Quality: 73

8.3.2. The WIS: Water Information System 74

8.3.3. Data management and contents of the WIS 75

8.4 Municipal services for drinking water and sanitation 75

8.4.1. The State sets the general rules and ensures solidarity 75

8.4.2. The role of the communes and their groups of communes 76

8.5 Management of the industrial and farming waters 78

8.5.1. The industrial waters: abstractions and pollutions 78

8.5.2. The farming waters: management of irrigation 81

9 MALTESE AND EU LEGISLATION IN THE WATER SECTOR 85

9.1 Evolution of the national water legislation 85

9.2 Integration and implementation of EU water legislation 86

9.2.1. Direct Regulations 86

9.2.2. Indirect Regulations 86

9.2.3. The Implementation Process 87

WATER POLICY IN TURKEY 91

10 COST RECOVERY MECHANISM OF IRRIGATION WATER AVAILABILITY IN THE SYRAIN ARAB REPUBLIC 93

10.1 WATER RESOURCES IN SYRIA 93

10.2 Policies and procedures for attaining sustainable development of WRs 95

11.2.1. Assessment of water sources: 95

11.2.2. Development of an overall research plan: 96

11.2.3. Modernization of water legislation and institutional system 96

With the aim of: 96

10.3 Key principles of the cost recovery of water availability in Syria 96

10.4 The status of cost recovery mechanism of irrigation water availability 99

11 SOURCES 104

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   25


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©atelim.com 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət