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Tsunami deposits related to flank collapse in oceanic volcanoes: The Agaete Valley evidence, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Francisco J. Pérez-Torradoa, , , Raphaël Parisb, , María C. Cabreraa, , Jean-Luc Schneiderc, , Patrick Wassmerd, , Juan-Carlos Carracedoe, , Ángel Rodríguez-Santanaa, and Francisco Santanaf,

aDpto. Física-Geología, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
bGEOLAB-UMR 6042 CNRS, 63057 Clermont-Ferrand, France
cUniversité de Bordeaux et UMR 5805 EPOC CNRS, 33405 Talence, France
dLaboratoire de Géographie Physique, UMR 8591-CNRS, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 92185 Meudon, France
eEstación Volcánologica de Canarias, IPNA-CSIC, 38080 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
fDpto. Cartografía y Expresión Gráfica en la Ingeniería, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Received 30 March 2005;  revised 27 October 2005;  accepted 15 November 2005.  Available online 3 February 2006.



Abstract


Enigmatic marine conglomerates are attached at 41–188 m asl to the walls of the valley of Agaete, on the northwest coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). They are formed by heterogeneous, angular to rounded heterometric volcanic clasts (roundness and maximal size decreasing with altitude), and fossils (rhodolites and marine shells), never found in growth position and often broken. The deposits are internally stratified into several layers, most of them showing very poor sorting, matrix-supported and reverse grading. They present lenticular morphologies with poor lateral continuity in transversal and longitudinal sections. Slopes show values and orientations similar to those of the relief of the substratum to which they seem to adapt. Although they show clear evidence of erosive contact with the substratum (rip up clasts), they do not tend to form horizontal terraces. Soft materials (soils and colluviums) are preserved in the contact with the substratum in outcrops with deposit slopes of up to 15°. The age of the deposits is constrained between 1.75 Ma and 32 ka. Their altitude and slope distributions are not related to Pleistocene interglacial sea level changes, storm deposits or isostatic movements. All the above suggests that the Agaete marine deposits were generated by tsunami waves, the most probable source being a flank failure, at least nine major such events having occurred in the Canary Islands during the Pleistocene. The Güímar sector collapse (east coast of Tenerife,< 0.83 Ma, > 30 km3) is the closest possible source for the tsunami and the sole flank failure that is directed towards another island in the Canaries.

Keywords: tsunami deposits; flank failure; Quaternary; Gran Canaria; Canary Islands

Article Outline


1. Introduction

2. Location and geological setting

3. Methodology

4. Geomorphological features

5. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features

6. Fossil characteristics

7. Discussion

7.1. Comparison with other Canarian marine deposits

7.2. Isostatic movements in the Canaries

7.3. Triggering of the tsunami: the Güímar flank collapse



Acknowledgements

References



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Fig. 1. (A) Location of the Canary Islands and (B) 3D views of the study area with indication of marine conglomerate deposits (black dots), with values and orientation of slope of their basal contacts.

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Fig. 2. Geological map of Agaete Valley (modified from Balcells et al., 1990) with location and name of the different marine conglomerate deposits (black dots) interpreted as tsunami deposits.

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Fig. 3. (A) General view of the outcrops of marine conglomerates at Aerogeneradores; (B) basal contact with colluvionar and soil materials; (C) longitudinal profile with slope values between 10° and 15°; (D) transversal profile perfectly adapted to a paleoravine similar to the present-day ravine.

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Fig. 4. (A) 1 m2 mesh used for sedimentological analyses; (B) mixing of clasts of very different size and shape, varying from well rounded (black arrow) to very angular (white arrow) in the Berrazales outcrop; (C) rip-up and imbricated soil blocks up to 1 m with subangular faces (black arrow) in the Llanos de Turman outcrop; (D) general view of the two main units in the road to La Aldea outcrop (U, upper layer; L, lower layer), both showing reverse grading and scour and fill structures in the contacts.

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Fig. 5. Map of the present-day slopes in the Agaete Valley: (A) slope values in degrees and (B) slope orientations. Values and orientations of the present-day relief are similar to the marine conglomerates attached to this relief.

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Fig. 6. (A) Cumulative granulometric curves of the fraction < 32 mm and (B) histograms indicative of percentage of angular clasts in the lower layers of the different marine conglomerate outcrops. (C) Histograms of rounded clasts percentage in actual gravel beaches (La Caleta and Agaete beaches) and of angular clasts percentage of actual alluvial deposits in Agaete Valley (Distal, close to Llanos de Turman outcrops; Proximal, close to Azotavientos outcrops; Tributary along tributary ravine crossing the Aerogeneradores outcrops).

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Fig. 7. Changing stratigraphic features of the marine conglomeratic outcrops along the southern wall of Agaete Valley in the road to La Aldea area. Stereograms of the cobble fabrics along these outcrops show different directions of the palaeocurrents (landward in the lower layers and seaward in the upper layers).

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Fig. 8. (A) Bivalve in a perfect state of preservation with the 2 valves together but not oriented as in life position, Llanos de Turman outcrop; (B) mix of fossils (rhodolites), some of them preserving a perfect external ornamentation (black arrow), while in others this has been completely removed (white arrow), carretera La Aldea outcrop; (C) general view of fossil arrangement at El Juncal outcrop; (D) close view of beachrock clasts, Llanos de Turman outcrop.

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Fig. 9. (A) Massive flank failures in the Canary Islands; (B) shaded relief view of the strait between Tenerife and Gran Canaria (adapted from Teide Group, 1997). The most plausible source of the Agaete tsunami waves is the Güímar flank failure (< 0.83 Ma) on the east coast of Tenerife, identified by subaerial scarps (> 30 km3) and submarine debris avalanche deposits (> 120 km3). This is the only lateral collapse in the Canaries directed towards a neighbouring island. The wide insular shelf of Gran Canaria probably acted as the launching ramp of the tsunami waves.

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