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Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, bangalore. Proforma for registration of subject


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Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,

Karnataka, BANGALORE.

PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECT (DRAVYAGUNA VIGNANA) FOR

DISSERTATION M.D. (AYURVEDA)

A COMPARiTIVE PHARMACO-EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF ERANDA



PATRA AND DRONAPUSHPI PATRA AS KRIMIGHNA [ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY]”

SYNOPSIS

By

Dr. NANDINI .A.C B.A.M.S

1st yr PG Scholar

Department of Post Graduate Studies in Dravyaguna Vignana

J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College and Hospital,

Mysore-570028.

GUIDE

Dr. LALITHA BHASKAR MD(Ayu).

Assistant Professor

Department of Post Graduate Studies in Dravyaguna Vignana

J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College and Hospital,

Mysore-570028.

CO-GUIDE

Dr. SATHISH PAI MD(Ayu)

Lecturer


Department of Post Graduate studies in Dravyaguna Vignana,

J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College and Hospital,

Mysore-570028.

2011-2012

J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College and Hospital

Mysore, Karnataka

From

Dr. NANDINI .A.C,

1styr PG Scholar,

Department of Post graduate studies in Dravya guna,

J S S Ayurveda Medical College,

Mysore.
To

THE REGISTRAR,

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,

Bangalore,

Karnataka.


Through,

The Principal and HOD of Post graduate studies in Dravya guna,

J S S Ayurveda Medical College,

Mysore.
Respected Sir,



Sub : Regarding the submission of completed Proforma for ‘Registration of Subject for Dissertation.

I request you to kindly register the below mentioned subject against my name for the submission of dissertation to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, for the partial fulfilment of MD (Ayurveda) in Dravya guna.


Title of Dissertation:
A COMPARITIVE PHARMACO-EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF ERANDA PATRA AND DRONAPUSHPI PATRA AS KRIMIGHNA [ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY]’’
Here I am enclosing the completed Proforma for Registration of the subject for Dissertation.

Thanking you yours faithfully,


( Dr.Nandini A.C )

Date: 26-4-2012

Place: Mysore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

Karnataka, Bangalore

ANNEXURE II


PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION



1.


Name of the Candidate
Address


Dr. NANDINI .A.C,
I PG Scholar

Dept. of Post graduate Studies in Dravyaguna,

J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College,

Mysore-570028

Residential Address

D/O Chikkanarasaiah .K

#2533, 2nd Floor,7th A Main Road, Hampi Nagar, Vijay nagar 2nd Stage, Bangalore-560104 .






2.


Name of the Institution

JSS Ayurveda Medical College,

Mysore.






3.


Course of the Study and Subject

AYURVEDA VACHASPATI

M.D. (Ayurveda) in DRAVYAGUNA.






4.


Date of admission to Course

31-10-2011







5.


Title of the Topic
A COMPARITIVE PHARMACO-EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF ERANDA PATRA AND DRONAPUSHPI PATRA AS KRIMIGHNA [ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY]’’


























6.



BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK

6.1 Need for the Study

Intestinal helminthes are a type of intestinal parasites that reside in the human gastro intestinal tract. They represent one of the most prevealent forms of parasitic disease. It has complications like perforation , Intussusception, Biliary colic ,Cholecystitis, Pancreatitis and may cause stunting and wasting due to infections[1].

Even the popular modern anthelmintic drug Albendazole may cause gastrointestinal-side effects,alopecia,jaundice,,fever and urticaria.[2]

Scholars estimate that over a quarter of the world’s population is infected with an intestinal worm of some sort , with roundworm ,hookworm ,and whipworm infecting 1.47 billion people ,1.05 billion people and 1.30 billion people respectively[3] .

Parasitic diseases are endemic mostly in the underprivileged countries with overcrowding and poor hygiene which favour survival and spread of parasites and their vectors. The parasitic diseases are adversely affect health, economic and social development in many countries. That’s the reason for prevention and control of helminthiasis and its complications is essential for the public health.

Usually we prepare extracts in pharmacy for convienience of patient to reduce the dose, to exclude their unwanted fractions and for easy absorption of the drug in the body.

Acharya’s have explained 20 types of krimis and its chikithsa in their treatises[4,5,6,7].Acharya Bhavamishra , Kaiyadeva have mentioned eranda and dronapushpi patras as krimighna in their Nighantus[8,9] and these drugs are non - controversial, easily affordable ,no side effect and easily available.

So the study is designed to evaluate and compare the swarasa,aqueous and alcoholic extracts of eranda patra and dronapushpi patra as krimighna experimentally.



6.2 Review of Literature
(a) Drug Review :

Literature regarding eranda and dronapushpi will be reviewed from the concerned ancient ,modern books ,and internet .

Dronapushpi (leucas cephalotes spreng.) belongs to lamiaceae family distributed throughout India. It has ruksha guna, katu,lavana rasa ,ushna virya , madura vipaka , karmas like kaphavatahara . Rogaghnatha- thamakashwasa ,kamala , janthus etc[10] .


  • Bhavamishra[11], Shodala[12] have mentioned Dronapushpi as krimighna in their Nighantus.

Eranda ( Ricinus communis Linn.) belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. It is an evergreen glabarous shrub 2-4.5m high cultivated throughout India. It has snighda ,tikshna, skushma gunas ,katu,kashaya rasa ,ushna virya ,madhura vipaka and karmas like kaphavatahara. Rogaghnatha- vata kapha krimiroga , raktapitta, vata vyadhis [13]etc.

  • Kaiyadeva and Bhavamishra mentioned eranda patra as krimighna in their Nighantus[14,15].


(b) Disease Review :

Literature regarding krimi is available in the concerned ancient ,modern books and internet.

Amarkosha says krimi word is derived from “kran + en” and this words stands for kshndra jantu[16].

In shabda kalpadruma the word krimi came for roming,either by moving legs or by means of standstill

Collectively the word krimi has been used to denote both unicellular microorganisms(sukshma) and multicellular macro organism(sthoola)specially the worms.
Krimi is classified broadly into

1.sahaja krimi 2.vaikarika krimi[17]

Vaikarika krimi are of 1. Bahya 2. Abhyantra .

Charaka and Vagbhata are told krimis are of four kinds a/c uthapatti beda viz 1.Sleshma 2.Pureeshaja 3.Raktaja 4. Malaja[18,19].

Management of krimi roga’s : In Vedas - They have mentioned krimi Jambhana ,Krimi Nashana,krimighana and Daivavyapasraya chikista.

In samhithas,they mentioned Apakarshana, Prakriti Vighata, Nidana, Parivarjana[20].

The word helminth is derived from a greek word helmin which means worms and originally referred to the intestinal worm.

Helminthiasis means worm infestation in the human body.



Previous studies conducted

  1. Effects of Eranda Moola By Hazara Jai Ram, BHU, Varanasi,1989.

  2. A comparative invitro study of Musta(Cyperus Rotundus Linn,) and Dronapushpi

( leucas cephalotes spreng.) for krimighna (AntiBacterial) Activity with special

reference to salmonella typhi O,H and salmonella paratyphi A and B by Aruna

A,Governament Ayurvedic medical college ,RGUHS,Bangalore,2007.


  1. Comparative Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Dronapushpi Swarasa

and Kwatha on Albino Rats By Ashwini KR, RGUHS,Belgaum,2008.

  1. In Vitro Anthelmintic activity of leucas cephalotes leaf extract by Rohini Shinde

B,Vaibhav jagtap A, International Journal of Drug Discovery and Herbal

Research,Jan-March 2011.



  1. Anthelmintic Activity of Castor oil and Mustard oil by Sarvani Manthri,Kota

Chaitanya Sravanthi, Journal of Phytology 2011.
6.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To evaluate anthelmintic action of Eranda and dronapushpi on pheretima

posthuma (earthworm) experimentally.

  1. To compare the anthelmintic action of Swarasa, aqueous and alcoholic extract of

eranda and dronapushpi patra.

  1. To compare the known anthelmintic drug Albendazole with the Eranda and Dronapushpi.





7.


MATERIALS AND METHODS
7.1 Source of Data

  1. Literary source: Literary aspect of study will be collected from authentic Ayurveda texts, modern books, Internet and also from concerned publication sources.

  2. Source of drug: Drugs will be collected from the genuine sources after proper identification.

  3. Experimental source:

Earth worms will be collected from KVK,Suttur,Mysore.

The Swarasa,aqueous and alcoholic extracts of extract will prepare in

Pharmacy of JSS Ayurveda Medical college.
7.2 Method of Collection of Data

(A) Study Design

(a). Pharmacognostical study

1. Macroscopic study

2. Microscopic study

(b). Physico-Chemical Analysis

1. Determination of foreign matter

2. Determination of total ash

3. Determination of water soluble ash

4. Determination of acid insoluble ash

5. Determination of moisture content

6. Determination of alcohol soluble extractive value

7. Determination of water soluble extractive value

(c). Phyto-Chemical Analysis

1. Preliminary phytochemical screening.

2. TLC studies

(d). Part used

Fresh leaves of eranda and dronapushpi will be used for extraction.
(e). Pilot study

Pilot study will be conducted to determine the minimal effective dose

of swarasa and concentrations of the extracts of eranda and dronapushpi .

(d). Experimental study

Due to non-availability of worm seedling and roundworms the study will be

Conducted on earthworm (pheretima posthuma) due to its anatomical and

Physiological resemblance with the intestinal round worm parasite of human beings

i.e by invitromethod[21,22].


Materials required:

Sample size:

Earthworm ( pheretima posthuma ) -120 Earthworms will be collected from

genuine sources.
Sample Technique


  1. Control group - Normal saline .

  2. Standard group – Albendazole suspension.

  3. Group 1 - Aqueous extract of eranda.

  4. Group 2 - Alcoholic extract of eranda .

  5. Group 3 - Aqueous extract of dronapushpi.

  6. Group 4 - Alcoholic extract of dronapushpi.

  7. Group 5 - Swarasa of eranda patra.

  8. Group 6 – Swarasa of dronapushpi patra.


Methodology :

Earthworm (pheretima posthuma) will be collected and it will be washed with

distilled water, then to observe the motility, its reaction and fix the parameters to

assess the motility. 15 earth worms will be kept separately in 20ml of normal saline

in each petri dish. The motility and their reaction while pricking over the head will

be observed.

Observation is done continuously for 30min and then the criteria for assessing

the motility will be fixed.

15 earth worms of approximetly same size will be placed in each jar. Each of

the earthworms will be observed for its motility at an interval of 10min.The reflex

reaction while pricking over the head is separately observed. The time taken for

complete paralysis or death of the earth worms will be noted and recorded. The

death of the worms will be ascertained by transferring them into a beaker

containing warm water at 50ºc. If worm is alive then it will be stimulated and induce



movement otherwise not.
7.3 Does the study require any investigation or intervention to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals? If so please describe;

Yes.the present study will be carried out on earthworms.


7.4 Has ethical clearance has been obtained from your institution in case 7.3?

Yes. Certificate enclosed.




8.

List of References

  1. Fauci S. Anthony , Braunwald Eugene Edited Principles of Internal Medicine Of Harrisons , vol I,Mc Graw Hill Publications, New Delhi , 17th Edition, Pg no – 1320,Pp-1364.

  2. Tripathi K.D, Essentials of Medical Pharmacology,Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers,New Delhi,6th Edition,Pg no 810,Pp-940.

  3. WE Watkins and E Pollitt ,” Stupidity or worms”.Do Intestinal Worms Impair mental Performance?”,Psychological Bulletin 121(2):171-91.

  4. Tripathi Brahmanand - Charakasamhitha of Charaka, vol I,Vimana Sthana 7/13-15,

Chaukhamba Surabharathi Prakashan, Varanasi , 1st Edition, Reprint 2002,Pg no – 725.Pp-1024.

  1. Tiwari P.V – English Translation – Kashyapa Samhitha of Kashyapa , Chikithsa sthana 15/1-6, Chaukhamba Viashwabharathi, 1st Edition , 1996,Pg no -230-231,Pp-792.

  2. K.R Murthy Srikanta – English Translation –Astanga Sangraha of Vagbhata , Nidana Sthana 14/53-56,vol II ,Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, 1st Edition, 2002, Pg no 240, Pp-627.

  3. Sharma Ram Anant, Hindi Translation Sushrutha Samhitha of Sushrutha , Vol III, Uttra Sthana 54th Chapter, Chaukhamba Surabharathi Prakashan, Varanasi,1st Edition , 2008, Pg no -445-451,Pp-550.

  4. Pandey Sahay Ganga and Chunekar K.C Commented Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra,Chaukhamba Bharati Academy,Varanasi,Reprint 2006,Pg no 463,299,Pp-984.

  5. Sharma Priyavrata and Sharma Guruprasad Edited and Translated Kaiyadeva Nighantu of Kaiyadeva,Chaukhamba Orientalia , Varanasi , 2nd Edition 2006,Pg no-24,123,Pp-696.

  6. Pandey Sahay Ganga and Chunekar K.C Commented Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra,Chaukhamba Bharati Academy,Varanasi,Reprint 2006,Pg no 463,Pp-984

  7. Pandey Sahay Ganga and Chunekar K.C Commented Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra,Chaukhamba Bharati Academy,Varanasi,Reprint 2006,Pg no 463,Pp-984

  8. Tripathi Indradev , Gadanighraha of Shodala, vol II, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Samsthan, Varanasi,3rd Edition,Pg no – 258.Pp-543.

  9. Pandey Sahay Ganga and Chunekar K.C Commented Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra,Chaukhamba Bharati Academy,Varanasi,Reprint 2006,Pg no 299,Pp-984

  10. Sharma Priyavrata and Sharma Guruprasad Edited and Translated Kaiyadeva Nighantu of Kaiyadeva,Chaukhamba Orientalia , Varanasi , 2nd Edition 2006,Pg no-24,,Pp-696.









  1. .

  2. Kirtikar K.R and Basu , Indian Medicinal Plants ,vol III, Published by International Book Distributors, Dehra dun, 2nd Edition , 1998,Pg no- 2274,Pp-2393.

  3. Samsthana, Varanasi,3rd Edition , 1997 Pg no 2/4 /120.

  4. Sharma Ram Anant, Hindi Translation Sushrutha Samhitha of Sushrutha,vol III,Uttra Sthana 54th chapter, Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashan , Varanasi,1st Edition , 2008,Pg no – 445-451,Pp-550.









15. Pandey Sahay Ganga and Chunekar K.C Commented Bhavaprakasha Nighantu of Bhavamishra,Chaukhamba Bharati Academy,Varanasi,Reprint 2006,Pg no 299,Pp-984

  1. Dikshita Bhanuji commented Amarkosha of Amarasimha, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Samsthana, Varanasi , 3rd Edition,1997,Pg no 120.

  2. Tripathi Brahmanand - Charakasamhitha of Charaka, vol I,Vimana Sthana 7/13-15,

Chaukhamba Surabharathi Prakashan, Varanasi , 1st Edition, Reprint 2002,Pg no – 725.Pp-1024.

  1. Tripathi Brahmanand - Charakasamhitha of Charaka, vol I,Vimana Sthana 7/13-15,

Chaukhamba Surabharathi Prakashan, Varanasi , 1st Edition, Reprint 2002,Pg no – 726.Pp-1024.

  1. K.R Murthy Srikanta – English Translation –Astanga Sangraha of Vagbhata , Nidana Sthana 14/53-56,vol II ,Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, 1st Edition, 2002, Pg no 240, Pp-627.

  2. Tripathi Brahmanand - Charakasamhitha of Charaka, vol I,Vimana Sthana 7/13-15,

Chaukhamba Surabharathi Prakashan, Varanasi , 1st Edition, Reprint 2002,Pg no – 728,Pp-1024.

  1. Vigar Z , Atlas of Msedical Parasitology, PG Publishing House, 1984,Singapore,Pg no 216

  2. Manthri Sarvani, kota Chaithanya Sravanthi, Anthelmintic Activity of Castor oil and Mustard oil, Journal of Phytology , 2011 3(3) : Pg no- 12 – 1














9.




Signature of the Candidate



10.


Remarks of the Guide







11.



Name & Designation of
11.1 Guide
11.2 Signature

11.3 Co-Guide

11.4 Signature

11.5 Head of Department
11.6 Signature



Dr. Lalitha Bhaskar, M.D. (Ayu),

Assistent Professor,

Dept. of Post graduate Studies in Dravyaguna,

J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College,

Mysore-570028.
Dr.Sathish pai, M.D(Ayu),

Lecturer,

Dept. of Post Graduate Studies in Dravyaguna,

J.S.S Ayurvedic Medical College,

Mysore-570028.


Dr. Nagamani , M.D. (Ay),

Professor and HOD,

Dept. of Post graduate Studies in Dravyaguna,

J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College,



Mysore-570028.


12.


12.1 Remarks of the Chairman

and Principal


12.2 Signature









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