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ESM S2. Plant origin, quantitative and semi-quantitative floral variables of 49 hummingbird-pollinated plant species in the West Indies arranged alphabetically by family name. Plant origin code: 0=native, 1=introduced. Corolla depth: measured with a digital caliper to nearest mm as the internal distance from the opening to the base of the flower. In cases where the nectar was not protected by a corolla tube, we measured the distance from the start of the floral restriction to the base of the flower. Corolla width: measured with a digital caliper to nearest mm in the opening of the flower. Nectar volume code: measured with 1, 5 and 10 µl micropipettes within the first hour after sunrise on un-bagged flowers (Dominica) and 3-5 hours after sunrise on bagged flowers (Grenada and Puerto Rico). Due to the different sampling method between islands, we coded flowers within each island into three equally sized groups based on nectar amount: 1) little; 2) moderate; 3) abundant. Nectar concentration: (% sucrose equivalents) measured with a refractometer. Colour code: coded as 1-4, with 1 representing short-wave length Hymenoptera syndrome colours (i.e. blue-violet), and 4 long-wave length Ornithophilous syndrome colours (i.e. orange-red), with 2 (purple/yellow/white/green) and 3 (pink/salmon or bi-coloured red/yellow) representing intermediate syndrome colours as perceived by the human eye. In cases where the bracts (Bromeliaceae, Costaceae and Heliconiaceae) or stem (some Rubiaceae species) were the entire or a major part of the colour display, we included these in the assignment of the colour category. Odour code: coded as 1-4, with 1 representing no odour; 2: little; 3: moderate; and 4: strong odour. All floral variables are means of, in general, more than 10 flowers. For the quantitative variables, figures in brackets indicate the standard deviation (SD) and the number of flowers (n) measured. For instance, for Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae) the average corolla depth = 21.05 mm ± 2.01 SD, n = 32 flowers.

Plant family

Plant species

Study sitea

Plant origin

Code

Corolla depth

(mm)

Corolla width

(mm)

Nectar volume

Code

Nectar concentration

(%)

Colour code

Odour

Code

Acanthaceae

Justicia

secunda

Gre-high 1

0

21.05

(2.01; 32)



2.30

(0.61; 32)



2

24.6

(2.2; 12)



4

1

Apocynaceae

Pentalinon

luteum

PtR-low

0

20.99

(1.91; 21)



7.91

(0.55; 21)



1

56.1

(4.9; 17)



2

2

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens

wallerana

PtR-high

1

30.32

(3.59; 23)



1.45

(0.43; 23)



1

26.0

(4.3; 21)



3

1

Bignoniaceae

Tabebuia

heterophylla

Dom-low

0

37.39

(2.11; 17)



6.79

(1.45; 17)



2

37.2

(2.4; 17)



2

3




Tabebuia

heterophylla

PtR-low

0

37.78

(4.34; 26)



6.19

(1.24; 26)



2

36.0

(5.7; 23)



2

3




Tecoma

stans

Dom-low

0

27.00

(1.67; 17)



8.65

(0.64; 17)



2

23.8

(2.6; 17)



2

3

Boraginaceae

Bourreria

succulenta

Gre-low

0

7.03

(0.55; 9)



2.53

(0.85; 9)



1

29.6

(4.5; 3)


2

3




Cordia

globosa

Dom-low

0

8.36

(0.43; 13)



3.71

(1.02; 13)



1

37.5

(12.9; 13)



2

3

Bromeliaceae

Guzmania

berteroniana

PtR-high

0

48.72

(3.41; 20)



4.12

(0.56; 20)



3

20.7

(1.8; 20)



4

2

Cactaceae

Melocactus

intortus

PtR-low

0

18.57

(3.64; 23)



2.78

(0.51; 23)



1

28.4

(2.2; 19)



3

1




Opuntia

rubescens

PtR-low

0

14.57

(1.00; 22)



4.00

(0.76; 22)



2

33.0

(4.2; 22)



4

1




Pilosocereus

royenii

PtR-low

0

48.80

(2.43; 8)



19.63

(2.60; 8)



3

15.9

(2.9; 8)


2

3

Campanulaceae

Centropogon

cornutus

Gre-high 1

0

32.36

(3.16; 33)



3.71

(0.60; 33)



3

27.8

(1.5; 12)



4

1




Lobelia

cirsiifolia

Gre-high 2

0

13.42

(3.89; 31)



3.12

(0.81; 31)



3

11.6

(2.3; 16)



2

2




Lobelia

stricta

Dom-high

0

12.94

(2.46; 14)



2.40

(0.29; 14)



3

12.2

(2.3; 14)



2

1

Clusiaceae

Clusia

mangle

Dom-high

0

0.00

(0.00; 1)



21.51

(0.00; 1)



3

31.0

(0.0; 1)


2

4

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea

batatas

Gre-low

1

27.04

(3.29; 20)



10.68

(1.54; 20)



2

44.3

(4.8; 3)


2

2

Costaceae

Costus

scaber

Gre-high 1

0

29.26

(3.64; 29)



4.00

(1.08; 29)



2

25.6

(3.7; 10)



4

2

Ericaceae

Symphysia

racemosa

Dom-high

0

8.53

(0.73; 11)



5.95

(0.38; 11)



3

22.6

(5.5; 11)



2

2

Fabaceae

Bauhinia

aculeata

Gre-low

0

5.39

(0.96; 22)



1.09

(0.54; 22)



2

43.1

(4.3; 11)



2

2




Lonchocarpus benthamianus

Dom-low

0

5.96

(0.39; 12)



3.71

(1.19; 12)



1

43.0

(4.0; 12)



2

3




Neorudolphia

volubilis

PtR-high

0

44.08

(1.85; 10)



1.84

(0.37; 10)



3

24.5

(1.8; 13)



4

1




Tephrosia

noctiflora

Dom-low

1

5.38

(0.63; 21)



0.99

(0.27; 21)



1

50.2

(2.2; 21)



2

2

Gesneriaceae

Besleria

petiolaris

Dom-high

0

11.08

(1.30; 11)



3.00

(0.25; 11)



2

15.0

(5.3; 11)



2

1

Heliconiaceae

Heliconia

bihai

Dom-high

0

47.50

(1.51; 11)



2.71

(0.39; 11)



3

29.1

(3.0; 11)



4

1




Heliconia

bihai

Gre-high 1

0

36.93

(3.80; 38)



2.62

(0.72; 38)



3

28.2

(3.2; 15)



4

1

Lamiaceae

Hyptis

atrorubens

Dom-high

0

5.55

(0.24; 18)



1.11

(0.10; 18)



1

26.5

(4.7; 18)



2

2




Leonotis

nepetifolia

Dom-low

1

11.09

(1.07; 18)



1.67

(0.23; 18)



2

17.7

(1.6; 18)



3

1

Malvaceae

Urena

lobata

PtR-high

0

2.94

(0.51; 14)



0.80

(0.25; 14)



1

25.1

(4.0; 7)


3

1

Melastomataceae

Charianthus grenadensis

Gre-high 2

0

10.29

(1.86; 46)



6.96

(1.29; 46)



3

12.0

(3.1; 18)



4

1




Charianthus

purpureus x corosus

Dom-high

0

8.50

(0.61; 12)



7.65

(0.78; 12)



3

13.3

(3.2; 12)



4

2




Miconia

sintenissi

PtR-high

0

0.00

(0.00; 1)



1.14

(0.00; 1)



3

18.1

(3.6; 3)


2

1

Myrtaceae

Syzygium

jambos

Gre-high 1

1

2.69

(0.56; 22)



6.60

(0.73; 22)



3

9.8

(1.8; 10)



2

2

Rubiaceae

Erithalis

fruticosa

Dom-low

0

3.28

(0.98; 12)



1.74

(0.39; 12)



1

41.5

(6.3; 12)



2

4




Gonzalagunia

hirsuta

Gre-high 1

0

9.89

(0.87; 24)



2.11

(0.51; 24)



1

23.0

(0.4; 2)


2

1




Gonzalagunia

hirsuta

Gre-high 2

0

9.77

(0.75; 21)



2.03

(0.50; 21)



1

24.1

(3.2; 4)


2

1




Manettia dominicensis

Dom-high

0

9.62

(0.89; 5)



3.00

(0.23; 5)



2

28.8

(5.0; 5)


2

1




Morinda

citrifolia

Dom-low

1

9.29

(1.02; 15)



2.68

(0.23; 15)



2

33.8

(2.2; 15)



2

2




Palicoureae

crocea

Gre-high 1

0

8.58

(1.71; 12)



2.31

(0.61; 12)



2

22.0

(2.8; 5)


3

2




Palicoureae

crocea

PtR-high

0

17.92

(1.13; 23)



3.11

(0.45; 23)



3

20.3

(1.9; 22)



3

2




Psychotria

berteroana

PtR-high

0

4.28

(0.39; 21)



2.11

(0.40; 21)



2

19.2

(3.8; 20)



2

1




Psychotria

capitata

Gre-high 2

0

5.52

(0.58; 20)



1.48

(0.36; 20)



1

31.8

(4.4; 11)



2

2




Psychotria

urbaniana

Dom-high

0

12.14

(0.66; 12)



2.66

(0.49; 12)



2

30.0

(1.3; 12)



2

2




Schradera

exotica

Dom-high

0

12.37

(0.60; 11)



4.08

(0.49; 11)



3

28.6

(2.9; 11)



2

2




Schradera

exotica

Gre-high 2

0

10.72

(0.75; 26)



3.80

(0.54; 26)



2

23.5

(3.0; 14)



2

2




Schradera

exotica

PtR-high

0

17.68

(0.76; 8)



4.24

(0.33; 8)



2

23.6

(4.0; 8)


2

4

Scrophulariaceae

Schlegelia

brachyantha

PtR-high

0

12.27

(1.90; 13)



3.62

(0.52; 13)



2

19.0

(3.4; 13)



2

1




Scrophulariaceae

sp.



Gre-high 2

0

22.89

(2.49; 34)



14.63

(2.23; 34)



2

12.9

(2.1; 16)



2

2

Solanaceae

Cestrum

macrophyllum

PtR-high

0

10.82

(0.82; 14)



2.61

(0.25; 14)



1

13.6

(1.8; 12)



2

2

Turneraceae

Turnera

ulmifolia

Dom-low

0

7.89

(0.67; 15)



0.80

(0.00; 15)



2

29.3

(2.7; 15)



2

2

Verbenaceae

Citharexylum

spinosum

Dom-low

0

4.01

(0.30; 13)



1.70

(0.18; 13)



1

44.7

(7.7; 13)



2

4




Stachytarpheta

jamaicensis

Dom-low

0

9.47

(0.65; 12)



1.48

(0.35; 12)



1

30.6

(4.7; 12)



1

2




Stachytarpheta

urticifolia

Dom-high

1

9.71

(0.61; 11)



1.49

(0.18; 11)



2

26.6

(1.1; 11)



1

2




Stachytarpheta

urticifolia

Gre-high 2

1

8.88

(1.30; 38)



1.30

(0.34; 38)



1

26.5

(2.3; 15)



1

1

Zingiberaceae

Renealmia

alpina

PtR-high

0

18.76

(1.53; 9)



2.36

(0.25; 9)



2

27.8

(3.5; 8)


3

1




Renealmia

pyramidalis

Dom-high

0

14.03

(3.10; 12)



2.20

(0.30; 12)



3

32.0

(3.1; 12)



2

2

aStudy site abbreviations: Dom-high: Dominica highland; Dom-low: Dominica lowland; Gre-low: Grenada lowland; Gre-high 1: Grenada highland 1; Gre-high 2: Grenada highland 2; PtR-low: Puerto Rico lowland; PtR-high: Puerto Rico highland. See Table 1 for description of study sites.


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