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Phytochemical investigation and diuretic activity of luffa cylindrica (L.) Fruit in albino rats


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phytochemical investigation and diuretic activity of luffa cylindrica (L.) FRUIT IN albino rats”

M. Pharm Dissertation Protocol

Submitted to the



Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore

By

jamadar shaheda zahiroddin

Under the guidance of

Dr. Arun kumar Beknal

M.Pharm., Ph.D


DEPARTMENT OF pharmacognosy

H.K.E.S COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,

GULBARGA – 585105

2010

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES

BANGALORE, KARNATAKA.

ANNEXURE-II

PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION


01

Name of candidate and address

(in block letters)



JAMADAR SHAHEDA ZAHIRODDIN

C/O MAHABOOB ALI KOHIRI,

H.NO.T-1-949/10-6-2-35-A-6,

BESIDE AMEEN APARTMENT,

REHMAT NAGAR,

GULBARGA- 585105.

KARNATAKA.



02



Name of institution



H K E S COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

MRMC CAMPUS,

MAHADEVAPPA RAMPURE ROAD,

GULBARGA- 585105.



03



Course of study and subject



MASTER OF PHARMACY


IN

PHARMACOGNOSY



04


Date of admission to course




JULY- 2010

(07-07-10)



05


Title Of The Topic:
phytochemical investigation and diuretic activity of luffa cylindrica (L.) FRUIT IN albino rats”




6

Brief Resume of the intended work




6.1

Need for the study




Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles1.

The use of plant material in popular medicine is older than mans history2. There is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). One class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics3.

Diuretics are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow, sodium excretion and are used to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids in a variety of clinical situations4.

Luffa [Luffa cylindrica (L.) syn Luffa aegyptiaca Mill] commonly called sponge gourd, loofa, vegetable sponge, bath sponge or dish cloth gourd, is a member of cucurbitaceouse family.

The fruits of Luffa cylindrica are smooth and cylindrical shaped. One mature Luffa sponge will produce at least 30 seeds. Some will produce many more.



Luffa cylindrica has alternate and palmate leaves comprising petiole. The leaf is 13 and 30 cm in length and width respectively and has the acute-end lobe. It is hairless and has serrated edges. The flower of Luffa cylindrica is yellow and blooms on August-September. Luffa cylindrica is monoecious and the inflorescence of the male flower is a raceme and one female flower exists. Its fruit, a gourd, is green and has a large cylindrical shape and grows climbing on other physical solid materials.

Luffa cylindrica is a sub-tropical plant, which requires warm summer temperatures and long frost-free growing season when grown in temperate regions. It is an annual climbing plant which produces fruit containing fibrous vascular system. It is summer season vegetable. It is difficult to assign with accuracy the indigenous areas of luffa species. They have a long history of cultivation in the tropical countries of Asia and Africa. Indo-Burma is reported to be the center of diversity for sponge gourd. The main commercial production countries are China, Korea, India, Japan and Central America5.

The plant is reputed to have antitubercular and antiseptic properties. The extract of leaves has been used in snake-bites. The santals tribesmen use the plant parts in treating convulsions and cramps, tetanus and also in the treatment of syphilis. The fruit is used in dropsy, nephritis and chronic bronchitis6.

At present no known scientific study reported in available literature sources that has been carried out so far on diuretic activity in Fruit of Luffa cylindrica (L.).



Therefore, the present study is an attempt to assess the efficacy of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Friut on diuretic activity in Albino rats.


`


6.2

Review of Literature







  • O. Oboh and E. O. Aluyor has undertaken Luffa cylindrica in his work as an emerging cash crop and resulted Luffa cylindrica encourages the commercial cultivation of the crop of its increasing economic importance and showed the potentialities of this crop that is virtually found around the globe5.

  • P Muthumani et al has carried out Phytochemical screening and Anti inflammatory , Bronchodilator and Antimicrobial activities of the seeds of Luffa cylindrica and concluded all the extracts revealed the presence of sugar, protein, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and glycosides as major constituents. Cu-1 is oil has shown more unstauration and less acid value which has been hydrolyzed and the resulting free fatty acids have been converted into their respective methyl esters for separation on GLC. CU-2 this is the unsaponifiable fraction of the oil. The sterols or related compounds are present in this fraction as the chemical and spectral data suggests. This showed very high antifungal and significant anti bacterial activity. CU-3 has significant anti-inflammatory activity. CU-4 showed bronchodilator activity. This extract showed very high degree of antifungal activity6.

  • Dried seeds of Luffa cylindrica were extracted by continuous hot percolation method using solvents of increasing polarity from petroleum ether to ethanol is carried out by E. Susiuthra, K.mallikarjuna Rao, K.V. Ramseshu, A.Saraswathyto to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of seeds of Luffa cylindrica by using carrageenan induced paw oedema method comparing with marketed available diclofenac sodium gel7.

  • Innocent OBOH, Emmanuel ALUYOR and Thomas AUDU has carried out Post treatment of produced water before discharge using Luffa cylindrica and concluded Luffa cylindrica is an effective biosorbent for the removal of heavy metal ion and offered a cheap option for primary treatment of produced water8.



  • Shaheed A et al has carried out the disinfection of water borne coliform bacteria using aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruits of Luffa cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extracts doses and contact times and concludes the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment9.

  • Du Q et al has carried out Hydroplilic antioxidant constituents in the fruits of the vegetable Luffa cylindrica (L.) which were separated by an antioxidant guided assay which was evaluated by radical scavenging effect on the DPPH radicals and concluded that the consumption of sponge gourds can supply some antioxidant constituents to human body10.



  • Literature survey has shown much of the work is reported on Luffa cylindrica (L.) but did not reveal any scientific information of Luffa cylindrica (L.) fruit on diuretic activity in Albino rats.

Therefore the present study is carried out on Phytochemical investigation

and diuretic activity of luffa cylindrica (L.) fruit in Albino rats.








6.3

Objectives of the study



The overall aim of proposed study is to explore the application of traditional medicinal plants (fruits) for diuretic activity:




  1. Extraction of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Fruit by successive solvent extraction by using different solvents to get residue and weighed.

  2. Prelimanary phytochemical investigation and TLC studies.

  3. Isolation and Identification of important phytoconstituents by different chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

  4. Screening for diuretic activity by using different parameters.




7

Materials and methods




7.1

Source of data



The required data will be obtained from:









7.2


Methods of collection of data (including sampling procedure, if any)







The fruit of Luffa cylindrica (L.) will be collected from local area and authentication of plant will be done at department of Botany, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585102.



Laboratory based study:
The fruit of Luffa cylindrica (L.) will be collected, dried and sequential extraction will be done using successive solvent extraction, concentrated to get dried residue and weighed.

Experimental Animals:
Healthy wister Albino rats of either sex and of approximately the same age, weighing 100 – 200 g will be used for the study. The animal will be procured from National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad.

Diuretic activity:
Diuretic activity will be assessed using LIPSCHITS test11.






7.3


Does the study require any investigation or intervention to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals? if so please describe briefly







YES

Albino rats of wistar strain of either sex will be used for diuretic activity.







7.4


Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3 ?









YES

The study has been cleared from ethical committee of institution.








8

List of References




  1. Norman et al. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1985;63(6): 965-981.

  2. Perez et al. Diuretic activity of several endemic plants from the canary island. Médicaments et aliments : L ‘approche ethnopharmacologique. 1993; 305-308.

  3. Wright. C.I, Buren V.L, Kroner C.I, Koning. M.M.G. Herbal medicines as diuretics: A review of the scientific evidence: 1-31.

  4. Meera R et al. Evaluation of Diuretic activity from Tylophora indica leaves extracts. Journal Pharm. Sci. & Res. 2009;1(3): 112-116.

  5. Oboh. I. O and Aluyor E. O. Luffa cylindrica - an emerging cash crop. African Journal of Agricultural Research. August 2009;4 (8):684-688.

  6. Muthumani.P et al. Phytochemical Screening and Anti inflammatory, Bronchodilator and Antimicrobial activities of the Seeds of Luffa cylindrica. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. October – December 2010;1(4):11-22.

  7. Susithra et al. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of seeds extract of Luffa Cylindrica. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010;3(7):1496-1498.

  8. OBOH. I, ALUYOR. E and AUDU. T. Post-treatment of Produced water before discharge using luffa cylindrica. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies. 14, January-June 2009;57-64.

  9. Shahdeed et al. Disinfection of water coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts. Environ technol. Dec 1 2009;30(13):1435-1440.

  10. Du Q et al. Antioxidant constituents in the fruits of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Rome. Journal of agric food chem. June 14 2006;54(12):4186-4190.

  11. Vogel H.G, Vogel W.H. Drug Discovery and Evaluation. 1997:173-174.








9


Signature of Candidate



(JAMADAR SHAHEDA ZAHIRODDIN)


10


Remarks of guide

The above study genuinely contributes to the scientific information and hence permitted.

.



11


11.1


Name and designation of

(in block letters)











Guide


Dr. Arun kumar Beknal

M.Pharm., Ph.D



PROFESSOR,

Dept. OF Pharmacognosy,

H.K.E.S College of Pharmacy,

Gulbarga - 585105





11.2


Signature








11.3


Co- guide (if any)








11.4


Signature








11.5


Head of the Department


Dr. M.A. Halkai

M.Pharm., Ph.D



PROFESSOR and Head

Dept. OF Pharmacognosy,

H.K.E.S College of Pharmacy,

Gulbarga - 585105





11.6


Signature





12


12.1


Remarks of the Chairman and Principal








12.2


Signature




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