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Nutrient limitation in rainforests and cloud forests along a 3000 m elevation gradient in the Peruvian Andes


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Nutrient limitation in rainforests and cloud forests along a 3000 m elevation gradient in the Peruvian Andes
Joshua B. Fisher1,*,**, Yadvinder Malhi1, Cuba Torres Israel2, Daniel B. Metcalfe1, Martine J. van de Weg3, Patrick Meir4, Silva Espejo Javier E.2, Huaraca Huasco Walter2
1 Oxford University, Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY, UK

2 Universidad San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Department of Biology, Peru

3 Amsterdam Global Change Institute, Vrije Univesiteit, De Boelenlaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands

4 University of Edinburgh, School of Geosciences, Drummond Street, Edinburgh, EH8 9XP

* Present address: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109, USA

** Corresponding author. E-mail address: joshbfisher@gmail.com, 1-323-540-4569

Supplemental Table 1. Individual tree data for 77 trees across all four sites (WA=3000 m, SP=1500 m, TO=1000 m, TA=200 m). Fertilization treatments are given as N (N0), N+P (NP), P (P0) and control (C). Some data were missing or unknown.



Site

Tree #

Plot

Fert

Family

Genera

Species

DBH (cm)

Height (m)

Leaf N (%)

Leaf P (%)

Leaf K (%)

WA

51

7F

N0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

crassifolia

8.1

8.0

1.32

0.11

0.73

WA

52

7F

N0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

crassifolia

7.2

7.5

1.27

0.08

1.02

WA

53

7F

N0

CLUSIACEAE

Clusia

sp

14.4

8.0

1.51

0.12

0.61

WA

54

7F

N0

THEACEAE

Freziera

parva

16.6

11.5

1.86

0.13

0.79

WA

55

7F

N0

CLUSIACEAE

Clusia

sp

6.2

6.0

1.80

0.18

0.94

WA

32

9F

NP0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

bangii

10.6

10.0

1.85

0.19

0.83

WA

33

9F

NP0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

bangii

15.6

11.0

1.47

0.16

0.58

WA

34

9F

NP0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

crassifolia

14.8

12.0

1.19

0.12

0.41

WA

35

9F

NP0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

reticulata

3.2

4.5

1.95

0.17

0.99

WA

11

11F

P0

CLETHRACEAE

Clethra

sp

10.4

7.5

1.22

0.10

0.81

WA

12

11F

P0

CLUSIACEAE

Cusia

sp

21.4

12.0

1.31

0.38

1.00

WA

13

11F

P0

CLUSIACEAE

Clusia

sp

12.4

9.0

1.35

0.23

0.73

WA

14

11F

P0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

crassifolia

11.3

8.0

1.17

0.12

0.55

WA

15

11F

P0

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

crassifolia

11.2

8.0

1.20

0.09

0.66

WA

36

8/9C

C

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

bangii

12.2

11.0

1.49

0.12

0.61

WA

37

8/9C

C

MYRSINACEAE

Myrsine

coriacea

8.0

8.3

2.17

0.17

2.59

WA

38

8/9C

C

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

crassifolia

12.7

12.0

1.18

0.10

0.90

WA

39

8/9C

C

CUNONIACEAE

Weinmannia

latifolia

9.8

10.0

1.68

0.11

1.25

WA

40

8/9C

C

ARALIACEAE

Oreopanax

microcephalus

4.7

7.0

2.60

0.28

2.10





































SP

312

1F

N0

LAURACEAE

Endlicheria

griseo-sericea

8.9

9.2

1.90

0.26

0.62

SP

313

1F

N0

MELASTOMATACEAE

Miconia

sp

7.8

7.0

2.22

0.23

0.73

SP

314

1F

N0

EUPHORBIACEAE

Acalypha




5.5

6.0

2.39

0.36

1.01

SP

315

1F

N0

EUPHORBIACEAE

Hyeronima

alchorneiodes

42.8

17.0

2.24

0.20

0.63

SP

316

1F

N0

ROSACEAE

Prunus

herthae

4.9

5.1

2.14

0.22

1.25

SP

291

3F

NP0

ANNONACEAE

Guatteria

duodecima

8.9

8.8

2.23

0.13

0.73

SP

292

3F

NP0

SAPOTACEAE

Sarcaulus

sp

15.8

15.0

1.87

0.29

0.48

SP

293

3F

NP0

SAPOTACEAE

Sarcaulus

sp

17.4

15.0

1.74

0.18

0.33

SP

294

3F

NP0

FABACEAE

Inga




16.0

13.0

2.72

0.21

0.77

SP

295

3F

NP0

SAPINDACEAE

Paullinia




2.5

3.0

1.82

0.15

0.65

SP

271

5F

P0

ARECACEAE

Euterpe

sp

17.9

13.8

2.01

0.13

0.36

SP

273

5F

P0

FABACEAE

Inga

sp

20.5

12.5

3.15

0.16

0.64

SP

274

5F

P0

RUBIACEAE







5.0

5.0

3.00

0.16

0.91

SP

275

5F

P0

ACTINIDIACEAE

Saurauia

sp

15.8

11.3

2.10

0.20

1.70

SP

286

3/4C

C

PROTEACEAE







3.9

5.9

2.25

0.29

1.37

SP

287

3/4C

C

MONIMIACEAE

Mollinedia

sp

6.5

7.0

2.14

0.27

1.41

SP

288

3/4C

C

MORACEAE

Pseudolmedia

sp

17.1

12.3

2.45

0.18

1.44

SP

289

3/4C

C

SABIACEAE

Meliosma

sp

28.8

12.0

1.52

0.10

0.72

SP

290

3/4C

C

ANNONACEAE

Annona

sp

10.5

7.5

2.20

0.12

0.79





































TO

426

1F

N0

FABACEAE

Tachigali




13.0

8.7

2.40

0.14

0.90

TO

427

1F

N0

LAURACEAE







6.5

6.3

1.81

0.10

1.15

TO

428

1F

N0

EUPHORBIACEAE

Alchornea




15.5

11.1

3.07

0.24

1.22

TO

429

1F

N0

RUBIACEAE

Palicourea




6.0

5.0

2.96

0.15

1.68

TO

431

1F

N0

LAURACEAE

Ocotea




11.6

6.1

2.03

0.11

0.80

TO

406

3F

NP0

LACISTEMATACEAE

Lacistema




22.5

18.0

2.56

0.18

1.58

TO

407

3F

NP0

MYRISTICACEAE

Virola

mollissima

32.2

17.0

2.34

0.13

0.70

TO

408

3F

NP0

LECYTHIDACEAE

Eschweilera




9.1

6.0

2.11

0.09

0.72

TO

409

3F

NP0

MORACEAE

Pseudolmedia

macrophylla

23.9

16.0

2.39

0.12

1.04

TO

410

3F

NP0

RUBIACEAE

Elaeagia




6.0

4.3

2.04

0.08

1.50

TO

441

5F

P0

CHRYSOBALANACEAE

Licania




14.7

11.5

1.76

0.10

0.84

TO

442

5F

P0

RUBIACEAE

Elaeagia




17.9

8.5

1.90

0.08

0.59

TO

443

5F

P0

VOCHYSIACEAE

Vochysia

sp

31.0

15.5

1.76

0.09

0.68

TO

444

5F

P0

FLACOURTIACEAE







6.2

4.5

2.49

0.11

1.17

TO

445

5F

P0

RUBIACEAE







5.6

6.2

1.67

0.11

0.63

TO

401

3/4C

C

MYRISTICACEAE

Virola

calophylla

44.7

22.0

2.22

0.09

0.71

TO

402

3/4C

C

FLACOURTIACEAE

Carpotroche

longifolia

2.4

3.0

2.28

0.14

0.78

TO

403

3/4C

C

FABACEAE

Inga




20.7

13.0

3.47

0.15

0.82

TO

404

3/4C

C

MORACEAE

Brosimum

utile

5.5

6.0

2.10

0.11

0.99

TO

405

3/4C

C

FLACOURTIACEAE

Banara




3.8

5.6

2.27

0.10

0.67





































TA

1

1F

N0

BURSERACEAE

Tetragastris

panamensis

21.1

14.5

1.76

0.08

0.80

TA

2

1F

N0

BIXACEAE

Bixa

arborea

18.5

13.5

3.00

0.13

1.05

TA

3

1F

N0

FABACEAE







6.4

8.3

3.22

0.14

0.82

TA

4

1F

N0

MORACEAE

Helicostylis

tomentosa

10.8

12.0

2.47

0.11

1.27

TA

5

1F

N0

MYRISTICACEAE

Virola




5.1

7.4

2.74

0.11

0.82

TA

21

3F

NP0

EUPHORBIACEAE

Conceveiba

guianensis

9.5

12.2

2.05

0.13

0.84

TA

22

3F

NP0

FABACEAE







16.6

15.8

1.83

0.07

0.55

TA

23

3F

NP0

LECYTHIDACEAE







10.7

11.0

4.34

0.18

0.73

TA

24

3F

NP0

MORACEAE

Helicostylis

tomentosa

8.9

11.0

2.90

0.10

1.28

TA

25

3F

NP0

BOMBACACEAE

Quararibea

witti

4.8

7.0

2.72

0.11

0.89

TA

41

5F

P0

MELIACEAE

Trichilia

sp

30.0

18.5

1.91

0.08

0.65

TA

42

5F

P0

MYRISTICACEAE

Iryanthera




6.5

4.6

1.95

0.10

0.83

TA

43

5F

P0

LAURACEAE







7.8

10.9

2.03

0.07

0.44

TA

44

5F

P0










3.2

4.2

2.92

0.13

1.02

TA

45

5F

P0

FABACEAE

Tachigalli

poliphylla

21.3

19.0

2.67

0.11

0.79

TA

27

3/4C

C










35.0

24.5

3.08

0.14

0.82

TA

28

3/4C

C

SIPARUNACEAE

Siparuna

decipiens

9.0

9.0

2.55

0.10

2.09

TA

29

3/4C

C

CLUSIACEAE

Calophyllum

brasiliensis

7.5

8.0

2.21

0.08

1.47

TA

30

3/4C

C

FABACEAE







6.0

8.0

1.78

0.07

0.74


Supplemental Figure Captions

Supplemental Fig. 1. Study sites with inset from Google Earth. Clouds (not snow) cover much of the mountains in the image.

Supplemental Fig. 2. The experimental set up for the fertilization experiment (shown here at the 1500 m site for example). The long-term 100 x 100 m plot is surrounded on three sides by 10 x 110 m transects consisting of 10 x 10 m sub-plots. Within each transect, two sub-plots were fertilized with N, two with P, two with both N and P, and six controls separated each fertilized sub-plot. Of those fertilized sub-plots within each transect, half began fertilization in the first year (N0, NP0, P0) and the other half in the second year (N1, NP1, P1).

Supplemental Fig. 3. a) Leaf nitrogen (N), b) leaf phosphorus (P), and c) leaf N:P ratio from three canopy heights (top, middle, and bottom) for all four sites (200 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, and 3000 m) and all four treatments (control, N, N+P, and P) in 2008 as mean ± SE.

Supplemental Fig. 4. The mean relative growth rate (RGR) averaged for each Family by treatment type. Data would naturally increase substantially if presented by Genera or Species. Not all Families had all 4 treatments. It is possible to see treatment differences in, for example, Rubiaceae, where the RGR for the Control (black) is less than that for the N treatments (green), which is less than that for the P treatments (purple), which is less than that for the N+P treatments (orange).

Supplemental Fig. 5. Soil respiration contribution for control and fertilized sub-plots from litter, roots, fungal hyphae and microbes in 2009. The top three (Y1) panels are from the sub-plots that received fertilization starting in the first year (2007), and the bottom three (Y2) panels are from the sub-plots that received fertilization starting in the second year (2008).


Supplemental Fig. 1.



Supplemental Fig. 2.




a



b



c



Supplemental Fig. 3.

Supplemental Fig. 4.




Soil respiration partitioning (%)




Control






Nitrogen – Y1



Nitrogen+Phosphorus – Y1



Phosphorus – Y1



Nitrogen – Y2



Nitrogen+Phosphorus – Y2



Phosphorus – Y2






Site

Supplemental Fig. 5.


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