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MANUAL OF STYLE FOR

NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER

TRAINING SYSTEMS DIVISION

TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
JANUARY 2000

NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER TRAINING SYSTEMS DIVISION

12350 RESEARCH PARKWAY

Orlando, FL 32826 3275



Approved for public release;

distribution is unlimited.




_____________________________________________


GOVERNMENT RIGHTS IN DATA STATEMENT

Reproduction of this publication in whole or

in part is permitted for any purpose of the

United States Government.

_________________________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Scope and Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Organization of this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
REPORT COMPONENTS AND ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
The Technical Report (TR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

The Special Report (SR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Use of Terms “Study” or “Research” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Report Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Report Dates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Report Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Report Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Front Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Title Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV – Prepared Unclassified Reports . . . . . . . . 13

Contractor-Prepared Unclassified Reports . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Back of Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Report Documentation Page (SF 298) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Foreword or Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Findings . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

Page
Body of Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Method (or Approach). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Results (or Findings) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Final Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

References Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

List of Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Distribution List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


Back Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
REPORT FORMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
General Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Font Sizes and Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


Unnumbered Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Numbered Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Decimal Headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Stubhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Boxhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Column Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Spanner Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Basic Rules and Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Basic Rules and Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Page
Captions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .36


Pagination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Comma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Semicolon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Quotation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Parenthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

The Slant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Hyphenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Spacing After Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


Capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Metrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Underscoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 48

Equations and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Abbreviations and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


Abbreviations of Long Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


Changes From the Source Requiring Explanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
General Rules on Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

General Rules for the Reference List Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Order of Reference Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Book Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Periodical Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Monograph Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Summary in Proceedings Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page
Abstract Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Citations from Secondary Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Government Research Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Government Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69


Citing References in the Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
POINTERS ON STYLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Scientific Writing Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

The Report Title and Subtitle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Coined Words, Jargon, and Buzz Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Plain Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Excess Verbiage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Navy Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Person and Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


DISTRIBUTION AND DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Distribution Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
APPENDIX A Information on Distribution Statements (extracted from

OPNAVINST 5510.1H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-1




LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page

1 Sample title page for a NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV-

prepared report . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Figure Page
2 Sample title page for a contractor-prepared report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3 Instructions for preparation of Report Documentation Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4 Sample Report Documentation Page for NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5 Sample acknowledgements for a technical or special report . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6 Sample format for Executive Summary for technical or

special report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


7 Sample format for Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8 Sample table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9 Sample Distribution Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page

1 Correct Abbreviations of Military Ranks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
INTRODUCTION
The Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV) publishes a variety of reports and documents. Some, such as Military Characteristics, Training Situation Analysis Reports, and Device Specifications, serve a specific function, are addressed to a specific audience, and are covered by specific instructions. The vast majority of other documents can be categorized as Technical Reports or Special Reports.
PURPOSE
This manual establishes the format and style requirements for technical reports and special reports prepared by or for the NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV. It establishes preferred usage to ensure that reports are consistent and that requirements of military standards are met. This manual is to be used by NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV personnel and by contractors who prepare reports for NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV.
SCOPE AND AUTHORITY
The NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV STYLE MANUAL is generally written to follow the format prescribed by the American Psychological Association (APA) while simultaneously meeting specific Navy requirements. This manual takes precedence over all other directives or guides pertaining to NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV technical and/or special reports. Should an individual need further guidance regarding report format, refer first to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (4th edition) (commonly known as the APA Manual) and second, refer to the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual.
Adherence to format and style outlined in this manual will facilitate preparing the manuscript copy, reduce the time and effort required for editing and finalizing reports, and ensure standardization of NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV publications.
The format established in this manual is intended to serve as the standard for NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV. However, it is recognized that NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV reports cover a wide variety of projects and subjects, and that deviations from this format may occasionally be justified. Some examples of circumstances that would justify a deviation from this manual are:
• An alternative format would enhance presentation of the material; e.g., lessons learned from a literature review, annotated bibliographies.
• Adherence to the NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV format would lengthen the report with no value added; e.g., requiring an entire section where a paragraph would suffice.

• An alternative format would enhance the clarity of the report.


• An alternative format has been specified by the sponsor.
Deviations in report format shall be approved by the principal author’s division head.
ORGANIZATION OF THIS MANUAL
Following this introduction, this manual is divided into seven sections:
• Report components and organization.
• Report format.
• Pointers on style.
• Distribution and distribution statements.
• References.
• Appendix

REPORT COMPONENTS AND ORGANIZATION
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Military Standard Format Requirements for Scientific and Technical Reports Prepared by or for the Department of Defense (MIL-STD-847B) establishes certain consistencies in organization in order to aid the interchange of scientific and technical information and to reduce the costs of preparing, storing, retrieving, reproducing, and distributing reports prepared by and for departments and agencies of the Department of Defense. This manual expands the guidelines contained in that standard and applies specifically to the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV) Technical and Special Reports as defined below.
The Technical Report (TR)
The Technical Report is the record of an analysis, evaluation, study, test, or research task completed by NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV personnel or contractors. The Technical Report contains information and results of interest to a variety of audiences and is usually widely distributed. It must be accurate, concise, complete, and highly literate. It should be composed, illustrated, and printed by methods that produce the most favorable reader reaction. Because the technical report is transmitted to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) for retention in the nation’s data bank, it must conform to security and printing regulations and to DTIC standards. To facilitate DTIC cataloging, storage, and retrieval, each technical report must carry a “Report Documentation Page,” SF 298, following the title page. Detailed procedures are outlined in the section on report components and organization of this manual.
The Special Report (SR)
The Special Report is more limited in scope than the technical report and is usually of interest to a smaller audience. However, it also must be accurate, concise, complete, and highly literate. It, too, should be composed, illustrated, and printed by methods that produce the most favorable reader reaction. It also contains a SF 298, but the report is not submitted to DTIC. Only a copy of the SF 298 is submitted to DTIC so the special report can be listed in the DTIC bibliography. This meets the reporting requirements of NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIVINST 3900.15D.
Use of Terms “Study” or “Research”
Although the terms “study” and “research” are often used interchangeably, in NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV reports they have specific meaning. Terminology should reflect the appropriate Congressional Budget Category. For example, terms such as “research,” “applied research,” “technology demonstrations,” and “advanced development,” are appropriate for tasks in the R&D categories. On the other hand, expressions such as “study” and “analysis” are used for non R&D funded tasks.


REPORT NUMBERS
A NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV number is assigned to each Technical Report and Special Report. Numbers for NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV reports are issued by Code 49T. The report number is displayed prominently on the title page and is centered at the top of each page of the report; e.g., Technical Report 2000-XXX.
Technical and Special Reports are numbered consecutively by calendar year. Numbers for each type of report are separate and numbers are duplicated (for example, TR 2000-002, SR 2000-002). DO NOT obtain a number until the report is in final form to ensure that the publication date and the report number are the same year.
REPORT DATES
The NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV technical and special reports are dated by the month and year of publication. This is not necessarily the same date as the project completion date.
REPORT TITLES
Suggestions on preparing good report titles that ensure maximum retrieval potential are given in the section on pointers on style.
REPORT ELEMENTS
In accordance with MIL-STD-847B, NAVAIRWARCENTRASYSDIV technical and special reports may contain the following elements (as applicable). Some of these elements are optional and are marked as such in the listing. However, the order in which elements appear in a report is mandatory. All of these elements are described in detail in the following paragraphs.
a. Front Cover.

b. Title Page.


c. Report Documentation Page, SF 298.
d. Foreword or Acknowledgments (optional).
e. Executive Summary.
f. Table of Contents.
g. Body of Report. h. References.

i. Reference Notes (optional).


j. Bibliography (optional).
k. Glossary of Terms (optional).
l. List of Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols (Optional).
m. Index (optional).
n. Appendices (appendices may also include annexes) (optional).
o. Distribution List.
p. Back Cover.
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