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Native Plants


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Native Plants


These tables are partial lists of plants native to the Pacific Northwest. Some plants for the northeast and the prairies are also mentioned, based in part on Knopf at al. (1995). Plant lists for other regions are readily available from gardening guides or through local natural history clubs.

Trees





Growing Conditions

Comments

Abies grandis
Grand Fir

Dry to moist; shade.

Grows up to 80m; habitat for owls, woodpeckers, toads, frogs, and salamanders.

Acer circinatum

Vine Maple



Moist; shade tolerant.

Grows up to 7m; seeds are a food source for birds and small mammals.

Acer macrophyllum

Bigleaf Maple



Dry to moist; sun-partial shade.

Grows up to 35m; seeds are eaten by birds and small mammals.

Alnus rubra

Red Alder



Moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 25m; attracts chickadees, Bushtit, and other birds.

Cornus nuttallii

Pacific Dogwood



Moist; partial to full shade.

Grows up to 15m; birds are attracted to bright red berries.

Crataegus douglasii

Black Hawthorn



Moist; full sun.

Grows up to 10m; source of food for birds in winter; thicket provides nesting sites for birds and small mammals.

Malus fusca

Pacific Crab Apple



Moist to wet; full sun.

Grows between 2 and 12m; provides food from July to October.

Prunus emarginata

Bitter Cherry



Moist; full sun to partial shade

Grows between 2 and 15m; bright red cherries eaten in early fall.

Pseudotsuga menxiesii spp. Menziesii

Douglas-fir



Dry to moist; full sun.

Grows up to 80m; food source for songbirds and small mammals.

Thuja plicata

Western Redcedar



Moist to wet; shade.

Grows up to 60m; seeds eaten by songbirds.

Some suitable native trees for other regions of North America include:



Northeast: eastern red cedar (Juniperus americana), Canadian hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), red maple (Acer rubra), sugar maple (Acer sacchrum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), white oak (Quercus alba), pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica) and American mountain ash (Sorbus Americana)

Central prairies and Great Plains: eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), bur oak (Quercus macropcarpa), downy hawthorne (Cratagus mollis), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) and green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica).

Shrubs





Growing Conditions

Comments

Amelanchier alnifolia

Saskatoon



Dry to moist; full sun.

Grows up to 5m; deciduous; provides birds with food through the fall.

Cornus stolonifera

Red-Osier Dogwood



Moist to wet; full sun to shade.

Grows up to 4m; deciduous; fall and winter food source for birds.

Corylus cornuta var. californica

Beaked Hazelnut



Moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows between 1 and 4m; deciduous; nuts are an autumn food source.

Gaultheria shallon

Salal


Dry to wet; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 5m; evergreen; berries are food for birds and deer browse on leaves throughout the year.

Lonicera ciliosa

Orange Honeysuckle



Moist; partial sun to shade.

Climbing plant up to 6m; deciduous; attracts hummingbirds and butterflies.

Lonicera involucrate

Black Twinberry



Moist to wet; shade.

Grows up to 3m; deciduous; yellow flowers produce nectar for hummingbirds; berries provide food for birds.

Mahonia aquifolium

Tall Oregon Grape



Dry-drought tolerant; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 6m; berries attract birds.

Oemleria cerasiformis

Indian Plum



Dry to moist; full sun to partial sun.

Grows up to 5m; deciduous; fruits attract birds.

Physocarpus capitatus

Pacific Ninebark



Wet; full sun.

Grows up to 4m; deciduous; flowers are a source of nectar.

Ribes sanguineum

Red Flowering Currant



Dry; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 3m; deciduous; flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.

Rosa nutkana

Nootka Rose



Dry to moist; full sun.

Grows up to 3m; deciduous; flowers attract bees; rosehips last into the winter.

Rubus parviflorus

Thimbleberry



Dry to moist; full sun.

Grows up to 3m; deciduous; berries provide birds with food.

Rubus spectabilis

Salmonberry



Moist to wet; sun to shade.

Grows up to 4m; deciduous; attracts songbirds and hummingbirds.

Salix hookeriana

Hooker’s Willow



Wet; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 6m; deciduous; pollen is food source for many insects, including bees and moths.

Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens var. arborescens

Red Elderberry



Dry to moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 6m; deciduous; flowers provide nectar for hummingbirds and butterflies; berries are food for birds.

Spiraea douglasii

Hardhack


Moist to wet; full sun.

Grows up to 2m; deciduous; flowers attract bees.

Symphoricarpos albus

Common Snowberry



Dry to moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 2m; deciduous; flowers attract bees and hummingbirds; berries remain until December.

Vaccinium ovatum

Evergreen Huckleberry



Dry to moist; full sun to shade.

Grows between 1 and 4m; evergreen; flowers attract hummingbirds; berries remain until early winter and are food for birds.

Vaccinium parvifolium

Red Huckleberry



Dry to moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows up to 4m; deciduous; berries are eaten by birds throughout the summer.

Viburnum edule

Highbush Cranberry



Moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows between 0.5 and 3.5m; deciduous; fruit remains through the winter and is an important source for over-wintering birds.

Some native shrubs suitable for other regions North America include:



Eastern: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica), red osier dogwood, red chokeberry (Pyrus arbutifolia), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), wild grape (Vitis spp.) and white elderberry (Sambus canadensis)

Central prairies and Great Plains: Wood’s rose (Rosa woodsi) and coyote willow (Salix exigua).

Ground Cover





Growing Conditions

Comments

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Kinnikinnick



Dry; full sun.

Grows up to 0.2m; evergreen; attracts hummingbirds and berries provide food for birds.

Rubus ursinus

Trailing Blackberry



Dry; full sun.

Trailing to 5m long and 0.5m high; deciduous; berries attract birds in late summer; provides food for deer in winter.

Some native ground cover suitable for other regions of North America include:



Eastern: Kinnikinnick (bearberry)

Perennials





Growing Conditions

Comments

Achilela millefolium

Yarrow


Dry to moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows to 1m; blooms June to July; attracts butterflies and hummingbirds.

Anaphalis margariacea

Pearly Everlasting



Dry; full sun to partial shade.

Grows to 1m; blooms July to August; summer browse for deer.

Aquilegia formosa

Red Columbine



Moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows to 1m; blooms May to June; flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds.

Dicentra formosa

Pacific Bleeding Heart



Moist; shade.

Grows to 0.5m; blooms May to June; attracts hummingbirds; seeds are spread by ants.

Epilobium angustifolium

Fireweed


Dry to moist; full sun.

Grows to 1m; blooms June to July; attracts hummingbirds and bees; fixes nitrogen in soil.

Heracleum lanatum

Cow-parsnip



Dry to moist; full sun and partial shade.

Grows to 3m; blooms May to June; attracts butterflies and bees.

Lupinus ssp.

Lupine


Dry to wet; full sun to partial shade.

Grows to 1.5m; blooms early spring; attracts bees and hummingbirds; fixes nitrogen in soil.

Sedum spathulifolium

Broad-leaved stonecrop



Dry; full sun.

Grows to 0.2m; blooms May to June.

Solidago canadensis

Canada Goldenrod



Dry to moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows to 1.5m; blooms May to June; attracts insects.

Stachys cooleyae

Cooley’s hedgenettle



Moist; full sun to partial shade.

Grows between 0.7 and 1.5m; flowers attractive to hummingbirds.

Some native perennials suitable for other regions of North America include:



Eastern: black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), New England aster (Aster novae-angliae), columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) and rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos)

Central prairies and Great Plains: day flower (Commelina dianthifolia), rose verbena (Verbena canadensis), blue sage (Salvia azurea), goldenrods (Solidago spp.), wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), Maximilian’s sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi) and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis)

Ferns





Growing Conditions

Comments

Polystichum munitum

Sword Fern



Moist; partial to full shade.

Grows to 1.5m.

Athyrium felix-femina

Lady Fern



Moist to wet; partial to full shade.

Grows to 2m.

Blechnum spicant

Deer Fern



Moist to wet; partial to full shade.

Grows between 0.2 and 0.8m; winter food source for deer.

Pteridium aquilinum

Bracken Fern



Dry to wet; partial to full shade.

Grows to 3m.

Some native ferns suitable for other regions of North America include:



Eastern: lady fern, bracken fern, ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) and grape fern (Botrychium spp.)

Central prairies and Great Plains: lady fern and bracken fern

Theme/Demonstration Gardens


Theme gardens are an excellent way to attract certain wildlife species to your yard and are also a way to help you learn more about the plants you are using. These gardens are fun to design and can be planted anywhere: backyards, balconies, and containers. The plants listed are native to the Coastal British Columbia.

Butterfly and Hummingbird Garden


Vine Maple

Acer circinatum


Black Twinberry

Lonicera involucrate

Common Snowberry

Symphoricarpos albus

Evergreen Huckleberry

Vaccinium ovatum

Mock-Orange

Philadelphus lewisii

Nootka Rose

Rosa Nutkana

Oceanspray

Holodiscus discolor

Red Elderberry

Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens

Red-Flowering Currant

Ribes sanguineum

Salmonberry

Rubus spectabilis

Timbleberry

Rubus parviflorus

Kinnikinnick

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Orange Honeysuckle

Lonicera ciliosa

Arctic Lupine

Lupins arctiucs

Canada Goldenrod

Solidago Canadensis

Cow-Parsnip

Heracleum lanatum

Arctic Lupine

Lupins arctiucs

Fireweed

Epilobium angustifolium

Large-Leaved Lupine

Lupinus polyphyllus

Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

Pacific Bleeding Heart

Decentra Formosa

Pearly Everlasting

Anaphalis margarticacea

Red Columbine

Aquilegia Formosa

White Fawn Lily

Erythronium oregonum

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium


Bug Garden


Pacific Willow

Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra

Common Snowberry

Symphoricarpos albus

Nootka Rose

Rosa nutkana

Oceanspray

Holodiscus discolor

Red Elderberry

Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens

Arctic Lupine

Lupins arctiucs

Canada Goldenrod

Solidago Canadensis

Arctic Lupine

Lupins arctiucs

Large-Leaved Lupine

Lupinus polyphyllus

Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

Pearly Everlasting

Anaphalis margarticacea

Red Columbine

Aquilegia Formosa



Wildflower Mix





Colour

Arctic Lupine

Lupinus arcticus

Purple

Canada Goldenrod

Solidago Canadensis

Yellow

Cow-Parsnip

Heracleum lanatum

White

Fireweed

Epilobium angustifolium

Pink

Fingecup

Tellima gradniflora

White

Large-Leaved Lupine

Lupinus poluphyllus

Purple

Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

Lavender

Pearly Everlasting

Anaphalis margaritacea

White

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

White



Summer Bird Food


Cascara

Rhamnus purshiana

Black Twinberry

Lonicera involucrate

Evergreen Huckleberry

Vaccinium ovatum

Indian-Plum

Oemleria cerasiformis

Red Elderberry

Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens

Salmonberry

Rubus spectabilis

Tall Oregon-Grape

Mahonia aquifolium

Thimbleberry

Rubus pariflorus

Kinnickinnick

Artostaphylos uva-ursi

Trailing Blackberry

Rubus ursinus


Fall and Winter Bird Food


Big Leaf Maple

Acer macrophyllum

Douglas-Fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii ssp. menziesii

Sitka Spruce

Picea sitchensis

Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla

Western Redcedar

Thujs plicata

Black Hawthorn

Cratageus douglasii

Pacific Crab Apple

Malus fusca

Beaked Hazelnut

Corylus cornuta

Black Raspberry

Rubus leucodermis

Common Snowberry

Symphoricarpos albus

Evergreen Huckleberry

Vaccimium ovatum

Red-Osier Dogwood

Cornus stonoifer

Saskatoon

Amerlanchier alnifolia

Orange Honeysuckle

Lonicera ciliosa

Trailing Blackberry

Rubus ursinus



Ethnobotany Garden


Wester Redcedar

Thuja plicata

Vine Maple

Acer circinatum

Beaked Hazelnut

Corylus cornuta

Black Gooseberry

Ribes lacustre

Evergreen Huckleberry

Vaccinium ovatum

Mock-Orange

Philadlphus lewisii

Nootka Rose

Rosa nutkana

Oceanspray

Holiduscus discolor

Pacific Ninebark

Physocarpus capitatus

Red Elderberry

Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens

Red Huckleberry

Vaccinium parvifolium

Saskatoon

Amelanchier alnifolia

Tall Oregon-Grape

Mahonia aquifolium

Orange Honeysuckle

Lonicera ciliosa

Trailing Blackberry

Rubus ursinus

Cow-Parsnip

Heracleum lanatum

Goat’s beard

Arunucus dioicus

Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

Red Columbine

Aquilegia Formosa

Skunk Cabbage

Lysichiton americanum

Wild Ginger

Asarum caudatum

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

Lady Fern

Athyrium filix-femina

Sword Fern

Polystichum munitum


Food Garden


Beaked Hazelnut

Corylus cornuta

Black Gooseberry

Ribes lacustre

Evergreen Huckleberry

Vaccinium ovatum

Indian-Plum

Oemleria cerasiformis

Labrador Tea

Ledum groenlandicum

Nootka Rose

Rosa nutkana

Red Elderberry

Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens

Red Huckleberry

Vaccinium parvifolium

Salal

Gaultheria shallon

Salmonberry

Rubus spectabilis

Soapberry

Shepherdia canadensis

Tall Oregon-Grape

Mahonia aquifolium

Thimbleberry

Rubus parviflorus

Trailing Blackberry

Rubus ursinus

Cow-Parsnip

Heracleum lanatum

Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

Common Horsetail

Equisetum arvense

Sword Fern

Polystichum munitum

Lady Fern

Athyrium felix-femina


Xeriscaping Garden


Bigleaf Maple

Acer macrophyllym

Douglas Maple

Acer glabrum

Douglas-Fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii ssp. menziesii

Western Flowering Dogwood

Cornus nuttallii

Baldhip Rose

Rosa gymnocarpa

Common Snowberry

Symphoricarpos albus

Indian-Plum

Oemleria cerasiformis

Mock-Orange

Philadelphus lewisii

Nootka Rose

Rosa nutkana

Oceanspray

Holodiscus discolor

Red-Flowering Currant

Ribes sanguineum

Redstem Ceanothus

Ceanothus sanguineus

Salmonberry

Rubus spectabilis

Saskatoon

Amelanchier alnifolia

Soapberry

Shepherdia canadensis

Tall Oregon-Grape

Mahonia aquifolium

Thimbleberry

Rubus parviflorus

Kinnikinnick

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Trainling Blackberry

Rubus ursinus

Arctic Lupine

Lupinus arcticus

Common Red Paintbrush

Castilleja miniata

Cut-leaf anemone

Anemone multifida

Harsh Paintbrush

Castilleja hispida

Harvest brodiaea

Brodiaea coronaria

Indian consumption plant

Lomatium nudicaule

Nodding Onion

Allium cernuum

Pearly Everlasting

Anaphalis margaritacea

Satin-Flower

Sisyrinchium douglasii

White Fawn Lily

Erythronium oregonum

Yarrow

Achillea millefolium

Bracken Fern

Pteridium aquilinum



Alpine Garden


Thirt Seapink
Armeria maritima

Common Harebell

Campanula notundifolia

Scouler’s Harebell

Campanula scouleri

Lance-fruited Draba

Draba lonchocarpa

Northern Geranium

Geranium erianthum

Broad-leaved Stonecrop

Sedum spathulifolium

Roseroot

Sedum integrifolium

Oregon Stonecrop

Sedum oreganum

Spreading Stonecrop

Sedum divegens

Lance-leafed Stonecrop

Sedum lanceolatum

Spreading Phlox

Phlox diuffusa

Yellow Wood Violet

Viola glabella


Don’t limit yourself to these suggestions. Be creative! Other demonstration garden ideas include wildlife habitat for amphibians, reptiles, small mammals, and ground nesting birds. Plant lists for demonstration gardens from Eakins et al. 1999.


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