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NAME ________________________________________________ PALEONTOLOGY LECTURE TEST # 2

___ 1. The most primitive crustaceans belong to the ?; these animals may have as many as 40 body segments or more, and can tolerate a wide variety of stressful environments. A.Branchiopoda B.Malacostraca C.Cirripedia D.Ostracoda E.Merostomata

___ 2. Within the ?, the calyx is tightly sutured and there are many long, erect, and typically pinnulate arms. A.Crinozoa B.Blastozoa C.Asterozoa D.Homalozoa E.Echinozoa
___ 3. Lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp belong to the A.Branchiopoda B.Malacostraca C.Cirripedia D.Ostracoda E.Merostomata
___ 4. The ? are bivalved crustaceans; their classification is often based on muscle scar field morphology. A.Branchiopoda B.Malacostraca C.Cirripedia D.Ostracoda E.Merostomata
___ 5. ? have pentameral symmetry and a water vascular system. A.echinoderms B.arthropods C.molluscs D.poriferans E.cnidarians
___ 6. The most important modern reef-building corals are ? corals. A.tabulate B.rugose C.scleractinian D.all of the above are important modern reef-building corals E.none of the above is a reef-building coral
___ 7. Dentition, ligament insertion, adductor muscle scars, and pallial line morphology are important for classification of A.bivalves B.cephalopods C.monoplacophorans D.gastropods E.all of the above
___ 8. Horseshoe crabs, spiders, and eurypterids belong to the A.Trilobitomorpha B.Crustacea C.Chelicerata D.Myriapoda E.Hexapoda
___ 9. Arthropods respire by means of A.gills B.tracheae C.some arthropods have gills; others have tracheae
___ 10. Which of the following is a "cystoid"? A.Diploporita B.Rhombifera C.all of the above D.none of the above
___ 11. A ? is a forward (adapertural) flexure of a suture in cephalopods. A.saddle B.siphuncle D.lobe E.radula
___ 12. The Archaeogastropoda, Mesogastropoda, and Neogastropoda belong to the A.Pulmonata B.Opisthobranchia C.Prosobranchia D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 13. Blade-shaped conodont elements are termed A.coniform B.pectiniform C.ramiform
___ 14. Trilobites have ? appendages. A.uniramous B.biramous C.some appendages are uniramous, others are biramous
___ 15. Both saddles and lobes are crenulate in A.ceratites B.goniatites C.ammonites D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 16. In the ?, a telson was developed, the sixth pair of appendages were usually oar-like, and the animals were up to 9 feet long. A.xiphosurans B.branchiopods C.ostracods D.malacostracans E.eurypterids
___ 17. Eyes are well-developed and a hyponome is present in A.echinoids B.bivalves C.malacostracans D.cephalopods E.gastropods
___ 18. Within the ?, the body is divided into a head, thorax, and abdomen, there are compound eyes, and three pairs of mouth parts. A.trilobites B.copepods C.insects D.malacostracans E.barnacles
___ 19. Which of the following is a coleoid? A.cuttlefish B.octopus C.belemnite D.squid E.all of the above are coleoids
___ 20. ? have the body divided into a cephalon, thorax, and pygidium. A.ostracods B.branchiopods C.trilobites D.arachnids E.merostomes
___ 21. A type of suture characterized by the presence of small lobes and saddles on major lobes only is A.ammonite B.ceratite C.goniatite D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 22. Crinoids A.are found in marine environments only B.typically prefer shallow water environments C.feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton D.all of the above are true E.none of the above is true
___ 23. A ? trilobite facial suture crosses the cheek, passes along the medial border of the eye, and intersects the posterior margin of the cephalon medial to the genal angle. A.opisthoparion B.gonatoparian C.marginal D.proparian E.all of the above
___ 24. ? have a sac-like body with small, loosely-attached sclerites embedded in a leathery skin. A.holothuroids B.asteroids C.ophiuroids D.echinoids E.graptolites
___ 25. ? are fossil colonial marine organisms with a proteinaceous skeleton; the zooids are commonly connected to each other by stolons. A.holothuroids B.asteroids C.ophiuroids D.echinoids E.graptolites
___ 26. Corals, sea anemonies, and jellyfish, are referrable to the A.Porifera B.Mollusca C.Bryozoa D.Archaeocyatha E.Cnidaria
___ 27. The ? are characterized by torsion of internal organs. A.Prosobranchia B.Opisthobranchia C.Pulmonata D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 28. A phragmacone, pro-ostracum and guard are diagnostic of A.ammonoids B.gastropods C.monoplacophorans D.scaphopods E.belemnites
___ 29. Most irregular echinoids are A.vagrant benthonic B.burrowers C.all of the above D.none of the above
___ 30. Radial symmetry, the presence of nematocysts, and the presence of medusoid and/or polyp stages, is characteristic of the A.Bryozoa B.Brachiopoda C.Cnidaria D.Porifera E.Echinodermata
___ 31. Siphuncular and cameral deposits have been used for identication of fossil A.bivalves B.gastropods C.cephalopods D.monoplacophorans E.scaphopods
___ 32. Which of the following is an arachnid? A.tick B.mite C.spider D.scorpion E.all of the above are arachnids
___ 33. The barnacles belong to the A.Branchiopoda B.Cirripedia C.Malacostraca D.Arachnida E.Insecta
___ 34. Sea anemones, corals, sea fans, sea pens, and sea feathers belong to the A.Hydrozoa B.Scyphozoa C.Anthozoa D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 35. The skeleton of arthropods is primarily made of A.calcium carbonate B.calcium phosphate C.chitin D.silica E.all of the above
___ 36. Trilobites are classified primarily on the basis of A.pygidium morphology B.facial suture patterns C.cephalic characteristics D.all of the above are important in trilobite classification E.none of the above is used in trilobite classification
___ 37. Which of the following groups formed reefs? A.Rugosa B.Scleractinia C.Tabulata D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 38. Bryozoa are A.vagile benthonic B.sessile benthonic C.planktonic D.nektonic E.all of the above
___ 39. Within the ?, the shell is bilaterally symmetrical if a line is drawn across the valves; the valves are typically of unequal size. A.ostracods B.bivalves C.malacostracans D.brachiopods E.corals
___ 40. Hydropores, gonopores and accessory thecal respiratory structures are characteristic of the A.Crinozoa B.Blastozoa C.Asterozoa D.Homalozoa E.Echinozoa
___ 41. Brittle stars belong to the A.Ophiuroidea B.Asteroidea C.Rhombifera D.Diploporita E.Blastoidea
___ 42. Brachiopods ? found only in marine environments. A.are B.are not
___ 43. Within the Scyphozoa, the ? stage is dominant. A.polyp B.medusoid C.the polyp and medusoid stages are equally important in the Scyphozoa
___ 44. Within the ? brachiopods, the valves are hinged. A.inarticulate B.articulate C.the valves are hinged in both articulate and inarticulate brachiopods
___ 45. The ? may be ancestral to tunicates, amphioxus, vertebrates, and possibly other echinoderms. A.Crinozoa B.Blastozoa C.Asterozoa D.Homalozoa E.Echinozoa
___ 46. In ?, the skeletal parts consist of microscopic mineralized elements arranged in Apparatuses, which may constitute Natural Assemblages. A.graptolites B.hyoliths C.criconarids D.conodonts E.rhodophytes
___ 47. Which of the following is true concerning conularids? A.skeleton made of chitin and calcium phosphate B.pyramidal form C.marine sessile benthonic or nektonic D.range from Middle Cambrian to Early Triassic E.all of the above are true concerning conularids
___ 48. Annelids and arthropods are A.metameric B.oligomeric C.americ D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 49. Trilobites are most useful for ? biostratigraphy. A.Cambrian B.Ordovician C.Silurian D.Devonian E.Mississippian
___ 50. Rudists are types of A.corals B.bivalves C.gastropods D.cephalopods E.bryozoans
___ 51. ? had a long, tapering, operculate shell with props that kept the animal above the substrate. A.monoplacophorans B.scaphopods C.hyolithids D.polyplacophorans E.cephalopods
___ 52. ? are typically unsegmented organisms in which a radula is often developed. A.cnidarians B.poriferans C.arthropods D.molluscs E.echinoderms
___ 53. Orthid, strophomenid, and spiriferid brachiopods dominated the A.Archean B.Proterozoic C.Paleozoic D.Mesozoic E.Cenozoic
___ 54. Trilobites are found in ? deposits. A.marine B.freshwater C.terrestrial D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 55. The ? are unusual molluscs in that one living species is segmented; the shells in this group are cap or spoon-shaped or have an arched single shell. A.polyplacophorans B.monoplacophorans C.gastropods D.bivalves E.cephalopods
___ 56. The ? have a segmented exoskeleton consisting of somites, and have paired jointed legs on most segments. A.cnidarians B.poriferans C.bryozoans D.arthropods E.molluscs
___ 57. Within the ?, secondary septa develop in 4 of 6 interseptal spaces. A.Rugosa B.Tabulata C.Scleractinia D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 58. The "tusk shells" are A.polyplacophorans B.monoplacophorans C.scaphopods D.cephalopods E.gastropods
___ 59. The presence of abundant cameral and siphuncular deposits in fossil nautiloids probably indicates more ? habits. A.benthonic B.planktonic C.nektonic D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 60. The ? have an encircling girdle and a flat foot with a ventral sole adapted for creeping. A.polyplacophorans B.monoplacophorans C.gastropods D.bivalves E.cephalopods
___ 61. Trochophore and veleger larvae are characteristic of A.molluscs B.cnidarians C.arthropods D.echinoderms E.poriferans
___ 62. In the ?, the head is reduced to a rudimentary condition, the foot is usually wedge-shaped, and inhalent and exhalent siphons are present. A.Hyolitha B.Polyplacophora C.Gastropoda D.Cephalopoda E.Bivalvia
___ 63. Probably the most studied group of fossil invertebrates are the A.Echinoidea B.Cephalopoda C.Bivalvia D.Gastropoda E.Ostracoda
___ 64. The openings of the echinoderm water vascular system to the exterior are covered by a plate termed the A.ambulacrum B.calyx C.columnal D.theca E.madreporite
___ 65. A mica-like shell structure in molluscs is termed A.foliated B.nacreous C.homogeneous D.crossed laminar E.prismatic
___ 66. ? are blastozoan echinoderms with paired pores that penetrate some or most of the thecal plates. A.Crinoidea B.Blastoidea C.Rhombifera D.Asteroidea E.Diploporita

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