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NAME _________________________________________________ PALEONTOLOGY LECTURE FINAL

___ 1. Gymnosperms are probably a ? group. A.monophyletic B.polyphyletic

___ 2. The most important group of modern birds are the A.passerines B.ratites C.strigiforms D.anseriforms E.falconiforms
___ 3. Reptiles A.reduce the size of the bones in the rear of the skull including the supratemporal, tabular and postparietal B.have palatal fangs and labyrinthine infolding of the tooth enamel C.have an otic notch D.all of the above are true concerning reptiles E.none of the above is true concerning reptiles
___ 4. ? have a double "pulley" astragalus. A.artiodactyls B.creodonts C.perissodactyls D.primates E.rodents
___ 5. The morphology of the auditory bulla is often used in classification of A.reptiles B.mammals C.birds D.sharks E.bony fish
___ 6. The amniote egg was first developed within A.bony fish B.amphibians C.reptiles D.birds E.mammals
___ 7. ? are ray-finned fishes. A.placoderms B.acanthodians C.sarcopterygians D.actinopterygians E.chondrichthyans
___ 8. ? have a carapace and plastron; they are anapsid and the teeth are rudimentary or absent. A.Testudines B.Lepidosauromorphs C.Archosauromorphs D.Captorhinomorphs E.Procolophonians
___ 9. Tetrapods may have first invaded terrestrial environments due to A.ponds drying out B.low oxygen content in water C.population pressures D.escape from predators E.all of the above are theories concerning the origin of terrestrial vertebrates
___ 10. The Great Faunal Interchange between North and South America occurred during the A.Late Eocene B.Early Oligocene through Miocene C.Pliocene-Pleistocene D.the Great Faunal Interchange was actually between North America and Eurasia
___ 11. ? classification is based primarily on masseter muscle attachment patterns. A.carnivore B.primate C.lagomorph D.condylarth E.rodent

___ 12. Dinosaurs, pterosaurs, lizards, and crocodiles are A.anapsids B.synapsids C.diapsids D.euryapsids

___ 13. The Hesperornithiformes and Ichthyornithiformes were Cretaceous A.dinosaurs B.mammals C.birds D.sharks E.amphibians
___ 14. In anthracosaurs the ? becomes the dominant vertebral element. A.intercentrum B.pleurocentrum
___ 15. The fish hyomandibular became the ? of later vertebrates. A.stapes B.malleus C.incus D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 16. ? have a diapsid skull, an antorbital opening, and thecodont dentition. A.placodonts B.icthyosaurs C.plesiosaurs D.sphenodontids E.archosaurs
___ 17. The most successful extinct tylopod group, that included pig- or sheep-like Tertiary mammals, were the A.pecora B.chalicotheres C.oreodonts D.mesonychids E.equoids
___ 18. The primitive caudal fin type in actinopterygians is A.hypocercal B.heterocercal C.diphycercal D.homocercal
___ 19. The ? are flowering plants. A.Anthophyta B.Pteridospermophyta C.Cycadophyta D.Sphenophyta E.Lycophyta
___ 20. All of the bipedal carnivorous dinosaurs were A.sauropodomorphs B.ceratopsians C.ankylosaurs D.ornithopods E.theropods
___ 21. ? are paraxonic. A.litopterns B.artiodactyls C.notoungulates D.perissodactyls E.all of the above are paraxonic
___ 22. The Class Aves are A.reptiles B.birds C.mammals D.sharks E.bony fish
___ 23. Which of the following is not true concerning land plants? A.spores and pollen protected by coating B.presence of stomata C.often with waxy layers on leaves and branches D.parenchyma tissues present cycle with gametophytes only
___ 24. ? are dolphin-, tuna- and shark-like Mesozoic reptiles. A.placodonts B.plesiosaurs C.nothosaurs D.ichthyosaurs E.testudines
___ 25. The rabbit-like Adianthids, horse-like Prototheriids, and the weird camel-like, trunk-bearing Macraucheniids were A.tillodonts B.pantodonts C.litopterns D.marsupials E.notoungulates
___ 26. ? were the largest known mammalian land carnivores or scavengers. A.taeniodonts B.tillodonts C.mesonychids D.litopterns E.notoungulates
___ 27. In the ?, the pubis points backward and a predentary was present. A.saurischians B.pelycosaurs C.therapsids D.ornithischians E.procolophonians
___ 28. ? have small leaves that are arranged in whorls and have jointed stems. A.bryophytes B.lycophytes C.sphenophytes D.cycads E.filicinophytes
___ 29. The ? have a marsupium. A.Prototheria B.Metatheria C.Eutheria D.all of the above have a marsupium E.none of the above has a marsupium
___ 30. Baleen whales are A.odontocetes B.mysticetes C.proboscideans D.perissodactyls E.archeocetes
___ 31. Which of the following is a tracheophyte? A.lycophyte B.sphenophyte C.angiosperm D.rhyniophyte E.all of the above are tracheophytes
___ 32. Within "edentates" A.teeth typically increase in number B.there are typically large claws C.teeth increase in size in order to crush social insects D.all of the above are true E.none of the above is true
___ 33. ? were advanced mammal-like reptiles that represent transitional stages in the development of mammalian characteristics. A.edaphosaurs B.dinocephalians C.anomodonts D.cynodonts E.caseids
___ 34. In dinosaurs A.the femur is inturned B.the acetabulum is perforate C.the posture is digitigrade D.all the above are true concerning dinosaurs E.none of the above is true concerning dinosaurs
___ 35. Land plants evolved from the A.Rhodophyta B.Phaeophyta C.Pyrrhophyta D.Cyanobacteria E.Chlorophyta
___ 36. A synsacrum, pygostyle, furcula and carina are characteristic of A.ichthyosaurs B.plesiosaurs C.therapsids D.birds E.mammals
___ 37. ? do not have deciduous precursors. A.incisors B.canines C.premolars D.molars E.all of the above have deciduous precursors
___ 38. Rhamphorynchoids were the earliest A.pelycosaurs B.pterosaurs C.placodonts D.ichthyosaurs E.plesiosaurs
___ 39. ? were large, fierce Middle and Upper Triassic thecodonts with dinosaur-like skulls that attained lengths of 6 meters or more. A.aetosaurs B.crocodilians C.rauisuchians D.phytosaurs E.pterosaurs
___ 40. In the ? the leaves are simple "microphylls", and the leaves are arranged on the trunk in pits termed leaf cushions or bolsters. A.cycads B.cycadeoids C.angiosperms D.filicinophytes E.lycophytes
___ 41. ? often had horns, large shields of bone on the skull, and a beak-like snout. A.ornithopods B.ceratopsians C.ankylosaurs D.stegosaurs E.sauropods
___ 42. ? have the angle of the jaw usually inflected medially, there is typically a broad stylar shelf on the upper molars, and the hypoconulid and entoconid are twinned. A.marsupials B.placentals C.all of the above D.none of the above
___ 43. In the ? condition, there is a single upper temporal opening with the postorbital and squamosal meeting below. A.diapsid B.anapsid C.synapsid D.euryapsid
___ 44. Cartilage is ? preserved in the fossil record. A.usually B.usually not
___ 45. ? are characterized by streptostyly and often have pleurodont dentition. A.placodonts B.pareiasaurs C.plesiosaurs D.lizards E.saurischians
___ 46. In ?, the scapulo-coracoid articulation has an obtuse angle and an ilioischiatic fenestra is typically present. A.falconiforms B.strigiforms C.passeriforms D.flightless birds E.anseriforms
___ 47. ? have sharp retractile claws and the carnassials are extremely well-developed. A.dogs B.bears C.cats D.skunks E.all of the above
___ 48. Approximately 40% of all known modern mammalian species are A.rodents B.primates C.artiodactyls D.perissodactyls E.bats
___ 49. ? gave birth to live young. A.placodonts B.plesiosaurs C.nothosaurs D.ichthyosaurs E.testudines
___ 50. Agnathans ? jaws. A.have not have C.some agnathans have jaws, some do not
___ 51. A notochord is diagnostic of the A.tracheophytes B.bryozoa C.molluscs D.chordates E.bryophytes
___ 52. ? were the most diverse and numerous Mesozoic mammals; they were rodent-like and had many-cusped molariform teeth. A.docodonts B.eupantotheres C.symmetrodonts D.triconodonts E.multituberculates
___ 53. Haversian canal systems have been used to hypothesize that ? were endothermic. A.rhipidistians B.anthracosaurs C.pelycosaurs D.placodonts E.dinosaurs
___ 54. ? include the earliest undisputed vertebrates; these forms have long, narrow oral plates. A.cyclostomes B.anaspids C.osteostracans D.heterostracans E.thelodonts
___ 55. The ? were horse-sized clawed bipedal browsers. A.brontotheres B.dinoceratans C.chalicotheres D.oreodonts E.ruminants
___ 56. In ?, a secondary palate is formed by extension of the premaxillae, maxillae, palatines and pterygoids. A.aetosaurs B.crocodilians C.rauisuchians D.phytosaurs E.pterosaurs
___ 57. American marsupials are typically A.diprotodont B.syndactylous C.American marsupials are often both diprotodont and syndactylous D.American marsupials are polyprotodont and didactylous
___ 58. ? were small fish with an undivided bony shield which extended down the body; the head was dorsoventrally compressed and "sensory" fields were present. A.cyclostomes B.anaspids C.osteostracans D.heterostracans E.thelodonts
___ 59. Triconodonts and symmetrodonts were early A.amphibians B.reptiles C.mammals D.birds E.bony fish
___ 60. In the ?, the fourth finger is greatly elongate to support the wing membrane. A.bats B.birds C.pterosaurs D.all of the above E.none of the above
___ 61. Sphenacodonts, edaphosaurs and caseids were A.pelycosaurs B.therapsids C.Aves D.pterosaurs E.theropod dinosaurs
___ 62. The malleus, incus and stapes are ? ear bones. A.reptile B.bird C.amphibian D.mammal E.the malleus, incus and stapes are found in all of the above
___ 63. Archaeopterygids were the earliest A.amphibians B.reptiles C.bony fish D.sharks E.birds
___ 64. A ? tail is a symmetrical tail in which the vertebrae extend outward to the tip. A.diphycercal B.heterocercal C.homocercal D.hypocercal
___ 65. The first human to leave Africa was A.Australopithecus afarensis B.Paranthropus robustus C.Homo habilis D.Homo erectus E.Homo neanderthalensis
___ 66. ? were carnivorous mammals in which the carnassials usual involved M1+2/M2+3. A.Arctoids B.Musteloids C.Aeluroids D.Dinocerata E.Creodonts
___ 67. Vertebrates are probably derived from A.arthropods B.molluscs C.echinoderms D.bryozoans E.annelids
___ 68. ? have a dentary-squamosal articulation. A.reptiles B.birds C.amphibians D.sharks E.mammals
___ 69. The oldest known vascular plants are A.bryophytes B.rhyniophytes C.sphenophytes D.lycophytes E.cycadeoids

___ 70. Armadillos, ground sloths, and glyptodonts are A.sirenians B.cetaceans C.proboscideans D.artiodactyls E.xenarthrans

___ 71. Mammals ? determinate growth. A.have not have
___ 72. The tusks of elephants are A.incisors B.canines C.premolars D.molars
___ 73. ? were dorsoventrally compressed fishes with head and trunk shields; advanced types often had shields connected by a ball-and-socket articulation. A.acanthodians B.osteichthyans C.placoderms D.chondrichthyans E.cephaspidomorphs
___ 74. ? were typically freshwater sharks that had two anal fins and a diphycercal tail; the teeth had two or three pointed cusps. A.euselachians B.placoderms C.symmoriids D.acanthodians E.xenacanths
___ 75. ? were aquatic reptiles of Permian age that have been used as evidence for plate tectonics. A.plesiosaurs B.mesosaurs C.ichthyosaurs D.procolophonids E.sphenodontids
___ 76. The "odd toed" ungulates are A.cetaceans B.litopterns C.perissodactyls D.notoungulates E.artiodactyls
___ 77. ? had paired nasal sacs and openings, typically had one pair of gill openings, and the skull did not form a complete head shield. A.chondrichthyans B.osteichthyans C.placoderms D.cephalaspidomorphs E.pteraspidomorphs
___ 78. There are barbs on ? fish scales. A.ctenoid B.cosmoid C.cycloid D.ganoid E.all of the above fish scales have barbs
___ 79. ? actinopterygian fish have an oblique suspensorium and have numerous branchiostegal rays. A.primitive B.derived

___ 80. Didelphids, borhyaenids, and thylacosmilids were A.birds B.amphibians C.placentals D.marsupials E.actinopterygians

___ 81. Procolophonids and pareiasaurs were primarily A.carnivores B.herbivores
___ 82. Bats belong to the A.Chiroptera B.Insectivora C.Creodonta D.Carnivora E.Litopterna
___ 83. Dogs, bear-dogs, bears, and raccoons are A.aeluroids B.musteloids C.mesonychids D.notoungulates E.arctoids
___ 84. The "modern shark" groups are A.euselachians B.placoderms C.symmoriids D.acanthodians E.xenacanths
___ 85. Lobe-finned fish are A.chondrichthyans B.placoderms C.acanthodians D.actinopterygians E.sarcopterygians
___ 86. Monkeys, apes and man are ? primates. A.haplorhinine B.strepsirhine C.plesiadapiform D.anthropoid E.chiropteran
___ 87. In ?, the first gill arch bears the main burden of jaw support. A.autostyly B.amphistyly C.holostyly D.hyostyly
___ 88. Paired fins may have originated from A.fin spines B.fin folds C.both fin spines and fin folds have been proposed as the precursors of paired fins
___ 89. ? gave rise to amphibians. A.rhipidistians B.teleosts C.coelacanths D.dipnoans E.xenacanths
___ 90. Nothosaurs, plesiosaurs, placodonts, and icthyosaurs have a ? temporal opening. A.euryapsid B.anapsid C.synapsid D.diapsid
___ 91. The oldest amphibians are of ? age. A.Cambrian B.Devonian C.Permian D.Triassic E.Cretaceous
___ 92. In ? vertebrae the centrum is formed from a single structure; the vertebrae are typically spool-shaped and have a hole for the notchord. A.rhachitomous B.stereospondylous C.anthracosaurian D.lepospondylous
___ 93. ? were primitive archosauromophs in which the upper jaw developed broad crushing toothplates and a parrot-like toothless beak. A.rhynchosaurs B.rauisuchians C.aetosaurs D.trilophosaurs E.pterosaurs
___ 94. Ichthyostegids, temnospondyls, "stereospondyls" and anthracosaurs were A.lissamphibians B.lepospondyls C.labyrinthodonts D.rhipidistians E.procolophonoids
___ 95. Primitive actinopterygian fish have ? scales. A.ctenoid B.cosmoid C.cycloid D.ganoid
___ 96. ? had infolding of the dentine, palatal fanged teeth, and the vertebrae were composed of several centra elements. A.acanthodians B.teleosts C.labyrinthodonts D.lissamphibians E.lepospondyls
___ 97. In the ? primates, the ectoympanic bone forms a tube leading outward from the auditory bulla. A.plesiadapiform B.strepsirhine C.haplorhinine D. an ectotympanic tube is found in all of the above ectotympanic tube is found in none of the above
___ 98. Lungfish are A.coelacanths B.dipnoans C.rhipidistians D.icthyostegids E.teleosts
___ 99. Teleost fish are characterized by a ? jaw articulation. A.holostylic B.autostylic C.hyostylic D.amphistylic
___ 100. The oldest vascular plants are from the A.Cambrian B.Silurian C.Mississippian D.Pennsylvanian E.Permian

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