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0.6 Conditional access

Encryption and scrambling for conditional access to programs encoded in the Program and Transport Streams is supported by the system data stream definitions. Conditional access mechanisms are not specified here. The stream definitions are designed so that implementation of practical conditional access systems is reasonable, and there are some syntactical elements specified which provide specific support for such systems.

0.7 Multiplex-wide operations

Multiplex-wide operations include the coordination of data retrieval off the channel, the adjustment of clocks, and the management of buffers. The tasks are intimately related. If the rate of data delivery off the channel is controllable, then data delivery may be adjusted so that decoder buffers neither overflow nor underflow; but if the data rate is not controllable, then elementary stream decoders must slave their timing to the data received from the channel to avoid overflow or underflow.

Program Streams are composed of packs whose headers facilitate the above tasks. Pack headers specify intended times at which each byte is to enter the Program Stream Decoder from the channel, and this target arrival schedule serves as a reference for clock correction and buffer management. The schedule need not be followed exactly by decoders, but they must compensate for deviations about it.
Similarly, Transport Streams are composed of Transport Stream packets with headers containing information which specifies the times at which each byte is intended to enter a Transport Stream Decoder from the channel. This schedule provides exactly the same function as that which is specified in the Program Stream.
An additional multiplex-wide operation is a decoder's ability to establish what resources are required to decode a Transport Stream or Program Stream. The first pack of each Program Stream conveys parameters to assist decoders in this task. Included, for example, are the stream's maximum data rate and the highest number of simultaneous video channels. The Transport Stream likewise contains globally useful information.
The Transport Stream and Program Stream each contain information which identifies the pertinent characteristics of, and relationships between, the elementary streams which constitute each program. Such information may include the language spoken in audio channels, as well as the relationship between video streams when multi-layer video coding is implemented.

0.8 Individual stream operations (PES Packet Layer)

The principal stream-specific operations are 1) de-multiplexing, and 2) synchronizing playback of multiple elementary streams.

0.8.1 De-multiplexing

On encoding, Program Streams are formed by multiplexing elementary streams, and Transport Streams are formed by multiplexing elementary streams, Program Streams, or the contents of other Transport Streams. Elementary streams may include private, reserved, and padding streams in addition to audio and video streams. The streams are temporally subdivided into packets, and the packets are serialized. A PES packet contains coded bytes from one and only one elementary stream.

In the Program Stream both fixed and variable packet lengths are allowed subject to constraints as specified in 2.5.1 on page 53 and 2.5.2 on page 54 of this Specification. For Transport Streams the packet length is 188 bytes. Both fixed and variable PES packet lengths are allowed, and will be relatively long in most applications.
On decoding, de-multiplexing is required to reconstitute elementary streams from the multiplexed Program Stream or Transport Stream. Stream_id codes in Program Stream packet headers, and Packet ID codes in the Transport Stream make this possible.

0.8.2 Synchronization

Synchronization among multiple elementary streams is accomplished with Presentation Time Stamps (PTS) in the Program Stream and Transport streams. Time stamps are generally in units of 90kHz, but the System Clock Reference (SCR), the Program Clock Reference (PCR) and the optional Elementary Stream Clock Reference (ESCR) have extensions with a resolution of 27MHz. Decoding of N elementary streams is synchronized by adjusting the decoding of streams to a common master time base rather than by adjusting the decoding of one stream to match that of another. The master time base may be one of the N decoders' clocks, the data sourceís clock, or it may be some external clock.

Each program in a Transport Stream, which may contain multiple programs, may have its own time base. The time bases of different programs within a Transport Stream may be different.
Because PTSs apply to the decoding of individual elementary streams, they reside in the PES packet layer of both the Transport Streams and Program Streams. End-to-end synchronization occurs when encoders save time stamps at capture time, when the time stamps propagate with associated coded data to decoders, and when decoders use those time stamps to schedule presentations.
Synchronization of a decoding system with a channel is achieved through the use of the SCR in the Program Stream and by its analog, the PCR, in the Transport Stream. The SCR and PCR are time stamps encoding the timing of the bit stream itself, and are derived from the same time base used for the audio and video PTS values from the same program. Since each program may have its own time base, there are separate PCR fields for each program in a Transport Stream containing multiple programs. In some cases it may be possible for programs to share PCR fields. Refer to 2.4.4 on page 44, Program Specific Information (PSI), for the method of identifying which PCR is associated with a program. A program shall have one and only one PCR time base associated with it.

0.8.3 Relation to compression layer

The PES packet layer is independent of the compression layer in some senses, but not in all. It is independent in the sense that PES packet payloads need not start at compression layer start codes, as defined in parts 2 and 3 of this Recommendation†|†International Standard. For example, video start codes may occur anywhere within the payload of a PES packet, and start codes may be split by a PES packet header. However, time stamps encoded in PES packet headers apply to presentation times of compression layer constructs (namely, presentation units). In addition, when the elementary stream data conforms to ITU T Rec. H.262†|†ISO/IEC 13818-2 or ISO/IEC 13818-3, the PES_packet_data_bytes shall be byte aligned to the bytes of ITU T Rec. H.222.0†|†ISO/IEC 13818-1.

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