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International Journal of Scientific Research in XXXX (ijsrxx), X(X), pp. X-X, 20XX


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International Journal of Scientific Research in xxxx (IJSRXX), X(X), pp. X-X, 20XX

Available online at http://www.ijsrpub.com/ijsrk

ISSN: ©2012 IJSR

Full Length Research Paper
Title of Manuscript
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Received 00 October 0000; Accepted 00 November 0000
Abstract. The abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should be 150 to 250 words in length
Key words: Following the abstract, about 3 to 10 key words that will provide indexing references to should be listed.
1. INTRODUCTION
One of the major problems the industrialized world is facing today is the contamination of soil, groundwater, sediments, surface water and air with hazardous and toxic chemicals (Achal et al., 2011). The presence of heavy metals in the environment has brought about a number of environmental problems (Yeneneh et al., 2011). In recent times, the occurrence of metal contaminants especially the heavy metals in excess of natural loads has become a problem of increasing concern. This situation has arisen as a result of the rapid growth of population, increased urbanization and expansion of industrial activities, exploration and exploitation of natural resources, extension of irrigation and other modern agricultural practices as well as the lack of environmental regulations (Ndimele and Jimoh, 2011).

Bioremediation is one of the most economic alternatives for soil and aquifer restoration.


1.1. Heavy Metals
Strictly speaking, heavy metals are defined as those with higher density than 5 mg mL-1 but the collective term now includes arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium and zinc.

Put all tables and figures at the end of manuscript
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Sample preparation
A study was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation of lead from soil by Lepidium sativum L. according to randomized complete block design. Every Lepidium sativum L. plant was put in pots containing 5 Kg of surface soil (0 to 10 cm). The experiment consisted of four treatments including 0 (control, T1), 75 (T2), 150 (T3) and 300 (T4) mg Kg-1 lead added to the soil samples. After 30 days, the samples were taken for testing. The plant tissues were prepared for laboratory analysis by Wet Digestion method (Campbell and Plank, 1998). Soil samples were air dried in a greenhouse at a temperature between 25ºC and 30ºC and sifted through a 2-mm mesh sieve for preparation of soil samples (Mojiri and Amirossadat, 2011).

2.2. Laboratory determinations
Soil reaction (pH) and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured on 1:1 extract (Soil:Water). Heavy metals in soil and plant samples were carried out by DTPA in accordance the Standard Methods (APHA, 1998). Soil properties are shown in Table 2.


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tables 3 and 4 have shown comparing the means of treatments in soil and Lepidium sativum L., respectively.
3.1. Lead concentration in soil
According Table 3, The Pb (ppm) concentration was in soil under T1, T2, T3 and T4 after 30 days in order of 0.00, 45.03, 82.78 and 155.92, respectively.

4. CONCLUSION

REFERENCES
Achal V, Kumari D, Pan X (2011). Bioremediation of Chromium Contaminated Soil by a Brown-rot Fungus, Gloeophyllum sepiarium. Research Journal of Microbiology, 6: 166-171.

APHA (1998). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA.



Table 1: Phytoremediation includes the following processes and mechanisms of contaminant removal

No.

Process

Mechanism

Contaminant

1

Phytoextraction

Hyper-accumulation

Inorganics

2

Phytovolatilization

Volatilisation by leaves

Organics/Inorganics

3

Phytostabilisation

Complexation

Inorganics

4

Rhizofiltration

Rhizosphere accumulation

Organics/Inorganics

5

Phytotransformation

Degradation in plant

Organics


Table 2: Soil Properties

pH

EC (dS.m-1)

Clay (%)

Sand (%)

TN (%)

P (me.L-1)

Fe (ppm)

Pb (ppm)

7.03

1.04

11.9

45.2

0.06

11.6

2.08

0.0

Table 3: Comparing the Means of Treatments in Soil

Treatments

Pb (ppm)

T1

0.00a

T2

45.03b

T3

82.78c

T4

155.92d

+ Numbers followed by same letters in each column are not significantly (P<0.05) different according to the DMR test



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