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Gustavo a. S. Melo maria fernanda a. Torres oswaldo campos jr


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Malacostraca - Eucarida

BRACHYURA

DROMIACEA and OXYSTOMATA

GUSTAVO A. S. MELO

MARIA FERNANDA A. TORRES

OSWALDO CAMPOS JR

Museu de Zoologia

Universidade de São Paulo

Section Dromiacea De Haan, 1833

Superfamily Dromioidea De Haan, 1833

Family Dromiidae De Haan, 1833

Genus Cryptodromiopsis Borradaile, 1903



Cryptodromiopsis antillensis (Stimpson, 1858)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 33 (as Dromidia antillensis); Williams, 1984: 255 (as D. antillensis).

Description and diagnosis: Williams, 1984: 255 (as D. antillensis); Melo, 1996: 68.

References: Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 177 (as D. antillensis); Felder, 1973: 44, pl. 6 (as D. antillensis); Williams, 1984: 255, fig. 187 (as D. antillensis); Melo, 1996: 68, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from MA to RS).

Comments: On rock bottoms, intertidal zone to 330m, with sponges and ascidians on its carapace.

Genus Dromia Weber, 1795



Dromia erythropus (G. Edwards, 1771)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 39; Forest, 1974: 80.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 39; Forest, 1974: 80; Melo, 1996: 69.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 31, fig. 11, pl. 6, figs. 1-2, pl. 8, figs. 1-2; Powers, 1977: 19; Melo, 1996: 69, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (CE, PB, BA, RJ, SP).

Comments: On rock bottoms, from shallow waters to 360m; usually with sponges and ascidians on its carapace.

Genus Hypoconcha Guérin-Méneville, 1854



Hypoconcha arcuata Stimpson, 1858

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 47; Williams, 1984: 257.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 47; Williams, 1984: 257; Melo, 1996: 71.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 47, pl. 11, figs. 1-4; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 178; Powers, 1977: 20; Williams, 1984: 257, fig. 188; Melo, 1996: 71, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to SP).

Comments: On sand and mud bottoms, from 1 to 80m, associated with bivalves and sponges carried on its carapace.

Hypoconha parasitica (Linnaeus, 1763)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 44 (as H. sabulosa); Williams, 1984: 258.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 44 (as H. sabulosa); Williams, 1984: 258 (as H. sabulosa); Melo, 1996: 72.

References: Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 172 (as H. sabulosa); Felder, 1973: 44, pl. 6, fig. 5 (as H. sabulosa); Powers, 1977: 20 (as H. sabulosa); Williams, 1984: 258, fig. 189 (as H. sabulosa); Abele & Kim, 1986: 39 (as H. sabulosa); Melo, 1996: 72, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to SP).

Comments: On sand, shell, coral, and mud bottoms, from 4 to 90m, associated with bivalves and sponges carried on its carapace.

Superfamily Homoloidea De Haan, 1839

Family Homolidae De Haan, 1839

Genus Homola Leach, 1815



Homola barbata (Fabricius, 1793)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 63 (as Thelxiope barbata); Williams 1984: 261.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 63 (as T. barbata); Williams, 1984: 261; Melo, 1996: 75.

References: Williams, 1965: 146, fig. 121; Forest & Guinot, 1966: 48; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 178; Powers, 1977: 22; Williams, 1984: 261, fig. 193; Melo, 1996: 75, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Eastern and Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ, RS).

Comments: On sand, shell, and coral, occasionally on mud bottoms, from 30 to 682m.

Family Latreilliidae Stimpson, 1858

Genus Latreillia Roux, 1830

Latreillia williamsi Melo, 1990

Synonymy: Melo, 1990: 27.

Description and diagnosis: Melo, 1990: 27; 1996: 77.

References: Bordin, 1987: 7 (as L. elegans); Melo, 1990: 27, figs. 1-2; 1996: 77, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ, SP, RS).

Comments: On sand, gravel, shell, and mud bottoms, from 130 to 290m, occasionally in shallower waters.

Setion Oxystomata H. Milne Edwards, 1834

Superfamily Cyclodorippoidea Ortmann, 1892

Family Cyclodorippidae Ortmann, 1892

Genus Clythrocerus A. M. Edwards & Bouvier, 1899

Clythrocerus carinatus Coelho, 1973

Synonymy: Coelho, 1973: 343.

Description and diagnosis: Coelho, 1973: 343; Melo, 1996: 86.

References: Coelho, 1973: 343; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 63; Bordin, 1987: 7; Tavares, 1993: 138; Melo, 1996: 86, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PA, SP).

Comments: On sand and mud bottoms, from 20 to 60m, with bryozoans and hydrozoans on its carapace.
Clythrocerus granulatus (Rathbun, 1898)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 119; Williams, 1984: 259 .

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 119; Williams, 1984: 259; Melo, 1996: 87.

References: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 63; Melo, 1996: 87, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, PB, AL, RJ, SP, RS).

Comments: On sand, shell, calcareous algae, and mud bottoms, from 21 to 250m, with foraminiferans, sponges and hydrozoans on its carapace; sometimes parasitized by rhyzocephalans.
Clythrocerus moreirai Tavares, 1993

Synonymy: Tavares, 1993: 139.

Description and diagnosis: Tavares, 1993: 139; Melo, 1996: 88.

References: Tavares, 1993: 139, fig. 1c-e; Melo, 1996: 88, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Comments: From 65 to 220m.

Genus Cyclodorippe A. Milne Edwards, 1880



Cyclodorippe angulata Tavares, 1991

Synonymy: Tavares, 1990/1991: 633.

Description and diagnosis: Tavares, 1990/1991: 633; Melo, 1996: 90.

References: Tavares, 1990/1991: 633, figs. 6b, 8c, 11a-c; Melo, 1996: 90, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (ES, RJ).

Comments: From 130 to 350m, associated with bryozoans and sponges.
Cyclodorippe antennaria A. Milne Edwards, 1880.

Synonymy: Bouvier, 1898: 66; Rathbun, 1937: 104.

Description and diagnosis: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 25; Rathbun, 1937: 104; Melo, 1996: 91.

References: Melo, 1996: 91, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (ES, RJ).

Comments: On rock substrates, from 40 to 650m.

Genus Deilocerus Tavares, 1993



Deilocerus analogus (Coelho, 1973)

Synonymy: Coelho, 1973: 343 (as Clythrocerus analogus); Tavares, 1993: 140.

Description and diagnosis: Coelho, 1973: 343 (as C. analogus); Melo, 1996: 93.

References: Coelho, 1973: 343 (as C. analogus); Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 70 (as C. analogus); Tavares, 1993: 140; Melo, 1996: 93, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (MA, PB, ES, RJ, SP).

Comments: On sand and calcareous algae bottoms, from 60 to 110m.
Deilocerus perpusillus (Rathbun, 1901)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 111 (as C. perpusillus); Williams, 1984: 260 (as C. perpusillus).

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 111 (as C. perpusillus); Goeke & Heard, 1984: 353 (as C. perpusillus); Williams, 1984: 260 (as C. perpusillus); Melo, 1996: 94.

References: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 70; Melo, 1996: 94, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, PB, RJ, SP, RS).

Comments: On sand, gravel, and mud bottoms, from 30 to 180m, sometimes with hydrozoans and foraminiferans on its carapace.

Genus Neocorycodus Tavares, 1991



Neocorycodus stimpsoni (Rathbun, 1937)

Synonymy: Powers, 1977: 26 (as Clythrocerus stimpsoni); Goeke & Heard Jr, 1984: 351 (as C. stimpsoni).

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 121 (as C. stimpsoni); Melo, 1996: 95.

References: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 70 (as C. stimpsoni); Melo, 1996: 95, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, ES, RJ, SP).

Comments: On sand, gravel, mud and calcareous algae bottoms, from 40 to 180m.

Family Cymonomidae Bouvier, 1897

Genus Cymonomoides Tavares, 1993

Cymonomoides guinotae Tavares, 1990/1991

Synonymy: Tavares, 1990/1991: 640.

Description and diagnosis: Tavares, 1990/1991: 640; Melo, 1996: 98.

References: Tavares, 1990/1991: 640, figs. 7c, 8b, 9c, 10a-b; Melo, 1996: 98, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (ES, RJ).

Comments: On fine sand bottoms, from 500 to 900m.

Genus Cymonomus A. Milne Edwards, 1880



Cymonomus guillei Tavares, 1990/1991

Synonymy: Tavares, 1990/1991: 639.

Description and diagnosis: Tavares, 1990/1991: 639; Melo, 1996: 100.

References: Tavares, 1990/1991: 639, figs. 7b, 8d, 9b, 11d; Melo, 1996: 100, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (ES, RJ).

Comments: On shell bottoms composed of foraminiferans and pteropods, from 590 to 730m.

Cymonomus magnirostris Tavares, 1990/1991

Synonymy: Tavares, 1990/1991: 635.

Description and diagnosis: Tavares, 1990/1991: 635; Melo, 1996: 101.

References: Tavares, 1990/1991: 635, figs. 7a, 8e, 9a, 10d-f; Melo, 1996: 101, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (ES, RJ).

Comments: On shell bottoms composed of foraminiferans and bryozoans.

Cymonomus quadratus A. Milne Edwards, 1880

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 26; Powers, 1977: 27.

Description and diagnosis: A. Milne Edwards, 1880: 26; Rathbun, 1937: 98; Melo, 1996: 102.

References: Melo, 1996: 102, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, ES, RJ, SP, RS).

Comments: On fine sand and mud bottoms, from 190 to 930m.

Superfamily Dorippoidea De Haan, 1833

Family Dorippidae De Haan, 1833

Genus Ethusa Roux, 1828



Ethusa americana A. Milne Edwards, 1880

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 78; Williams, 1984: 269.

Description and diagnosis: Williams, 1984: 269; Melo, 1996: 106.

References: Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 179; Williams et al., 1968: 43, fig. 2; Williams, 1984: 269, fig. 199; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 69; Melo, 1996: 106, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from MA to RJ).

Comments: On bottoms composed of algae and bryozoans, from shallow waters to 90m.

Ethusa microphthalma Smith, 1881

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 82; Williams, 1984: 269.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 82; Williams, 1984: 269; Melo, 1996: 107.

References: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 69; Melo, 1996: 107, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (SP).

Comments: On fine sand, mud, and mud with shell bottoms, from 110 to 750m.

Ethusa tenuipes Rathbun, 1897

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 87; Williams, 1984: 270.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 87; Williams, 1984: 270; Melo, 1996: 108.

References: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 69; Melo, 1996: 108, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ, SP).

Comments: On sand, gravel, and organic bottoms, from 40 to 400m.

Genus Ethusina Smith, 1884



Ethusina abyssicola Smith, 1884

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 91; Powers, 1977: 29.

Description and diagnosis: Smith, 1884: 349; Rathbun, 1937: 91; Melo, 1996: 109.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 91, pl. 26, fig. 1; Monod, 1956: 85; Peqnegnat, 1970: 175; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 69; Melo, 1996: 109, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Eastern and Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ).

Comments: On mud bottoms, from 850 to 4050m.

Superfamily Raninoidea De Haan, 1833

Family Raninidae De Haan, 1833

Genus Ranilia H. Milne Edwards, 1837



Ranilia constricta A. Milne Edwards, 1880

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 20; Powers, 1977: 24; Williams, 1984: 265.

Description and diagnosis: Gomes-Corrêa, 1970: 2; Williams, 1984: 265; Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 63; Melo, 1996: 113.

References: Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 178; Melo et al., 1989: 3; Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 63, figs. 1-8; Melo, 1996: 113, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, RJ, SP, RS). Central Atlantic: Ascension Island. Eastern Atlantic: From Senegal to Congo.

Comments: On coarse sand and coral bottoms, from 20 to 340m.

Ranilia guinotae Melo & Campos Jr, 1994

Synonymy: Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 63.

Description and diagnosis: Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 63; Melo, 1996: 114.

References: Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 63, figs. 16-24; Melo, 1996: 114, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (SP).

Comments: Collected in the stomach contents of Diplectrum formosum (Pisces).

Ranilia muricata H. Milne Edwards, 1837

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 18; Williams, 1984: 266; Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 67.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 18; Williams, 1984: 266; Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 67; Melo, 1996: 115.

References: Melo & Campos Jr, 1994: 67, figs. 9-15; Melo, 1996: 115, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PE).

Comments: On sand and shell bottoms, from 10 to 100m.

Genus Raninoides H. Milne Edwards, 1837



Raninoides loevis Latreille, 1825

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 8; Gomes-Corrêa, 1970: 9; Williams, 1984: 267.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 8; Williams, 1984: 267; Melo, 1996: 116.

References: Guinot-Dumortier, 1959: 426, fig. 2a-b; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 179; Goeke, 1980: 147; Williams, 1984: 267, fig. 198; Melo, 1996: 116, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, RJ, SP).

Comments: On mud, shell, and coral bottoms, from shallow waters to 200m.

Genus Symethis Weber, 1795



Symesthis variolosa (Fabricius, 1793)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 26; Williams, 1984: 264.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 26; Williams, 1984: 264; Melo, 1996: 117.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 26, fig. 10, pl. 5, figs. 7-8; Gomes Corrêa, 1970: 10, pl. 5, figs. 38-47, pl. 6, figs. 48-55, pl. 7, figs. 61-62; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 179; Powers, 1977: 25; Williams, 1984: 264, fig. 195; Melo, 1996: 117, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, MA, BA, RJ, SP, FN).

Comments: On sand, mud, and calcareous algae bottoms, from 20 to 110m.

Superfamily Calappoidea De Haan, 1833

Family Calappidae De Haan, 1833

Genus Acanthocarpus Stimpson, 1871



Acanthocarpus alexandri Stimpson, 1871

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 221; Williams, 1984: 271.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 221; Williams, 1984: 271; Melo, 1996: 121.

References: Rodrigues da Costa, 1959: 595; Pequegnat, 1970: 177, fig. 6-3; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 181; Powers, 1977: 29; Williams, 1984: 271, fig. 202; Melo, 1996: 121, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ, SP, RS).

Comments: On fine sand and mud bottoms, from 70 to 480m.

Genus Calappa Weber, 1795



Calappa angusta A. Milne Edwards, 1880

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 210; Williams, 1984: 273.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 210; Williams, 1984: 273; Melo, 1996: 123.

References: Melo, 1996: 123, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic, Brazil (PB, PR, RS).

Comments: On sand, shell, coral, and gravel bottoms, from shallow waters to 280m.
Calappa gallus (Herbst, 1803)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 214; Monod, 1956: 100; Fausto-Filho, 1967: 48.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 214; Monod, 1956: 100; Fausto-Filho, 1967: 48; Melo, 1996: 124.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 214, pl. 65, figs. 2-3; Monod, 1956: 100, figs. 115-116; Guinot, 1967: 245; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 180; Powers, 1977: 31; Melo, 1996: 124, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AL to RS), Central Atlantic and, Eastern Atlantic; Red Sea; Persian Gulf; Indian Ocean and Western Pacific.

Comments: On coral, shell, rock, sand, and calcareous algae bottoms, intertidal to 220m.
Calappa nitida Holthuis, 1958

Synonymy: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 44.

Description and diagnosis: Holthuis, 1958: 172; Fausto-Filho, 1967: 44; Melo, 1996: 125.

References: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 44, fig. 2, pls. 1, figs. 3-4; Melo, 1996: 125, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, PA, BA).

Comments: On coral and mud-sand bottoms, from shallow waters to 70m.
Calappa ocellata Holthuis, 1958

Synonymy: Powers, 1977: 31; Williams, 1984: 275.

Description and diagnosis: Holthuis, 1958: 158; Williams, 1984: 275; Melo, 1996: 126.

References: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 42, fig. 1, pl. 5; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 180; Powers, 1977: 31; Williams, 1984: 275, fig. 206; Melo, 1996: 126, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to RJ).

Comments: On mud, sand, gravel, and rock bottoms, from shallow waters to 80m.

Calappa sulcata Rathbun, 1898

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 211; Williams, 1984: 276.

Description and diagnosis: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 46; Williams, 1984: 276; Melo, 1996: 127.

References: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 46, fig. 3, pl. 2, figs. 5-6; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 180; Powers, 1977: 32; Williams, 1984: 276, figs. 208-209; Melo, 1996: 127, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to PR).

Comments: On sand, mud, and calcareous algae bottoms, from shallow waters to 200m.

Genus Osachila Stimpson, 1871



Osachila antillensis Rathbun, 1916

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 251; Powers, 1977: 34.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1916: 50; 1937: 251; Melo, 1996: 134.

References: Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 182; Melo, 1996: 134.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, MA, RS).

Comments: On sand, shell, and coral bottoms, from 80 to 300m.
Osachila tuberosa Stimpson, 1871

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 251; Powers, 1977: 34; Williams, 1984: 282.

Description and diagnosis: Stimpson, 1871: 154; Rathbun, 1937: 250; Williams, 1984: 282; Melo, 1996: 135.

References: Melo, 1996: 135, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ, RS).

Comments: On shell and coral bottoms, from 40 to 190m.

Genus Hepatus Latreille, 1802



Hepatus gronovii Holthuis, 1959

Synonymy: Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 181.

Description and diagnosis: Holthuis, 1959: 178; Fausto-Filho et al., 1987: 77; Melo, 1996: 130.

References: Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 181; Fausto-Filho & Sampaio, 1976: 54, pl. 3, figs. 14-15; Fausto-Filho et al., 1987: 77; Melo, 1996: 130, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, MA, AL, SC).

Comments: On sand and mud bottoms, from 20 to 60m.
Hepatus pudibundos (Herbst, 1785)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 235; Powers, 1977: 34; Williams, 1984: 280.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun 1937: 235; Holthuis, 1959: 167; Williams, 1984: 280; Melo, 1996: 131.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 235, pl. 70, figs. 1-2 (as H. princeps); Holthuis, 1959: 167, figs. 36-38; Fausto-Filho, 1967: 50, fig. 5, pl. 5, pl. 2, figs. 9-10; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 182; Powers, 1977: 33; Williams, 1984: 280, fig. 212; Melo, 1996: 131, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (MA, AL, BA, ES, RJ, SP, RS). Eastern Atlantic (Guinea to South Africa).

Comments: On mud, sand, and shell bottoms, from shallow waters to 160m, with barnacles attached to the carapace.

Hepatus scaber Holthuis, 1959

Synonymy: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 52; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 181.

Description and diagnosis: Holthuis, 1959: 174; Fausto-Filho, 1967: 52; Melo, 1996: 132.

References: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 52, fig. 6, pl. 3, figs. 11-13; Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 181; Melo, 1996: 132, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, MA, RJ).

Comments: On mud and sand bottoms, from 20 to 85m.

Genus Cycloes De Haan, 1837



Cycloes bairdii Stimpson, 1860

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 225; Powers, 1977: 32; Williams, 1984: 278.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 225; Fausto-Filho, 1967: 54; Williams, 1984: 278; Melo, 1996: 128.

References: Fausto-Filho, 1967: 54, fig. 7, pl. 4, fig. 16; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 181; Powers, 1977: 32; Williams, 1984: 278, fig. 210; Melo, 1996: 128, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to RJ) and Eastern Pacific.

Comments: On mud, sand, coral, and gravel bottoms, from infralittoral to 230m.

Family Leucosiidae Samouelle, 1819

Subfamily Ebaliinae Stimpson, 1871

Genus Ebalia Leach, 1817



Ebalia stimpsoni A. Milne Edwards, 1880

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 124; Williams, 1984: 284.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 124; Williams, 1984: 284; Melo, 1996: 139.

References: Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; 1967/1969b: 244; Rodrigues da Costa, 1968: 334; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 182; Gomes-Corrêa, 1972: 7; Fausto-Filho & Sampaio Neto, 1976: 68; Powers, 1977: 35; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1980: 137; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Williams, 1984: 284, fig. 217; Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, fig. 483b; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 71; Melo, 1996: 139, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to SP).

Comments: Usually on sand, sometimes on calcareous algae bottoms, from 13 to 83m.

Genus Lithadia Bell, 1855



Lithadia brasiliensis (von Martens, 1872)

Synonymy: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 125 (part: only Brazilian specimens); Melo, 1996: 141.

References: von Martens, 1872: 115, pl. 5, fig. 10; Rathbun, 1937: 125; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 182 (part); Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72; Melo, 1996: 141, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (from PA to SP).

Comments: On mud, sand, and gravel bottoms, from 7 to 40m.

Lithadia conica (Coelho, 1973)

Synonymy: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72.

Description and diagnosis: Coelho, 1973a: 343 (as Ebalia conica); Melo, 1996: 142.

References: Coelho, 1973a: 343 (as E. conica); Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72 (as E. conica); Coelho et al., 1980: 127; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72; Melo, 1996: 142, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (from AP to ES).

Comments: On sand and organic, occasionally on calcareous algae bottoms, from 32 to 150m.
Lithadia obliqua (Coelho, 1973)

Synonymy: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72.

Description and diagnosis: Coelho, 1973b: 342 (as E. obliqua); Melo, 1996: 143.

References: Coelho, 1973b: 342 (as E. obliqua); Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72 (as E. obliqua); Coelho et al., 1980: 127 (as E. obliqua); Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72; Melo, 1996: 143, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (from PA to PE).

Comments: On sand and calcareous algae bottoms, from shallow waters to 53m.
Lithadia vertiginosa (Coelho, 1973)

Synonymy: Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72.

Description and diagnosis: Coelho, 1973c: 343 (as Ebalia vertiginosa); Melo, 1996: 144.

References: Coelho, 1973c: 343 (as E. vertiginosa); Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72 (as E. vertiginosa); Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 72; Melo, 1996: 144, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (from PA to BA).

Comments: On calcareous algae, sometimes organic bottoms, from 18 to 90m.

Genus Speloeophorus A. Milne Edwards, 1865



Speloeophorus elevatus Rathbun, 1898

Synonymy: Rathbuns, 1937: 145; Powers, 1977: 39.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1931: 128; 1937: 145; Melo, 1996: 146.

References: Moreira, 1901: 35; Rathbun, 1937: 145, pl. 39, figs. 7-9; Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 183; Powers, 1977: 36; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1980: 137; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Abele & Kim, 1986: 43, fig. 489c; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 73; Melo, 1996: 146, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from MA to BA).

Comments: On gravel, sometimes sand bottoms, from 20 to 83m.
Speloeophorus nodosus (Bell, 1855)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 142; Williams, 1984: 285.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 142; Williams, 1984: 285; Melo, 1996: 147.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 142, pl. 40. figs. 1-5; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Abele & Kim, 1986: 43, fig. 489a; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 73; Melo, 1996: 147, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (MA, PB, AL, RJ).

Comments: On sand bottons, from 10 to 50m.

Subfamily Illiinae Stimpson, 1871



Genus Persephona Leach, 1817

Persephona crinita Rathbun, 1931

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 163; Powers, 1977: 39.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1931: 128; 1937: 163; Melo, 1996: 151.

References: Rathbun, 1931: 128, pl. 2; 1937: 163, pl. 43, figs. 2-3, pl. 44, figs. 1-3; Powers, 1977: 39; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Rodriguez, 1980: 256: Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, figs. 487e-h; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 74; Melo et al., 1989: 5; Melo, 1996: 151, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, PA, RJ, PR, SC).

Comments: On mud and mud-sand bottoms, from 5 to 91m.
Persephona lichtensteinii Leach, 1817

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 163.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 163; Melo, 1996: 152.

References: Luederwaldt, 1919: 435; Guinot-Dumortier, 1959: 434 (part) (as P. finneganae); Holthuis, 1959: 181 (part); Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 183; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Gomes-Corrêa & Silva-Brum, 1980: 61; Rodriguez, 1980: 255; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 74: Melo, 1996: 152, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to SP).

Comments: On mud and sand bottoms, from shallow waters to 75m.
Persephona mediterranea (Herbst, 1794)

Synonymy: Williams, 1984: 288.

Description and diagnosis: Williams, 1984: 288; Melo, 1996: 153.

References: Fausto-Filho, 1968: 44 (as P. aquilonaris); Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 183 (as P, aquilonaris); Powers, 1977: 39; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Williams, 1984: 288, fig. 223; Abele & Kim, 1986: 43, fig. 487i; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 74; Melo et al., 1989: 5; Melo, 1996: 153, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, MA, ES, RJ, SP, PR, SC, RS).

Comments: On mud, sand, and gravel bottoms, from shallow waters to 166m.
Persephona punctata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 152 (as P. punctata punctata); Guinot-Dumortier, 1959: 428.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 152 ( as P. punctata punctata); Melo, 1996: 154.

References: Moreira, 1901: 35; Luederwaldt, 1919: 435; Rathbun, 1937: 152, pl. 42, figs. 2-3 (as P. punctata punctata); Guinot-Dumortier, 1959: 428, figs. 5a-c; Holthuis, 1959: 183; Fausto-Filho, 1966: 33; 1979: 51; Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; Rodrigues da Costa, 1968: 334; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 183; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Gomes-Corrêa & Silva-Brum, 1980: 61; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 73; Melo et al., 1989: 5; Melo, 1996: 154, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to RS).

Comments: On mud and sand, occasionally gravel bottoms, from shallow waters to 41m.

Genus Myropsis Stimson, 1871



Myropsis quinquespinosa Stimpson, 1871

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 164; Williams, 1984: 287.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 164; Williams, 1984: 287; Melo, 1996: 149.

References: Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Williams, 1984: 287, fig. 222; Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, fig. 491b; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 74; Melo et al., 1989: 4; Melo, 1996: 149, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (RJ, SC, RS).

Comments: On mud and mud-sand bottoms, from 44 to 200m.

Genus Randallia Stimpson, 1857



Randallia laevis (Borradaille, 1916)

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 177.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 177; Melo, 1996: 155.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 177, fig. 39; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 75; Melo, 1996: 155, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (TI).

Subfamily Leucosiinae Samouelle, 1819

Genus Iliacantha Stimpson, 1871

Iliacantha intermedia Miers, 1886

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 186; Williams, 1984: 290.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 186; Williams, 1984: 290; Melo, 1996: 159.

References: Rathbun, 1937: 186, pl. 54, figs. 1-2; Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 184; Powers, 1977: 37; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1980: 137; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Williams, 1984: 290, fig. 225; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 75; Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, fig. 485b; Werding & Müller, 1990: 412, figs. 7a-c; Melo, 1996: 159, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (MA, PE, RJ).

Comments: On sand and calcareous algae bottoms, from 20 to 35m.

Iliacantha liodactylus Rathbun, 1898

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 186; Werding & Müller, 1990: 413 .

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1898: 291; 1937: 186; Melo, 1996: 160.

References: Coelho 1967/1969b: 244; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 184; Powers, 1977: 37; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Gomes-Corrêa & Silva-Brum, 1980: 61; Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, fig. 485d; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 75; Werding & Müller, 1990: 413, fig. 8a-c; Melo, 1996: 160, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (PA, AL, SE, BA).

Comments: On mud and mud-sand bottoms, from 33 to 130m.

Iliacantha sparsa Stimpson, 1871

Synonymy: Werding & Müller, 1990: 415.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 190; Melo, 1996: 161.

References: Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 184; Powers, 1977: 38; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1980: 137; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, fig. 485a; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 75; Werding & Müller, 1990: 415, fig. 9a-b; Melo, 1996: 161, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from PA to ES).

Comments: On calcareous algae, occasionally sand and mud-sand bottoms, from 23 to 90m.
Iliacantha subglobosa Stimpson, 1871

Synonymy: Rathbun, 1937: 185; Williams, 1984: 290.

Description and diagnosis: Williams, 1984: 290; Melo, 1996: 162.

References: Coelho, 1967/1969a: 234; 1967/1969b: 244; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 184; Powers, 1977: 38; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1980: 137; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Williams, 1984: 290, fig. 226; Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, fig. 485c; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1986: 75; Werding & Müller, 1990: 416, fig. 10; Melo, 1996: 162, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (AP, PA, MA, PB, AL).

Comments: On sand and organic bottoms, from 72 to 109m.

Genus Callidactylus Stimpson, 1871



Callidactylus asper Stimpson, 1871

Synonymy: Powers, 1977: 37; Williams, 1984: 289.

Description and diagnosis: Rathbun, 1937: 193; Williams, 1984: 289; Melo, 1996: 157.

References: Coelho 1967/1969a: 234; 1967/1969b: 244; Coelho & Ramos, 1972: 184; Powers, 1977: 37; Coelho & Ramos-Porto, 1980: 137; Coelho & Torres, 1980: 72; Williams, 1984: 289, fig. 224; Abele & Kim, 1986: 42, fig. 591a; Werding & Müller, 1990: 411, fig. 6; Melo, 1996: 157, 1 fig.

Geographic distribution: Western Atlantic. Brazil (from AP to AL).

Comments: On calcareous algae, occasionally sand and organic bottoms, from 27 to 81m.

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