The 1960’s witnessed two profound social movements: the civil rights movement and the movement protesting the war in Vietnam. Although they overlapped in time, they were largely distinct. For a brief moment in 1967, however, it appeared that the two movements might unite under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.
King’s role in the antiwar movement appears to require little explanation, since he was the foremost advocate of nonviolence of his time. But King’s stance on the Vietnam War cannot be explained in terms of pacifism alone. After all, he was something of a latecomer to the antiwar movement, even though by 1965 he was convinced that the role of the United States in the war was indefensible. Why then the two years that passed before he translated his private misgivings into public dissent? Perhaps he believed that he could not criticize American foreign policy without endangering the support for civil rights that he had won from the federal government.
17. According to the passage, the delay referred to in lines 12-15 is perhaps attributable to which of the following?
(A) King’s ambivalence concerning the role of the United States in the war in Vietnam
(B) King’s attempts to consolidate support for his leadership within the civil rights movement
(C) King’s desire to keep the leadership of the civil rights movement distinct from that of the antiwar movement
(D) King’s desire to draw support for the civil rights movement from the leadership of the antiwar movement（E）
(E) King’s reluctance to jeopardize federal support for the civil rights movement
18. The author supports the claim that “King’s stance on the Vietnam War cannot be explained in terms of pacifism alone” (lines 10-12) by implying which of the following?
(A) There is little evidence that King was ever a student of pacifist doctrine.
(B) King, despite pacifist sympathies, was not convinced that the policy of the federal government in Vietnam was wrong.
(C) King’s belief in nonviolence was formulated in terms of domestic policy rather than in terms of international issues.
(D) Had King’s actions been based on pacifism alone, he would have joined the antiwar movement earlier than he actually did.（D）
(E) Opponents of United States foreign policy within the federal government convinced King of their need for support.
19. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the movement opposing the war in Vietnam?
(A) It preceded the civil rights movement.
(B) It began in 1965.
(C) It was supported by many who otherwise opposed public dissent.
(D) It drew support from most civil rights leaders.（E）
(E) It was well underway by 1967.
20. Which of the following best describes the passage?
(A) It discusses an apparent inconsistency and suggests a reason for it.
(B) It outlines a sequence of historical events.
(C) It shows why a commonly held view is inaccurate.
(D) It evaluates an explanation and finally accepts that explanation.（A）
(E) It contrasts two views of an issue.
National character is not formally
National character is not formally considered by social scientists in discussing economic and social development today. They believe that people differ and that these differences should be taken into account somehow, but they have as yet discovered no way to include such variables in their formal models of economic and social development. The difficulty lies in the nature of the data that supposedly define different national characters. Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to describe the cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation-state (nation-state: n.单一民族国家) composed of many disparate groups. The situation is further complicated by the nature of judgments about character, since such judgments are overly dependent on impressions and since, furthermore, impressions are usually stated in qualitative terms, it is impossible to make a reliable comparison between the national characters of two countries.
17. The author’s main point in the passage is that national character
(A) is too elusive to merit attention by anthropologists and other social scientists
(B) is of greater interest to social scientists today than it has been in the past
(C) is still too difficult to describe with the precision required by many social scientists
(D) has become increasingly irrelevant because of the complexity of modern life（C）
(E) can be described more accurately by anthropologists than by other social scientists
18. Given the information in the passage, which of the following is NOT true of modern nation-states?
(A) They are complex.
(B) They are heterogeneous.
(C) They are of interest to social scientists.
(D) They lack cultural norms.（D）
(E) They differ from one another in terms of national character.
19. It can be inferred from the passage that the social scientists mentioned in lines 1-7 would agree with which of the following statements?
I. It is extremely difficult to create models that account for both economic and social development.
II. Models of economic and social development would be improved by the inclusion of adequate descriptions of national character.
III. It is important to supplement formal models of economic and social development with qualitative impressions of national character.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and III only（B）
(E) II and III only
20. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) A problem is presented and reasons for its existence are supplied.
(B) A controversial view is presented and evidence for its validity is supplied.
(C) A hypothesis is presented and possible means of verifying it are suggested.
(D) A recent development is described and then analyzed.（A）
(E) A dispute is summarized and one side defended.