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Global invasive plants in Thailand and its status and a case study of Hydrocotyle umbellata L


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Hydrilla verticillata

Florida elodea, hydrilla, oxygen weed, water thyme, water weed

Sarai hang krarok



































15, 27, 17

Hygrophila polysperma

East Indian hygrophila, hygro, Indian swampweed, Miramar weed





































15

Imperata cylindrica

alang-alang, blady grass, Blutgras, carrizo, cogon grass, gi, impérata cylindrique, japgrass, kunai, lalang, ngi, paille de dys, paillotte, satintail, speargrass

Ya kha



















G











R

10, 27, 17, 7

Ipomoea aquatica

akankong, aquatic morning glory, aseri, cancon, Chinese waterspinach, kang kong, kangking, kangkong, kangkun, kangum, kankan, kankum, kongkong, lili vai, liseron d’eau, lorenzo, luve ne tombithi, ndrinikava, ota karisa, seeri, seri, swamp cabbage, swamp morning glory, te kang kong, ung-choi, wa kumala, water bindweed, water spinach

Phak bung































2, 27, 17, 4

Lantana camara

ach man, angel lips, ayam, big sage, blacksage, bunga tayi, cambara de espinto, cuasquito, flowered sage, lantana, lantana wildtype, largeleaf lantana, latora moa, prickly lantana, shrub verbean, supirrosa, Wandelroeschen, white sage, wild sage

Phaka Krong
































25, 1, 26,

Leucaena leucocephala

acacia palida, aroma blanca, balori, bo chet, cassis, false koa, faux mimosa, faux-acacia, fua pepe, ganitnityuwan tangantan, graines de lin, guaje, guaslim, guaxin, huaxin, horse/wild tamarind, huaxin, ipil-ipil, jumbie bean, kan thin, kanthum thect, koa haole, koa-haole, lamtoro, lead tree, Leucaena, leucaena, liliak, lino criollo, lopa samoa, lusina, nito, pepe, rohbohtin, schemu, siale mohemohe, subabul, tamarindo silvestre, tangan-tangan, tangantangan, te kaitetua, telentund, tuhngantuhngan, uaxim, vaivai, vaivai dina, vaivai ni vavalangi, wild mimosa, wild tamarind, zarcilla

Kra thin






























F/S

25, 22, 1,4

Ligustrum sinensis

- Chinese ligustrum, Chinese privet, xiao la

Khao tok phra ruang
































2, 26

Limnocharis flava

cebolla de chucho, cu neo, kalmi, kengkong, keo neo, limnocharis, manja payal, paku rawan, sawah-flower rush, sawah-lettuce, velvetleaf, yellow bur-hea

talapad ruesi, Bon chin
































4, 27, 17

Limnophila sessiliflora

ambulia, Asian marshweed, limnophila, shi long wei

Nang om







































Lonicera japonica

Chinese honeysuckle, Hall's honeysuckle, Japanese honeysuckle, Japanisches Geissblatt, madreselva, madressilva

Sai na phueng


































2, 10, 26

Lygodium microphyllum

Old World climbing fern, small leaf climbing fern, small-leaf climbing fern

Li phao yung


















F


















Melaleuca quinquenervia

cajeput, Mao-Holzrose, melaleuca, niaouli, paper bark tree, punk tree

Samet































S

26

Melia azedarach

ilinia, ‘inia, alelaila, amargoseira-do-Himalaio, arbre à chapelets, bakain, chinaberry, chuan liang zi, dake, Indian lilac, indischer Zedrachbaum, jazmin, lelah, lilas des Indes, margosa tree, melia, para‘isu, paraíso, Persian lilac, persischer Flieder, prais, pride-of-India, sendan, Sichuan pagoda-tree, sili, sita, syringa berrytree, tili, tira, umbrella tree, white cedar

Lian































6, 26,

Merremia peltata

abui, agon, arosumou, big leaf, big lif rop, fitau, fitaw, fue, fue kula, fue lautetele, fue lautetele, fue mea, fue vao, fue vao, fue vao, grobihi, iohl, iol, kebeas, lagun, merremia, Niaouli-Oelbaum, pohue, puhlah, veliyana, viliyawa, wa bula, wa damu, wa mbula, wa ndamu, wachathal, wiliao, wiliviwa

En luen



































2,

Microstegium vimineum

annual jewgrass, Asian stilt grass, bamboograss, Chinese packing grass, flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Japanese stilt grass, Mary's grass, Nepal grass, Nepal microstegium, Nepalese browntop, Vietnamese stilt grass






















G



















Mikania micrantha

American rope, Chinese creeper, Chinesischer Sommerefeu, fue saina, liane americaine, mile-a-minute weed, ovaova, usuvanua, wa bosucu, wa mbosuthu, wa mbosuvu, wa mbutako, wa ndamele























()

()









27

Mimosa pigra

bashful plant, catclaw, catclaw mimosa, chi yop, columbi-da-lagoa, eomrmidera, espino, giant sensitive plant, giant sensitive tree, giant trembling plant, juquiri, juquiri grand, kembang gajah, malicia-de-boi, mimosa, mimosa, mimose, putri malu, semalu gajah, sensitiva, trinh nu nhon, una de gato, xao ho

Miyarap yak
































M

17, 7, 1

Neyraudia reynaudiana

burma reed, cane grass, false reed, silk reed

Phong lao



















G















7, 13

Paederia foetida

Chinese fever vine, skunk vine, stinkvine

Phang hom


































5, 21

Panicum repens

canota, couch panicum, creeping panic, kriechende Hirse, millet rampant, panic rampant, torpedo grass, torpedograss, Victoria grass, wainaku grass

Ya channakat



































17, 27

Passiflora foetida

bedoca, bombom, dulce, fetid pa, kinahulo' atdao, kudamono, lani wai, loliloli ni kalavo, love-in-a-mist, mossy passionflower, pasio vao, passiflore, passionflower, pohapoha, pompom, pwomwpwomw, qaranidila, running pop, scarlet fruited passionflower, sou, stinking passionflower, tea biku, tomates, vaine 'ae kuma, vaine 'initia, vine vao, wild passion fruit, wild water lemon

Kratokrok


































5. 14, 27, 17

Pennisetum clandestinum

capim-quicuio, kikuyo, kikuyu grass, kikuyu pul, kikuyu tana, kikuyugras, pasto africano, West African pennisetum, xi fei lang wei cao






































7

Pennisetum polystachion

dipw rais, feathery pennisetum, mechen katu, missiongrass, o tamata, pwokso, queue de chat, thin napier grass, West Indian pennisetu

Ya khajonjob



































17, 27

Phoenix canariensis

Canary date palm, Canary Island date palm, dattier des Canaries, phoenix palm

Palm khon nok


















P















26

Pistia stratiotes

- laitue d'eau, Lechuguilla de agua, lechuguita de agua, pistie, repollo de agua, salade d’eau, tropical duckweed, water lettuce

chok

































19, 17, 27

Polygonum perfoliatum

Asiatic tearthumb, devil's-tail tearthumb, ishimikawa, mile-a-minute-vine, mile-a-minute-weed, minuteweed, tearthumb

Sam khom khiang



































7

Potamogeton crispus

curly pondweed, curly-leaved pondweed

Naen








































Psidium guajava

abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, ku'ava, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa mom

Farang































F

10

Pueraria montana var. lobata

abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, farang, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, ku'ava, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa mom




()





























C




Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

Ceylon hill gooseberry, downy myrtle, downy rose myrtle, feijoa, hill gooseberry, hill guava, Isenberg bush, myrte-groseille, rose myrtle

Phruat






































Rottboellia cochinchinensis

anguigay, annarai, bandjangan, barsali, bukal, bura, caminadora, capim-camalote, cebada fina, corn grass, dholu, doekoet kikisian, gaho, girum nagei, graminea corredora, guinea-fowl grass, herbe queue-de-rat, itch grass, itchgrass, jointed grass, Kelly grass, kokoma grass, konda panookoo, lisofya, paja peluda, prickle grass, Raoul grass, rice grass, sagisi, sancarana, shamva grass, sugarcane weed, swooate, tsunoaiashi

Ya prong khai, Yakhayong



















G















17. 27

Rubus moluccanus




Som kung





















-












11

Rubus rosifolius

akala, akalakala, forest bramble, framboisier, frambueso de Africa, Mauritius raspberry, native bramble, native raspberry, ola'a, roseleaf raspberry, thimbleberry

Kulap chan




















-
















Sagittaria sagittifolia

arrowhead, chieh ku, chien tao ts'ao, espadana, flecha de agua, flèche d'eau, giant arrowhead, Hawaii arrowhead, old world arrowhead, pai ti li, Pfeilkraut, pijlkruid, saeta de agua, sagitária, shui p'Ing, suokiu, t'zu ku, wapatoo, yen wei ts'ao

Tao kiat


































22, 7

Sorghum halepense

Aleppo grass, Aleppo milletgrass, cañuela, Don Carlos, grama China, gumai, herbe de Cuba, Johnson grass, Johnsongrass, kola, sorgho, sorgho d'Alep, sorgo de Alepo, yerba Johnson, zacate Johnson

Ya phong


















G












F




Spathodea campanulata

African tulip tree, Afrikanischer Tulpenbaum, amapola, apär, baton du sorcier, fa‘apasi, fireball, flame of the forest, fountain tree, Indian Cedar, ko‘i‘i, mata ko‘i‘I, mimi, orsachel kui, patiti vai, pisse-pisse, pititi vai, rarningobchey, Santo Domingo Mahogany, taga mimi, tiulipe, tuhke dulip, tulipan africano, tulipier du Gabon

Khae saet



































26

Striga asiatica

Asiatic witchweed, buri, common mealie witchweed, isona weed, Matabele flower, mealie poison, mealie witchweed, red witchweed, scarlet lobelia, striga, witchweed

Ya maemot


















Ps















17, 13

Syzygium cumini

black plum, damson plum, djoowet, doowet, druif, duhat, duhat, faux-pistachier, guayabo pesjua, indian blackberry, jalao, jaman, jambhool, jamblang, jambol, jambolan plum, jambolanier, jambool, jambu, jambul, jambulao, jamelao, jamelon-guier, jamelong, jamelongue, jamélongue, jamelonguier, jammun, jamoen, Java plum, jiwat, Ka'ika, kavika ni India, koeli, koriang, lomboy, lunaboy, ma-ha, Malabar plum, mesegerak, mesekerrak, mesekerrák, mesigerak, paramu, pesjua extranjera, pistati, Portuguese plum, pring bai, pring das krebey, purple plum, salam, va, voi rung

Waa































F/S

26, 14, 8

Tradescantia spathacea

(Rhoeo discolor Hance)



- boat lily, boat plant, faina kula, moses in a boat, Moses-in-a-basket, oyster plant, riri mangio, riri raei, talotalo, laupapaki

wan hoi khraeng

































10, 14, 26

Trapa natans

bull nut, European water chestnut, water chestnut, water nut

ma ngaeng, Kra chom


































16

Vallisneria spiralis

eel grass, freshwater eelgrass, ribbonweed

Santawa bai khao

































15

Zizania latifolia

coba, jiao-bai, kuw-sun, kwo-bai, makomo, makomo dake, Manchurian water-rice, Manchurian wild rice, Manchurian wildrice, Manchurian zizania, ricegrass, Wasserbambus, water-bamboo, wild rice stem

No mai nam

















G


















Ziziphus mauritiana

aprin, baer, baher, bahir, bedara, ber, bor, Chinee apple, Chinese apple, Chinese date, coolie plum, crabapple, dindoulier, dunk, dunks, dunks, gingeolier, Indian cherry, Indian jujube, Indian plum, jujube, jujubier, liane croc chien, ma-tan, Malay jujube, mangustine, manzana (apple), manzanas, manzanita, manzanita (little apple), perita haitiana, petit pomme, phutsa, pomme malcadi, pomme surette, ponsigne, putrea, tao, tao nhuc, widara, widara, yuyubi, yuyubo

Phutsa































F/S

1

Note:

I = introduced species

Plant habit:

H = herb, S = shrub, T= tree, V/C = vine/ climber, A = aquatic plant

Oth: F = fern, G = grass, P = palm, Ps = parasitic plant

Status:


V = vegetable, M = medicinal plant, O = ornamental plant, W = weed

Oth: A = aquarium plant, C = cover crop, F = fruit, F/S = fruit/shading, H = handy craft, M = mollusicide, R = roofing



Table 2. Some noxious weeds in Thailand.


Plant species

Family

Invaded area

Ageratum conyzoides

Asteraceae

upland field

Commelina benghalensis

Commelinaceae

upland field

Commelina diffusa

Commelinaceae

upland field

Cyanotis axillaries

Commelinaceae

Paddy field

Cyperus rotundus

Cyperaceae

Paddy field

Drymaria cordata

Caryophyllaceae

Upland field (highland)

Echinocloa colona

Poaceae

Paddy field and upland field

Echinocloa crus-galli

Poaceae

Paddy field

Eupatorium adenophorum

Asteraceae

Upland field (highland)

Euphorbia heterophylla

Euphorbiaceae

Upland field

Fimbristylis dichotoma

Cyperaceae

Paddy field

Fimbristylis miliacea

Cyperaceae

Paddy field

Hyptis suaveolens

Labiateae

Upland field

Marselia crenata

Marsileaceae

Paddy field and upland field

Mimosa invisa

Fabaceae

upland field

Monoclhoria vaginalis

Pontederiaceae

Paddy field

Rottboellia cochinchinensis

Poaceae

upland field

Spheanoclea zeylanica

Sphenocleaceae

Paddy field

Typha angustifolia

Typhaceae

Swamp and wet area

Digitaria sanguinalis

Poaceae

upland field




Fig.2. Growth of Dollar weeds in less moist condition





Fig.3 Part of Dollar weed that can use for propagation








Fig.5 Growth C. asiatica and H. umbrellata growing in the same pot (70 days)


Dollar weed can grow well in both high and low moist compete for space and nutrient with other plant very well. In dry condition the plant produce a lot of seeds, but no seedling found in the experimental period. Pakjarurn (2002) reported that substances extracted from this plant can inhibit growth of Mimosa pigra, Echinocloa crus-galli, Pennisetum pedicellatum and Trianthema portulacastrum. This may help plant to compete other plants.




Fig. 7 Dollar weed found in ditch along road side.


To confirm the result of preliminary evaluation weed potential of Dollar weed in various places. The plant was found many swamp, pond and ditch along road side in many provinces. The plant was also found in high moist land shown ability of competition over other indigenous plants. (Fig.7)


Reference

1. Bunyaprapat, N. and Chokchaicharoenporn, O.. 1999. Medicinal Plant…Indigenous Plant (2). Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University Vol. 2-5.. (in Thai)

2. Chayamrit. K. 1985. Thai Medicinal Plant. Royal Forestry Department. vol.4. pp. 290-515.

3. Chayamrit. K. and Pongpangan, S. 2002. Thai Medicinal Plant. Royal Forestry Department. vol.7.

4. Deeviset, K. (ed) 1999. Indegenous Vegetable of Central Thailand. Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine. 279p. (in Thai)

5. Deeviset, K. (ed) 1999. Indegenous Vegetable of Southern Thailand. Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine. 279p. (in Thai)

6. Deeviset, K., Prodthanasarn, S., Pinyochuto, J., and Noisaeng, C.. 1999. Indegenous Vegetable of Northern Thailand. Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine. 278p. (in Thai)

7. Harada, J., Paisooksantivatana, Y., and Zungsontiporn, S.. 1987. Weeds in the Highlands of Northern Thailand : color illustrated. National Weed Science Research Institute Project, Botany and Weed Science division, Department of Agriculture. Bangkok, Thailand. 126p.

8. Jiramongolkarn., U. 2004. Indigenous Vegetables 1. Amarin Printing and Publishing. 224p.

9. Jiramongolkarn., U. 2004. Indigenous Vegetables 2. Amarin Printing and Publishing. 224p.

10. Mahidol University. 1992. Medicinal Plants in Siri Ruckhachati Garden. Amarin Printing Group. Co., Ltd. 257p.

11. Mahidol University. 1996. Medicinal Plant of Lanna Thai. Faculty of Pharmacology, Mahidol University. Amarin Printing Group. Co., Ltd.. 264p. (in Thai)

12. Mahidol Universtiy. 1995. Siam Phaisatchayaphot : Phum Panya Khong Chati. Mahidol University. 272p.

13. Matchasheep, S. 1993. Weeds in Thailand. Pra Pitaya Printing. Bangkok. 200p (in Thai).

14. Matchasheep, S. 1999. Medicinal Plants. 2nd edition. Rungsilp Karnpimp. Bangkok. 316p (in Thai).

15. Meenkarn, W., and Pongchavee, K.. 2000. Aquarium Plants. Institute of Aquarium Fish, Department of Fishery. Thailand. 123p. (in Thai)

16. Na Nakorn, V., (ed).2002. Aquatic Plant of Bung Boraphet. Queen Sirikit Botanical Garden. O.S. Printing House. Bangkok. 132p. (in Thai)

17. Noda, K., Teerawatsakul, M., Prakongvongs, C. and Chaiwiratnukul, L.. 1994. Major Weeds in Thailand : illustrated by color. Revised, Englarged 3 ed. National Weed Science Research Institute Project, Botany and Weed Science division, Department of Agriculture. Bangkok, Thailand.164p.

18. Pakjarurn, W. 2002. Chemical Constituents from Hydrocotyle umbellate Linn. And Effect on Growth of Mimosa pigra Linn. MS thesis. Faculty of Science, CHulalongkorn University. 128;.

19. Phupatpongs, L. 1979. Thai Medicinal Plant. Royal Forestry Department. vol.2. pp. 91-184.

20. Phupatpongs, L. 1987. Thai Medicinal Plant. Royal Forestry Department. vol.5. pp. 516-731.

21. Pongpangan, S., and Poobrasert, S. 1991. Edible Plants and Poisonous Plants in Forest of Thailand. O.S. Printing House. 176p. (in Thai)

22. Prachasaisoradej, P. 2005. Indigenous Vegetables. Department of Agriculture. 112p. (in Thai)

23. Sripen,. S. 1999. Aquatic Plant in Thailand. Amarin Printing Group. Co., Ltd… 122p. (in Thai)

24. The Royal Institute. 2004. Plant Taxonomy Kho. Arun Printing. 276p. (in Thai).

25. TiengBuranatham, W.. 1996. Dictionary of Thai Medicinal Plants. Prachumtong Karnpimp. Bangkok. 880p. (in Thai)

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27. Weed Science Society of Thailand. 2002. Common Weeds of Central Thailand. Funny Publishing. Bangkok. 135p. (in Thai)



28. Yongbunkerd, U.. 1975. Some Weeds in Paddy Field. Department of Agriculture. 62p. (in Thai)
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